SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Trumpet

A trumpet is a brass instrument used in classical and jazz ensembles. The trumpet group ranges from the piccolo trumpet with the highest register in the brass family, to the bass trumpet, pitched one octave below the standard B-flat or C Trumpet. Trumpet-like instruments have been used as signaling devices in battle or hunting, with examples dating back to at least 1500 BC, they began to be used as musical instruments only in early 15th century. Trumpets are used in art music styles, for instance in orchestras, concert bands, jazz ensembles, as well as in popular music, they are played by blowing air through nearly-closed lips, producing a "buzzing" sound that starts a standing wave vibration in the air column inside the instrument. Since the late 15th century they have been constructed of brass tubing bent twice into a rounded rectangular shape. There are many distinct types of trumpet, with the most common being pitched in B♭, having a tubing length of about 1.48 m. Early trumpets did not provide means to change the length of tubing, whereas modern instruments have three valves in order to change their pitch.

There are eight combinations of three valves, making seven different tubing lengths, with the third valve sometimes used as an alternate fingering equivalent to the 1–2 combination. Most trumpets have valves of the piston type; the use of rotary-valved trumpets is more common in orchestral settings, although this practice varies by country. Each valve, when engaged, increases the length of lowering the pitch of the instrument. A musician who plays the trumpet is called trumpeter; the English word "trumpet" was first used in the late 14th century. The word came from Old French "trompette", a diminutive of trompe; the word "trump", meaning "trumpet," was first used in English in 1300. The word comes from Old French trompe "long, tube-like musical wind instrument", cognate with Provençal tromba, Italian tromba, all from a Germanic source, of imitative origin." The earliest trumpets date earlier. The bronze and silver trumpets from Tutankhamun's grave in Egypt, bronze lurs from Scandinavia, metal trumpets from China date back to this period.

Trumpets from the Oxus civilization of Central Asia have decorated swellings in the middle, yet are made out of one sheet of metal, considered a technical wonder. The Shofar, made from a ram horn and the Hatzotzeroth, made of metal, are both mentioned in the Bible, they were played in Solomon's Temple around 3000 years ago. They were said to be used to blow down the walls of Jericho, they are still used on certain religious days. The Salpinx was a straight trumpet 62 inches long, made of bronze. Salpinx contests were a part of the original Olympic Games; the Moche people of ancient Peru depicted trumpets in their art going back to AD 300. The earliest trumpets were signaling instruments used for military or religious purposes, rather than music in the modern sense. Improvements to instrument design and metal making in the late Middle Ages and Renaissance led to an increased usefulness of the trumpet as a musical instrument; the natural trumpets of this era consisted of a single coiled tube without valves and therefore could only produce the notes of a single overtone series.

Changing keys required the player to change crooks of the instrument. The development of the upper, "clarino" register by specialist trumpeters—notably Cesare Bendinelli—would lend itself well to the Baroque era known as the "Golden Age of the natural trumpet." During this period, a vast body of music was written for virtuoso trumpeters. The art was revived in the mid-20th century and natural trumpet playing is again a thriving art around the world. Many modern players in Germany and the UK who perform Baroque music use a version of the natural trumpet fitted with three or four vent holes to aid in correcting out-of-tune notes in the harmonic series; the melody-dominated homophony of the classical and romantic periods relegated the trumpet to a secondary role by most major composers owing to the limitations of the natural trumpet. Berlioz wrote in 1844: Notwithstanding the real loftiness and distinguished nature of its quality of tone, there are few instruments that have been more degraded. Down to Beethoven and Weber, every composer – not excepting Mozart – persisted in confining it to the unworthy function of filling up, or in causing it to sound two or three commonplace rhythmical formulae.

The trumpet is constructed of brass tubing bent twice into a rounded oblong shape. As with all brass instruments, sound is produced by blowing air through closed lips, producing a "buzzing" sound into the mouthpiece and starting a standing wave vibration in the air column inside the trumpet; the player can select the pitch from a range of overtones or harmonics by changing the lip aperture and tension. The mouthpiece has a circular rim. Directly behind the rim is the cup, which channels the air into a much smaller opening that tapers out to match the diameter of the trumpet's lead pipe; the dimensions of these parts of the mouthpiece affect the timbre or quality of sound, the ease of playability, player comfort. The wider and deeper the cup, the darker the sound and timbre. Modern trumpets have three piston va

FL2 (Lazio regional railways)

The FL2 is a regional rail route forming part of the Lazio regional railways network, operated by Trenitalia, converges on the city of Rome, Italy. The route operates over the infrastructure of the Rome–Sulmona–Pescara railway. Within the territory of the comune of Rome, it plays the role of a commuter railway, it is estimated. The designation FL2 appears only in publicity material, in the official timetables, on signs at some stations; the electronic destination boards at stations show only the designation "R2". TivoliRoma TiburtinaThe FL2, a radial route, runs from Tivoli, via the Rome–Sulmona–Pescara railway, to Roma Tiburtina; the route heads in a northerly direction, loops around to the west and the south, before turning again to the west, towards central Rome. The FL2, known as the FM2 until 2004 and as FR2 until 2012, was established in 1994, along with other suburban rail services, to encourage the use of rail transport in the Rome metropolitan area. Prior to 1994, regional trains along the Rome–Sulmona–Pescara railway linked Rome only with Abruzzo.

Since the establishment of the FR2, Tivoli–Rome passenger traffic has increased partly because this section serves the most populous part of the metropolitan area, partly because of vehicular congestion on the Via Tiburtina Valeria and A24. However, further actions by other entities were needed. Before work began on the Rome–Naples high-speed railway, the urban sections of which would have flanked the tracks of the Rome–Sulmona–Pescara railway between Roma Prenestina and Salone, it was decided to convert this section from double track to quadruple track as far as Lunghezza, to build new stations, so as to establish a commuter service in all respects, implement a clock-face schedule for it. Construction started on the high-speed railway in the late 1990s, on the FR2 in the early 2000s. From 2002, due to work on the high-speed line, all trains on the FR2 were diverted to Roma Tiburtina until December 2005, when some trains from Pescara were again diverted, this time to Roma Termini. In the course of 2006, the quadruple track section between Roma Prenestina and La Rustica Uir went into service, while in 2007 the quadrupling work was completed to Lunghezza.

The construction work on this section involved the renewal of the tracks, the creation of artificial tunnels close to built-up areas to avoid noise pollution, the radical restructuring of existing stations, the inauguration of new stations. Tor Sapienza railway station was rebuilt and moved a few hundred metres closer to Rome than the original station, while at Roma Prenestina, FR2 trains were routed over the two secondary tracks, as the two main ones were reserved for high-speed services. Restructuring work at Lunghezza was completed in the course of 2008; the stations on the FL2 are as follows: Tivoli Marcellina-Palomabara Guidonia-Montecelio-San Angelo Bagni di Tivoli Lunghezza Ponte di Nona La Rustica Uir La Rustica Città Tor Sapienza Palmiro Togliatti Serenissima Roma Prenestina Roma Tiburtina The rolling stock used on the FL2 route is a mixture of ALe 801/940 class electric multiple units, MDVE or Carrozze piano ribassato coaches hauled by E.464 or E.656 class electric locomotives. The FL2 route is designated in Trenitalia official timetables as M75 Roma–Pescara FR2.

As of 2012, trains ran at hourly intervals between Tivoli and Lunghezza, at half-hourly intervals between Lunghezza and Roma Tiburtina. Services are more frequent during rush hour, with some trains to/from Roma Tiburtina being extended beyond Lunghezza and Tivoli to link the capital with Bagni di Tivoli and Mandela-Sambuci, respectively. History of rail transport in Italy List of railway stations in Lazio Rail transport in Italy Transport in Rome ATAC – official site ATAC map – schematic depicting all routes in the Rome railway networkThis article is based upon a translation of the Italian language version as at November 2012

Cloutierville, Louisiana

Cloutierville is an unincorporated community in Natchitoches Parish, United States. It lies 20 miles south of the city of Natchitoches on the Cane River; the community is part of the Natchitoches Micropolitan Statistical Area, off exit 119 of Interstate 49. This is a homeland of many multiracial Louisiana Creole people, it is in the NPS Cane River National Heritage Area. The town was built on the plantation of Alexis Cloutier and incorporated in 1822; the plantation house was owned by Kate Chopin. Chopin's former home was open to the public as the Bayou Folk Museum, before its destruction by fire in 2008; the historic wooden St. John the Baptist Catholic Church and its cemetery are located in Cloutierville; the community is served by Natchitoches Parish School Board. Milton Joseph Cunningham, who served for three nonconsecutive terms ending in 1900 as Attorney General of Louisiana, taught school in Cloutierville from 1858 to 1860, when he thereafter entered the Confederate Army. Numa T. Delouche, a state representative from Natchitoches Parish, serving alongside Sylvan Friedman from 1944 to 1948, resided in Cloutierville and is interred at the St. John the Baptist Catholic Cemetery there.

Former State Representative Jean Doerge of Webster Parish, a retired educator, is a graduate of Cloutierville High School. Cane River National Heritage Area topics National Register of Historic Places listings in Natchitoches Parish, Louisiana