Tsar spelled csar, or tzar or czar, is a title used to designate East and South Slavic monarchs or supreme rulers of Eastern Europe the Bulgarian monarchs from 10th century onwards, much a title for two rulers of the Serbian State, from 1547 the supreme ruler of the Tsardom of Russia and the Russian Empire. In this last capacity it lends its name to a system of tsarist autocracy or tsarism; the term is derived from the Latin word caesar, intended to mean "emperor" in the European medieval sense of the term—a ruler with the same rank as a Roman emperor, holding it by the approval of another emperor or a supreme ecclesiastical official —but was considered by western Europeans to be equivalent to king, or to be somewhat in between a royal and imperial rank. "Tsar" and its variants were the official titles of the following states: First Bulgarian Empire, in 919–1018 Second Bulgarian Empire, in 1185–1396 Serbian Empire, in 1346–1371 Tsardom of Russia, in 1547–1721 Tsardom of Bulgaria, in 1908–1946The first ruler to adopt the title tsar was Simeon I of Bulgaria.
Simeon II, the last tsar of Bulgaria, is the last person to have borne the title tsar. The title tsar is derived from the Latin title for caesar. In comparison to the corresponding Latin word imperator, the Byzantine Greek term basileus was used differently depending on whether it was in a contemporary political context or in a historical or Biblical context. In the history of the Greek language, basileus had meant something like "potentate", it approached the meaning of "king" in the Hellenistic Period, it came to designate "emperor" after the inception in the Roman Empire. As a consequence, Byzantine sources continued to call the Biblical and ancient kings "basileus" when that word had come to mean "emperor" when referring to contemporary monarchs, while it was never applied to Western European kings, whose title was transliterated from Latin rex as ῥήξ, or to other monarchs, for whom designations such as ἄρχων were used; as the Greek basileus was rendered as "tsar" in Slavonic translations of Greek texts, the dual meaning was transferred into Church Slavonic.
Thus, "tsar" was not only used as an equivalent of Latin imperator but was used to refer to Biblical rulers and ancient kings. From this ambiguity, the development has moved in different directions in the different Slavic languages. Thus, the Bulgarian language and Russian language no longer use "tsar" as an equivalent of the term imperator as it exists in the West European tradition; the term "tsar" refers to native sovereigns and Biblical rulers, as well as monarchs in fairy tales and the like. The title "king" is sometimes perceived as alien and is by some Russian speakers reserved for European royalty. Foreign monarchs of imperial status, both inside and outside of Europe, ancient as well as modern, are called imperator rather than tsar. In contrast, the Serbocroatian language translate "emperor" as "tsar" and not as imperator, whereas the equivalent of "king" is used to designate monarchs of non-imperial status, Serbian as well as foreign ancient rulers—like Latin rex. Biblical rulers in Serbian are called цар and in Croatian kralj.
In the modern West Slavic languages and Slovene language, the use of the terms is nearly identical to the one in English and German: a king is designated with one term, an emperor is designated with another, derived from caesar as in German, while the exotic term "tsar" is reserved for the Bulgarian and Serbian rulers. In the Polish language, by contrast, tsar is used as an equivalent to imperator, never as king; the term tsar is always used to refer to the Russian rulers before Peter the Great, often to those succeeding. In 705 Emperor Justinian II named Tervel of Bulgaria "caesar", the first foreigner to receive this title, but his descendants continued to use Bulgar title "Kanasubigi"; the sainted Boris I is sometimes retrospectively referred to as tsar, because at his time Bulgaria was converted to Christianity. However, the title "tsar" was adopted and used for the first time by his son Simeon I, following a makeshift imperial coronation performed by the Patriarch of Constantinople in 913.
After an attempt by the Byzantine Empire to revoke this major diplomatic concession and a decade of intensive warfare, the imperial title of the Bulgarian ruler was recognized by the Byzantine government in 924 and again at the formal conclusion of peace in 927. Since in Byzantine political theory there was place for only two emperors and Western, the Bulgarian ruler was crowned basileus as "a spiritual son" of the Byzantine basileus; some of the earliest attested occurrences of the titlo-contraction "tsar" from "tsesar" are found in the grave inscription of the chărgubilja Mostich, a contemporary of Simeo
Henry Talbot, born Heinz Tichauer was a German-Australian fashion photographer noted for his long association with the Australian fashion industry the Australian Wool Board. Born in Germany to Jewish parents, he studied graphic design at the Reimann School in Berlin. Henry first travelled to England under pressure from rising tensions. There he worked as a window-dresser at a department store. After the'Kristallnacht', Henry's father Max was detained, but having won the Iron Cross in WWI, Max was released, subsequently Max and his wife fled to Bolivia. In England, Henry was interned as a German National by two plainclothes policemen and shipped to Australia on the Dunera. During his internment in Hay in New South Wales, Henry practiced his artwork and studied in the camp'university' established by the internees. Upon release in 1942, Henry joined the Australian Army, in which he served until 1946, loading and unloading goods trains at the New South Wales / Queensland border, where he established a close personal friendship with fellow German refugee Helmut Newton.
After the War Henry refreshed his studies of graphic design at the Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology. Henry visited his parents in Cochabamba, practicing art and reviving his pre-war interest in photography, winning a local photography prize. Returning to Australia in 1950 Talbot worked as a photographer, setting up a Melbourne studio in 1956 with Helmut Newton; the studio specialised in advertising. During this time, Helmut declared to Henry that he was "going to move to Europe and become the greatest photographer in the world", asked Henry if he would look after the studio in his absence. Henry agreed. Helmut left Australia permanently in May 1961, opting out of the informal partnership with Talbot, established himself in Europe while Henry took over the business of a company named Helmut Newton & Henry Talbot Pty Ltd, formally registered as a company 28 June 1963 and operated at Bourke Street until April 1966, when it moved to La Trobe Street, operating until 1976. Talbot photographed various Australian Olympic figures, including gold medallist Dawn Fraser in the Olympic pool in Melbourne during 1956.
Other famous Australian models included Penny Pardey and Judy O'Connell, house models for Pierre Cardin, in 1967. During this period he was commissioned by the Australian Wool Board, Vanity Fair, Kent Cigarettes and General Motors, among other brands. Henry became Head of the Photography Department at the School of Art and Design at Preston Institute of Technology, Melbourne and teaching with Carol Jerrems, who modelled for him. In 1972, Talbot jointly showed these images of Jerrems, including some nude portraits and figure studies, alongside the work of 23-year-old Jerrems', in'Two Views of Erotica – Carol Jerrems & Henry Talbot', the inaugural exhibition of Rennie Ellis' Toorak gallery Brummels; the show was opened by photographer/filmmaker Paul Cox. Ellis, a notorious provocateur, selected Jerrems to attract attention to the new gallery. Talbot moved to Sydney with his wife and sons, in 1985, his projects included studies of the nude, portraits of prominent Australian Jews and modernist architect Harry Seidler and revisiting the sites of the Holtermann photographs taken at and around the historic township of Hill End, located in the gold fields district of New South Wales.
Henry Talbot died in 1999 shortly after revisiting the places of his youth in Europe. Shortly after his death, the Australian Institute of Professional Photography instituted the Henry Talbot Award for Services to the Photographic Industry. 1958 Fashion Photographer of the Year, Australian Fashion News 1963 C. S. Christian Trophy, Australian Photographic Society 1965 A. P. R. Achievement in Photography Award 1967 Award of Distinction, Pacific Photographic Fair 1968 Distinctive Merit Award, Art Directors Club of Melbourne Awarded E by Honours Committee of Federation internationale de l'Art Photographique. Australian Powerhouse Museum Fashion From Fleece Strange Glamour: fashion and photography from the MGA collection A fine yarn: from function to fashion Britons learn the dark Dunera secret Australian Institute of Photography Australian Postal History
Kelvin Mateus de Oliveira, known as Kelvin, is a Brazilian professional footballer who plays for Coritiba Foot Ball Club as a right winger. Born in Curitiba, Paraná, Kelvin spent two seasons with local Paraná Clube in the Série B. In late June 2011, aged only 18, he signed with FC Porto in Portugal. Together with Porto teammate Christian Atsu, Kelvin was sent on loan to fellow Primeira Liga club Rio Ave F. C. for the 2011–12 campaign. He made his debut in the competition on 21 August 2011, in a 0–1 away loss against Académica de Coimbra. Kelvin returned to Porto for 2012–13, spending most of the season with the reserves in the second division, he managed to score, three important goals for the first team as a substitute, helping to home wins against S. C. Braga and S. L. Benfica, the latter coming in the 92nd minute. On 13 January 2015, Kelvin joined Sociedade Esportiva Palmeiras on a loan deal, he moved to São Paulo FC on loan, on 2 July 2016. In late April 2019, free agent Kelvin signed with Fluminense FC until the end of the season.
He left three months however, agreeing to a deal at Coritiba Foot Ball Club. Porto Primeira Liga: 2012–13 Supertaça Cândido de Oliveira: 2013 Taça da Liga: Runner-up 2012–13Palmeiras Copa do Brasil: 2015 Kelvin at ForaDeJogo Kelvin at Soccerway
The Sri Sivasubramaniar Temple is a Hindu temple located in Adliswil in the Sihl Valley in the canton of Zürich, Switzerland. In the 1990s, an interreligious society was established in the canton of Zürich to support the foundation of a centre for spiritual and cultural care of Tamil people in Switzerland, as well as to preserve and maintain the Tamil culture of the approximatively 30-35,000 Tamil people of Sri Lankan origin living in Switzerland. So, the Sri Sivasubraminar Temple in Adliswil was founded in 1994 as a non-profit foundation; as of today, the Sri Sivasubramniar Temple is the most famous and largest Hindu temple in Switzerland. The Temple is located in a former factory building on the shores of the Sihl river in the industrial area of the municipality of Adliswil; the today's building is situated at Sihlweg 8134 Adliswil. In 1994, the Poojas of the temple were conducted only on Fridays in the evenings. In 2000, deities made of metal of Lord Shiva, Lord Murugan, Lord Maha Ganapathy and Goddesses Durka Rajarajeswary Ambal and others were installed.
Thereafter the temple's Pooja ceremonies were performed daily in the evening at 7:30 pm. If there were any special requests made by anyone, anxious to carry out a pooja for any God they like, the request would be processed on the day suggested; the cost of the pooja ceremony has to be paid to the temple. Now the Poojas are performed daily in the evening at 7:30 pm. On Tuesdays and on Fridays three Poojas are performed: In the morning, at 12:00 am and as mentioned at 7:30 pm. Most of the devotees attend the temple in the evenings. Yearly on January 1, the devotees attend the temple to worship in order to invoke the blessings of God on the 1st day of the new year. Thai Pongal is an important day for farmers. In the house of every Hindu family Thai Pongal is celebrated by cooking sweet milk rice, called "pongal"; the Thai Pongal ceremony is conducted in the temple. For this purposes the temple will be opened from 8:00 am to 9:00 pm. In August 3,000 to 4,000 people take part in public procession of Lord Murugan.
Additional temple festivals are celebrated, too: Maha Shivaratri, Vinayaka Chathurthi, Navratri/Vijayadashami and Iyappa Swamy. Hinduism in Switzerland List of Hindu temples in Switzerland Official website Official website
Cryptophasa albacosta, the small fruit tree borer, is a moth in the family Xyloryctidae. It was described by Lewin in 1805, it is found in Australia, where it has been recorded from New South Wales, South Australia and Victoria. The wingspan is 40–56 mm; the forewings are shining white with a large subtriangular grey blotch, more or less suffused with ochreous-brown and sprinkled with black, resting on the inner margin from before one-third to five-sixths, its apex nearly touching the costa near the base. There is a minute black grey-circled dot in the disc at two-fifths, resting on the posterior margin of the blotch. A grey sometimes white-centred reniform spot is found in the disc at three-fifths and there is a more or less developed grey fascia from the middle of the disc, another from beyond the reniform spot, not rising above it, confluent below it and running into the posterior angle of the blotch, variable in breadth broadened to coalesce with the hindmarginal fascia. There is a moderate light grey hindmarginal fascia, including a brownish-ochreous hind marginal line, preceded by a row of black dots circled with ochreous-whitish.
The hindwings are rather dark fuscous-grey with a cloudy white streak along the upper half of the hindmargin, dilated into a spot at the apex. The larvae feed on Banksia serrata, Macadamia integrifolia, Ceratopetalum gummiferum, Callicoma serratifolia, as well as introduced Tamarix species, poplar and plum, they bore in the stems of their host plant, tying cut leaves to the bore entrance
The 171 Edward Street is a future residential skyscraper to be located at 171 Edward Street on the corner with Elizabeth Street in Brisbane, Australia. The tower will rise to 265m, the maximum height allowed in Brisbane central business district; the 81-storey tower will include 642 apartments. Recreation area with pool and games room will be located on levels 4 and 5. Retail space is planned for the mezzanine levels. Development application, lodged with the Brisbane City Council in December 2015, was approved in May 2016; as of 2019, approval expires in June 2020, Aria’s commercial manager Michael Zaicek told Commercial Real Estate that they “have no intentions for a residential development in the near future” List of tallest buildings in Brisbane Building at The Skyscraper Center database