click links in text for more info

Tsar Bomba

The Soviet RDS-202 hydrogen bomb, known by Western nations as Tsar Bomba, was the most powerful nuclear weapon created. Tested on 30 October 1961 as an experimental verification of calculation principles and multi-stage thermonuclear weapon designs, it remains the most powerful human-made explosive detonated; the bomb was detonated at the Sukhoy Nos cape of Severny Island, Novaya Zemlya, 15 km from Mityushikha Bay, north of Matochkin Strait. The detonation was detected by US Intelligence agencies; the US had an instrumented KC-135R aircraft in the area of the test – close enough to have been scorched by the blast. The bhangmeter results and other data suggested the bomb yielded about 58 megatons of TNT, and, the accepted yield in technical literature until 1991 when Soviet scientists revealed that their instruments indicated a yield of 50 Mt; as they had the instrumental data and access to the test site, their yield figure has been accepted as more accurate. In theory, the bomb would have had a yield in excess of 100 Mt if it had included a uranium-238 tamper but, because only one bomb was built, that capability has never been demonstrated.

The remaining bomb casings are located at the Russian Atomic Weapon Museum in Sarov and the Museum of Nuclear Weapons, All-Russian Research Institute of Technical Physics, at Snezhinsk. Many codenames are attributed to the Tsar Bomba: Project 7000; the name "Tsar Bomba" was coined in an analogy with other large Russian objects: the Tsar Bell and Tsar Cannon. The CIA designated the test as "JOE 111"; the bomb was referred to as Kuzma's mother referring to First secretary Nikita Khrushchev's promise to "show the United States a Kuzma's mother" at a 1960 session of the United Nations General Assembly. In addition to being created for political, propagandistic use and as a response to the nuclear deterrence capabilities possessed by the United States, the Tsar Bomba was created as part of the strategic nuclear forces concept of the USSR, adopted during the rule of Georgy Malenkov and Nikita Khrushchev; the aim was to achieve – without pursuing a quantitative parity with the US in terms of nuclear weapons and means of delivery – sufficient "guaranteed retaliation with an unacceptable level of damage to the enemy" in the event of a nuclear strike on the USSR via qualitatively superior nuclear power.

The Tsar Bomba was not designed as a weapon, but as a proof-of-concept that larger warheads were possible and to exert psychological pressure on the United States. Research had shown that the ammunition size of a thermonuclear weapon could be increased with minimal cost increases of 60 cents per kiloton of TNT-equivalent explosive power; the "Malenkov-Khrushchev nuclear doctrine" involved the adoption of geopolitical and military challenges to the United States and the participation of the USSR in the nuclear race but "in a distinctly asymmetrical style". The technical manifestation of this undocumented doctrine was the research-and-development of nuclear weapons and their means of delivery. An example of this would be the creation of the N-1 orbital combat rocket per the Resolution of the Council of Ministers issued on 23 June 1960. With a starting weight of 2200 tons and a nuclear warhead weighing 75 tons, its estimated nuclear yield could surpass that of a 150 megaton-yield 40 ton warhead delivered by a UR-500 missile.

The development of such weapons required mandatory and practical aerial bombardment methods as, for a high-yield nuclear explosion to reach maximal effect, the payload has to be detonated at an optimal height for the shock wave to reach the greatest force and range. In addition, ultra-large-yield thermonuclear bombs were considered by the Long Range Aviation units of the USSR, as their use fits the "cause the greatest damage to the enemy with a minimal number of carriers" doctrine, while it was necessary to consider the practical feasibility of such heavy thermonuclear weapons with reliably predictable characteristics. Before this, an underwater "doomsday weapon" considered by Soviet military and technical experts – a giant torpedo launched by a dedicated nuclear submarine – was planned for development which would detonate its nuclear warhead near the US coast causing a huge tsunami; this project was abandoned after more detailed consideration as its combat effectiveness was questionable.

Design work on the Tsar Bomba started from Autumn 1954 to autumn 1961. A 100-megaton-of-TNT nuclear bomb was under development in NII-1011 at this time; this somehow contradicts with the official history of the institute. But in any case, there existed a common (but enti

Eucithara obesa

Eucithara obesa is a small sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Mangeliidae. The length of the shell attains 11 mm; the shell is ribbed, crossed by numerous revolving striae. Its color is yellowish brown, fasciate with chestnut; this marine species occurs off the Philippines and Guam Reeve, L. A. 1846. Monograph of the genus Mangelia. Pls 1-8 in Reeve, L. A.. Conchologia Iconica. London: L. Reeve & Co. Vol. 3. Tucker, J. K. 2004 Catalog of recent and fossil turrids. Zootaxa 682:1-1295 "Eucithara obesa". Retrieved 16 January 2019. Smith, Barry D. "Prosobranch gastropods of Guam." Micronesica 35.36: 244-270

Pavel Štěpán

Pavel Štěpán was a Czech pianist whose domain was the interpretation of piano works by Josef Suk, Vitezslav Novak and Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart's piano concertos. He has always been described as a man of unusual intelligence, great pianistic style and deep musicality. Štěpán was born in Brno. His career coincided with his family's musical tradition: he was the grandson of Professor Vilém Kurz, a prominent Czech piano educator, the son of piano virtuoso and teacher Ilona Štěpánová-Kurzová and musicologist/pianist Václav Štěpán, his family maintained close personal contacts with the composer Josef Suk, received instructions for the interpretation of his piano output from the composer himself. Pavel Štěpán made his first public appearance at the age of sixteen, two years to make his debut performance with the Czech Philharmonic playing Mozart's Piano Concerto No.24 in C minor K 491 under the baton of Rafael Kubelík. In 1971 and 1982 he received the Wiener Flötenuhr award for the year's best Mozartian recording, in 1978 his reading of the complete piano works of Josef Suk was presented Supraphon Golden Disc as recording of the year.

He died, aged 73, in Prague. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart: Piano Concerto No.23 in A major K 488, dirigent Zdeněk Mácal, Czech Philharmonic, Wiener Flötenuhr 1971 Supraphonline Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart: Piano Concerto No.27 in B major K 595, dirigent Zdeněk Mácal, Czech Philharmonic, Wiener Flötenuhr 1971 Supraphonline Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart: Piano Concerto No.24 in C minor K 491, dirigent Václav Neumann, Czech Philharmonic, Wiener Flötenuhr 1982 Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart: Rondo in D major K.382, dirigent Václav Neumann, Czech Philharmonic, Wiener Flötenuhr 1982 Suk: Piano Works at Allmusic

Denver's Mobility Action Plan

Denver's Mobility Action Plan is a 2017 program designed to revitalize and revolutionize Denver’s transportation systems and options for its citizens. Signed by Mayor Michael Hancock, the plan has four main strategic goals, which focus on choice, safety and health, accessibility; the plan has numerous short-run and long-run goals, meaning the city may be utilizing this plan through around 2050. The first goal of the plan is to create more transportation options for people who both reside and visit the metropolitan area; this is to address the heavy traffic that has shown itself in recent years, due to the fact that Denver is the fastest growing city in the U. S. among the countries fifty biggest cities. In order to address this issue, the city aims to reduce the single-occupant vehicle usage rate to 50 percent, an intended decrease from the present rate of 73 percent. Furthermore, the plans intend on increasing the percentage of bike and pedestrian commuters up to 15 percent and transit commuters up to 15 percent.

The second goal of Denver’s plan is to increase safety, as sixty-one people were killed in Denver in 2016. Denver’s primary way to combat this issue way to achieve this is to take part in the Vision Zero campaign. Utilized by another major American metropolis’, such as Los Angeles, Austin, New York, numerous others, Vision Zero, “is a strategy to eliminate all traffic fatalities and severe injuries, while increasing safe and equitable mobility for all.” The goal of zero pedestrian related casualties is hoping to be achieved by 2030. The third goal outlined in the plan is to enact important policies that intend to fight climate and health problems associated with the current transportation problem. Denver is one of the most polluted cities in the United States, as it ranks 12th worst for Ozone pollution according to the American Lung Association; this high level of air pollution is associated with the high number of single-occupant vehicles, contributing the high rate of asthma and other respiratory illnesses, where nearly 1 in 10 citizens is affected.

The goal of decreasing the severity of both climate and health problems is hoped to be realized by 2050. The fourth and final main goal of the plan is one that addresses the accessibility problem for users of public transportation residents of the city who live around or below the poverty line. Denver has around one-quarter of its population living either around or below the U. S. poverty rate, which hinders many of these people from accessing safe and reliable transportation. Through this aspect of the plan, Denver hopes to create a transportation system that can support all of the cities inhabitants, regardless of socioeconomic background. There are opponents of the plan, as general complaints refer to the cost of the plan, where the $2 billion budget has only $1.65 billion invested so far, opening up questions about where the additional $350 million in desired funds will come from. Furthermore, questions about whether Denver drivers will be able to look past the automobility paradigm and embrace other forms of transportation is one that groups are skeptical of


Hawkinge is now a town and civil parish in the Folkestone and Hythe district of Kent, England. The original village of Hawkinge is just less than a mile due east of the present village centre. Walking south from the village past it is possible to see stunning views of Cheriton and the Channel Tunnel complex. During World War II, RAF Hawkinge was the closest operational airfield to France and was used during the Battle of Britain; the airfield is now the site of extensive residential development, which has expanded Hawkinge's population to 9,000. Depending on further building, the population is still expected to grow to 11,000; the construction of the houses was hampered by the discovery of several pipe bombs, put there in the event of a German invasion to render the airfield useless to enemy airplanes. There are several reminders of the war near the site of the original village. Hawkinge Cemetery is near the site of the aerodrome and most of the 95 Second World War casualties buried there were airmen.

About a quarter were killed during the Battle of Britain. Most of the war graves are in a special plot east of the chapel, including 59 German graves, which are together in a group at the south-eastern corner. Hawkinge is in the Hythe Westminster constituency. On Kent County Council, Hawkinge forms part of the Elham Valley Division, represented by Cllr Susan Carey. On the Folkestone and Hythe District Council, Hawkinge is covered by the North Downs East ward, represented by Cllrs David Godfrey, Philip Martin, Stuart Peall. Hawkinge Town Council consists of thirteen elected members; the A260 which runs from Folkestone to Barham, where it meets with the A2 to Canterbury ran through the centre of the village, before it was replaced with a new bypass opened by Michael Howard on Monday 9 July 2007. The southern section, built in the early 2000s, leads from the A20 to a roundabout where it meets with the northern section; this new section carries traffic around the village centre onto the existing road.

There is a regular bus service that connects the village to either Canterbury. These are run by Stagecoach and have route numbers 19, 16 & 73. There are two local churches; the Anglican parish church is St Luke's, the ancient parish church of St Michael's having been declared redundant in 1980. There are two primary schools: Hawkinge Primary School in the old village, The Churchill Primary School; the village publishes the Hawkinge Gazette. The village has its own local Scout group, 3rd Hawkinge. Media related to Hawkinge at Wikimedia Commons

Vangelis Margaritis

Evangelos "Vangelis" Margaritis is a Greek professional basketball player who plays for and captains PAOK of the Greek Basket League. He is 6 ft 8 in tall, he can play at either the power forward or center positions; some of the clubs that Margaritis has played with during his career include: Iraklis, Ionikos Nikaias, Peristeri, KAOD, PAOK. He renewed his contract with PAOK in 2013. In 2015, he became PAOK's team captain. In 2015, he extended his contract with PAOK, through the 2017–18 season. Margaritis became a member of the senior men's Greek national basketball team in 2017, he played at the 2019 FIBA World Cup qualification. In his senior national team debut against Great Britain, he scored five points, he played in the EuroBasket 2021 qualification. Greek League All Star: 2× Greek Second Division Champion: EuroCup Profile Champions League Profile Profile Greek Basket League Profile Greek Basket League Profile Profile