The Hrazdan River is a major river and the second largest in Armenia. It originates at the northwest extremity of Lake Sevan and flows south through the Kotayk Province and Armenia's capital, Yerevan. In the Ararat plain it joins the Aras River along the border with Turkey. A series of hydro-electric plants have been constructed on the river, its waters are in demand to irrigate crops. The river was called Ildaruni in Urartian. In Turkic it's known as Zangu, Zangi, or Zengy; the Sevan Lakes, the largest located in the central part of the country and the Hrazdan River which originates from it, together form the "Sevan-Hrazdan Management Area", one of the five sub-basins of the 14 sub-basins of Kura and Araks basins of Armenia. The river originates from the lake at an elevation of 1,900 metres; the river which flows from the lake in a southern direction passes through a deep gorge as it enters on the western side of the Yerevan city, debauchees into the Aras River on the southern side of the city.
The geological formations along the river course are made up of lava flows generated from three volcanoes in the Gegham range. The lava surfaces represent environments that existed in the form of "lakes, river channels and floodplains"; the chronology of landscape of the upper most layer of basalts indicates an age of 200,000 years. The river drains a total catchment area of 2,566 square kilometres. Precipitation volume is 1572 million cubic metre from an annual rainfall of 257 millimetres with a maximum of 43 millimetres in May and a minimum of 8 millimetres during August; the average temperature recorded in the basin varies from −3 °C in January to 26 °C in July with diurnal variation with the lowest night temperature of −15 °C in January and highest day temperature of 44 °C in July. The total flow in the river is 733 million cubic meter; the regulated outflow into the river, which forms the Ararat Valley, is utilized for irrigation and hydro-power benefits. The fauna reported from the river includes 23 species of blackflies.
The chironomids belong to five subfamilies of Tanypodinae, Prodiamesinae and Chironominae. 25 species of invertebrates comprising two species of rotifers, 13 species of cladocerans and 10 species of copepods have been recorded in the river. While the fish species contained in the lake consist of the Sevan trout or “Prince Fish,” siga, carp, crayfish and winter bakhtak and summer bakhtak, the river is reported to have species of crayfish as well as karas and crayfish in abundance; the lake waters have been used for irrigation from the 19th century, from early 20th century Hydro-power development has been implemented. The lake waters were planned to be used through the river for irrigating 100,000 hectares in the Ararat Valley out of which an irrigation of 80,000 hectares was created; the hydro-power development was planned on the river as the Sevan–Hrazdan Cascade involving seven schemes in a 70 kilometres stretch of the river with a total installed capacity of 560 MW with mean annual energy generation of around 500 million kilowatt hours.
This scheme was implemented between 1930 and 1962. These are small and medium size projects built as run-of-the river power plants; the seven power stations are: Sevan HEP with installed capacity of 34.2 MW with two units completed in 1949. However, priority of release of water from the lake is for irrigation and accordingly the power stations are operated; the civil works involved construction of diversion works, open canals or tunnels and power house which over the years were in need of substantial rehabilitation as they were all built around the middle of the twentieth century. In 2003, the International Energy Corporation", a Closed Joint Stock Company, acquired the projects from the Public Services Regulatory Commission of the country under a license No. 0108 for generation of electrical energy. Right from the time of acquisition they started rehabilitating the projects to maximize power generation; the works were completed during 2004. The works were carried out under a US$25 million loan from the Asian Development Bank.
The river water is polluted by effluent flows from agricultural, commercial and residential development, but by the untreated wastewater from Yerevan. This affects the water quality in the river with dissolved oxygen levels remaining much lower than the permissible limits. A study carried out in 2008 indicates that a 16 km stretch of the river, from 2 km upstream of the Yerevan waste water outfalls to 14 km below, is insufficiently aerated to provide a healthy environment for aquatic life. Rivers and lakes in Armenia Geography of Armenia Holding, Deirdre. Armenia: with Nagorno Karabagh. Bradt Travel Guides. ISBN 978-1-84162-555-3
Armenia the Republic of Armenia, is a country in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia. Located in Western Asia on the Armenian Highlands, it is bordered by Turkey to the west, Georgia to the north, the de facto independent Republic of Artsakh and Azerbaijan to the east, Iran and Azerbaijan's exclave of Nakhchivan to the south. Armenia is a multi-party, democratic nation-state with an ancient cultural heritage. Urartu was established in 860 BC and by the 6th century BC it was replaced by the Satrapy of Armenia; the Kingdom of Armenia reached its height under Tigranes the Great in the 1st century BC and became the first state in the world to adopt Christianity as its official religion in the late 3rd or early 4th century AD. The official date of state adoption of Christianity is 301; the ancient Armenian kingdom was split between the Byzantine and Sasanian Empires around the early 5th century. Under the Bagratuni dynasty, the Bagratid Kingdom of Armenia was restored in the 9th century. Declining due to the wars against the Byzantines, the kingdom fell in 1045 and Armenia was soon after invaded by the Seljuk Turks.
An Armenian principality and a kingdom Cilician Armenia was located on the coast of the Mediterranean Sea between the 11th and 14th centuries. Between the 16th and 19th centuries, the traditional Armenian homeland composed of Eastern Armenia and Western Armenia came under the rule of the Ottoman and Iranian empires ruled by either of the two over the centuries. By the 19th century, Eastern Armenia had been conquered by the Russian Empire, while most of the western parts of the traditional Armenian homeland remained under Ottoman rule. During World War I, Armenians living in their ancestral lands in the Ottoman Empire were systematically exterminated in the Armenian Genocide. In 1918, following the Russian Revolution, all non-Russian countries declared their independence after the Russian Empire ceased to exist, leading to the establishment of the First Republic of Armenia. By 1920, the state was incorporated into the Transcaucasian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic, in 1922 became a founding member of the Soviet Union.
In 1936, the Transcaucasian state was dissolved, transforming its constituent states, including the Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic, into full Union republics. The modern Republic of Armenia became independent in 1991 during the dissolution of the Soviet Union. Armenia recognises the Armenian Apostolic Church, the world's oldest national church, as the country's primary religious establishment; the unique Armenian alphabet was invented by Mesrop Mashtots in 405 AD. Armenia is a member of the Eurasian Economic Union, the Council of Europe and the Collective Security Treaty Organization. Armenia supports the de facto independent Artsakh, proclaimed in 1991; the original native Armenian name for the country was Հայք, however it is rarely used. The contemporary name Հայաստան became popular in the Middle Ages by addition of the Persian suffix -stan.. However the origins of the name Hayastan trace back to much earlier dates and were first attested in circa 5th century in the works of Agathangelos, Faustus of Byzantium, Ghazar Parpetsi and Sebeos.
The name has traditionally been derived from Hayk, the legendary patriarch of the Armenians and a great-great-grandson of Noah, according to the 5th-century AD author Moses of Chorene, defeated the Babylonian king Bel in 2492 BC and established his nation in the Ararat region. The further origin of the name is uncertain, it is further postulated that the name Hay comes from one of the two confederated, Hittite vassal states—the Ḫayaša-Azzi. The exonym Armenia is attested in the Old Persian Behistun Inscription as Armina; the Ancient Greek terms Ἀρμενία and Ἀρμένιοι are first mentioned by Hecataeus of Miletus. Xenophon, a Greek general serving in some of the Persian expeditions, describes many aspects of Armenian village life and hospitality in around 401 BC, he relates that the people spoke a language that to his ear sounded like the language of the Persians. According to the histories of both Moses of Chorene and Michael Chamchian, Armenia derives from the name of Aram, a lineal descendant of Hayk.
The Table of Nations lists Aram as the son of Shem, to whom the Book of Jubilees attests, "And for Aram there came forth the fourth portion, all the land of Mesopotamia between the Tigris and the Euphrates to the north of the Chaldees to the border of the mountains of Asshur and the land of'Arara." Jubilees 8:21 apportions the Mountains of Ararat to Shem, which Jubilees 9:5 expounds to be apportioned to Aram. The historian Flavius Josephus states in his Antiquities of the Jews, "Aram had the Aramites, which the Greeks called Syrians. Of the four sons of Aram, Uz founded Trachonitis and Damascus: this country lies between Palestine and Celesyria. Ul founded Armenia. Armenia lies in the highlands surrounding the mountains of Ararat. There is evidence of an early civilisation in Armenia in the Bronze Age and earlier, dating to about 4000 BC. Archaeological surveys in 2010 and 2011 at the Areni-1 cave complex have resulted in the discovery of the world's earliest known leather shoe and wine-producing facility.
According to the story of Hayk, the legendary founder of Armenia, around 2107 BC Hayk fought against Belus, the Babylonian God of War, at Çavuştepe along the Engil river to establish the first Armenian state. This event coinc
Western Armenia, located in the South Caucasus, is a term used to refer to eastern parts of Turkey that were part of the historical homeland of Armenians. Western Armenia referred to as Byzantine Armenia, emerged following the division of Greater Armenia between the Byzantine Empire and Sassanid Persia in 387 AD; the area was conquered by the Ottomans in the 16th century during the Ottoman–Safavid War against their Iranian Safavid arch-rivals. Being passed on from the former to the latter, Ottoman rule over the region became only decisive after the Ottoman–Safavid War of 1623–1639; the area became known as Turkish Armenia or Ottoman Armenia. During the 19th century, the Russian Empire conquered all of Eastern Armenia from Iran, some parts of Turkish Armenia, such as Kars; the region's Armenian population was affected during the widespread massacres of Armenians in the 1890s. The Armenians living in their ancestral lands were exterminated or deported by Turkish forces during the Armenian Genocide in 1915 and the following years.
The systematic destruction of Armenian cultural heritage, which had endured over 2000 years, is considered an example of cultural genocide. Only assimilated and crypto-Armenians live in the area today, some irredentist Armenians claim it as part of United Armenia; the most notable political party with these views is the Armenian Revolutionary Federation. In the Armenian language, there are several names for the region. Today, the most common is Arevmtyan Hayastan in Eastern Armenian and Arevmdean Hayasdan in Western Armenian. Archaic names include Tačkahayastan in Daǰkahayasdan in Western Armenian. Used in the same period were T'urk'ahayastan or T'rk'ahayastan, both meaning Turkish Armenia. In Turkish language, the literal translation of Western Armenia is Batı Ermenistan; the region is now considered to be eastern Anatolia, is one of the seven geographical regions of Turkey Throughout much of recorded history the eastern boundary of Anatolia was not considered to extend as far as the Araxes, the river which marks the present day boundary between the states of Armenia and Iran.
Some Kurds refer to the southern parts of region as Bakurê Kurdistanê. After the Ottoman-Persian War, Western Armenia became decisively part of the Ottoman Empire. Since the Russo-Turkish War, 1828–1829, the term "Western Armenia" has referred to the Armenian-populated historical regions of the Ottoman Empire that remained under Ottoman rule after the eastern part of Armenia was ceded to the Russian Empire by the Qajar Persians following the outcome of the Russo-Persian War and Russo-Persian War. Western Armenia consisted of six vilayets — the vilayets of Erzurum, Bitlis, Diyarbekir and Sivas; the fate of Western Armenia — referred to as "The Armenian Question" — is considered a key issue in the modern history of the Armenian people. In 1894–96 and 1915 the Ottoman Empire perpetrated systematic massacres and forced deportations of Armenians resulting in the Armenian Genocide; the massive deportation and killings of Armenians began in the spring 1915. On April 24, 1915 Armenian intellectuals and community leaders were deported from Constantinople.
Depending on the sources cited, about 1,500,000 Armenians were killed during this act. During the Caucasus Campaign of World War I, the Russian Empire occupied most of the Armenian-populated regions of the Ottoman Empire. A temporary provincial government was established in occupied areas between 1915 and 1918; the chaos caused by the Russian Revolution of 1917 put a stop to all Russian military operations and Russian forces began to conduct withdrawals. The first and second congresses of Western Armenians took place in Yerevan in 1917 and 1919. Armenia does not have any territorial claims against Turkey, one political party, the Armenian Revolutionary Federation, the largest Armenian party in the diaspora, claims the area given to the Republic of Armenia by US President Woodrow Wilson's arbitral award, as part of the Treaty of Sèvres in 1920 known as Wilsonian Armenia. Since 2000, an organizing committee of the congress of heirs of Western Armenians who survived the Armenian Genocide is active in diasporan communities.
History of Armenia Geography of Armenia Armenian Highland Armenians in the Ottoman Empire Ottoman Armenian population Arman J. Kirakosian, "English Policy towards Western Armenia and Public Opinion in Great Britain", Yerevan, 1981, 26 p.. Armen Ayvazyan, "Western Armenia vs Eastern Anatolia", Europe & Orient – n°4, 2007 Video: Provinces of Western Armenia Radio Television Western Armenia The Centennial of the Armenian Genocide
Turkey the Republic of Turkey, is a transcontinental country located in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan Peninsula in Southeast Europe. East Thrace, located in Europe, is separated from Anatolia by the Sea of Marmara, the Bosphorous strait and the Dardanelles. Turkey is bordered by Bulgaria to its northwest. Istanbul is the largest city. 70 to 80 per cent of the country's citizens identify as Turkish. Kurds are the largest minority. At various points in its history, the region has been inhabited by diverse civilizations including the Assyrians, Thracians, Phrygians and Armenians. Hellenization continued into the Byzantine era; the Seljuk Turks began migrating into the area in the 11th century, their victory over the Byzantines at the Battle of Manzikert in 1071 symbolizes the start and foundation of Turkey. The Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm ruled Anatolia until the Mongol invasion in 1243, when it disintegrated into small Turkish principalities. Beginning in the late 13th-century, the Ottomans started uniting these Turkish principalities.
After Mehmed II conquered Constantinople in 1453, Ottoman expansion continued under Selim I. During the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent the Ottoman Empire encompassed much of Southeast Europe, West Asia and North Africa and became a world power. In the following centuries the state entered a period of decline with a gradual loss of territories and wars. In an effort to consolidate the weakening social and political foundations of the empire, Mahmut II started a period of modernisation in the early 19th century, bringing reforms in all areas of the state including the military and bureaucracy along with the emancipation of all citizens. In 1913, a coup d'état put the country under the control of the Three Pashas. During World War I, the Ottoman government committed genocides against its Armenian and Pontic Greek subjects. Following the war, the conglomeration of territories and peoples that comprised the Ottoman Empire was partitioned into several new states; the Turkish War of Independence, initiated by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk and his colleagues against occupying Allied Powers, resulted in the abolition of monarchy in 1922 and the establishment of the Republic of Turkey in 1923, with Atatürk as its first president.
Atatürk enacted numerous reforms, many of which incorporated various aspects of Western thought and customs into the new form of Turkish government. The Kurdish–Turkish conflict, an armed conflict between the Republic of Turkey and Kurdish insurgents, has been active since 1984 in the southeast of the country. Various Kurdish groups demand separation from Turkey to create an independent Kurdistan or to have autonomy and greater political and cultural rights for Kurds in Turkey. Turkey is a charter member of the UN, an early member of NATO, the IMF and the World Bank, a founding member of the OECD, OSCE, BSEC, OIC and G-20. After becoming one of the first members of the Council of Europe in 1949, Turkey became an associate member of the EEC in 1963, joined the EU Customs Union in 1995 and started accession negotiations with the European Union in 2005 which have been stopped by the EU in 2017 due to "Turkey's path toward autocratic rule". Turkey's economy and diplomatic initiatives led to its recognition as a regional power while its location has given it geopolitical and strategic importance throughout history.
Turkey is a secular, unitary parliamentary republic which adopted a presidential system with a referendum in 2017. Turkey's current administration headed by president Recep Tayyip Erdoğan of the AKP has enacted measures to increase the influence of Islam, undermine Kemalist policies and freedom of the press; the English name of Turkey means "land of the Turks". Middle English usage of Turkye is evidenced in an early work by Chaucer called The Book of the Duchess; the phrase land of Torke is used in the 15th-century Digby Mysteries. Usages can be found in the Dunbar poems, the 16th century Manipulus Vocabulorum and Francis Bacon's Sylva Sylvarum; the modern spelling "Turkey" dates back to at least 1719. The Turkish name Türkiye was adopted in 1923 under the influence of European usage; the Anatolian peninsula, comprising most of modern Turkey, is one of the oldest permanently settled regions in the world. Various ancient Anatolian populations have lived in Anatolia, from at least the Neolithic period until the Hellenistic period.
Many of these peoples spoke the Anatolian languages, a branch of the larger Indo-European language family. In fact, given the antiquity of the Indo-European Hittite and Luwian languages, some scholars have proposed Anatolia as the hypothetical centre from which the Indo-European languages radiated; the European part of Turkey, called Eastern Thrace, has been inhabited since at least forty thousand years ago, is known to have been in the Neolithic era by about 6000 BC. Göbekli Tepe is the site of the oldest known man-made religious structure, a temple dating to circa 10,000 BC, while Çatalhöyük is a large Neolithic and Chalcolithic settlement in southern Anatolia, which existed from approximately
The swallows and saw-wings, or Hirundinidae, are a family of passerine birds found around the world on all continents, including in Antarctica. Adapted to aerial feeding, they have a distinctive appearance; the term Swallow is used colloquially in Europe as a synonym for the barn swallow. There are around 90 species of Hirundinidae, divided into 19 genera, with the greatest diversity found in Africa, thought to be where they evolved as hole-nesters, they occur on a number of oceanic islands. A number of European and North American species are long-distance migrants; this family comprises two subfamilies: Hirundininae. Within the Old World, the name martin tends to be used for the squarer-tailed species, the name swallow for the more fork-tailed species. Within the New World, "martin" is reserved for members of the genus Progne; the family Hirundinidae was introduced by the French polymath Constantine Samuel Rafinesque in 1815. The Hirundinidae are morphologically unique within the passerines, with molecular evidence placing them as a distinctive lineage within the Sylvioidea.
They have been linked to the white-eyes and the tits. Under the Sibley-Ahlquist taxonomy they have been placed in the infraorder Passerida. Within the family there is a clear division between the two subfamilies, the Pseudochelidoninae, composed of the two species of river martins, the Hirundininae, into which the remaining species are placed; the division of the Hirundininae has been the source of much discussion, with various taxonomists variously splitting them into as many as 24 genera and lumping them into just 12. There is some agreement that there are three core groups within the Hirundininae, the saw-wings of the genus Psalidoprocne, the core martins, the swallows of the genus Hirundo and their allies; the saw-wings are the most basal of the three, with the other two clades being sister to each other. The phylogeny of the swallows is related to evolution of nest construction; the Hirundinidae have an evolutionarily conservative body shape, similar across the clade but is unlike that of other passerines.
Swallows have adapted to hunting insects on the wing by developing a slender, streamlined body and long pointed wings, which allow great maneuverability and endurance, as well as frequent periods of gliding. Their body shape allows for efficient flight. Swallows have two foveae in each eye, giving them sharp lateral and frontal vision to help track prey, they have long eyes, with their length equaling their width. The long eyes allow for an increase in visual acuity without competing with the brain for space inside of the head; the morphology of the eye in swallows is similar to that of a raptor. Like the unrelated swifts and nightjars, which hunt in a similar way, they have short bills, but strong jaws and a wide gape, their body length ranges from about 10–24 cm and their weight from about 10–60 g. The wings are long and have nine primary feathers; the tail has 12 feathers and may be forked, somewhat indented, or square-ended. A long tail increases maneuverability, may function as a sexual adornment, since the tail is longer in males.
In barn swallows the tail of the male is 18% longer than those of the female, females will select mates on the basis of tail length. The legs are short, their feet are adapted for perching rather than walking, as the front toes are joined at the base. Swallows are capable of walking and running, but they do so with a shuffling, waddling gait; the leg muscles of the river martins are more robust than those of other swallows. The river martins have other characteristics; the structure of the syrinx is different between the two subfamilies. The most common hirundine plumage is glossy dark blue or green above and plain or streaked underparts white or rufous. Species which burrow or live in dry or mountainous areas are matte brown above; the sexes show limited or no sexual dimorphism, with longer outer tail feathers in the adult male being the most common distinction. The chicks hatch naked and with closed eyes. Fledged juveniles appear as duller versions of the adult; the family has a worldwide cosmopolitan distribution, breeding on every continent except Antarctica.
One species, the Pacific swallow, occurs as a breeding bird on a number of oceanic islands in the Pacific Ocean, the Mascarene martin breeds on Reunion and Mauritius in the Indian Ocean, a number of migratory species are common vagrants to other isolated islands and to some sub-Antarctic islands and Antarctica. Many species have enormous worldwide ranges the barn swallow, which breeds over most of the Northern Hemisphere and winters over most of the Southern Hemisphere; the family uses a
Mount Ararat is a snow-capped and dormant compound volcano in the extreme east of Turkey. It consists of two major volcanic cones: Little Ararat. Greater Ararat is the Armenian plateau with an elevation of 5,137 m; the Ararat massif is about 35 km wide at ground base. The first efforts to reach Ararat's summit were made in the Middle Ages. However, it was not until 1829 when Friedrich Parrot and Khachatur Abovian, accompanied by four others, made the first recorded ascent. Despite the scholarly consensus that the "mountains of Ararat" of the Book of Genesis do not refer to Mt. Ararat, it has been accepted in Christianity as the resting place of Noah's Ark, it is the principal national symbol of Armenia and has been considered a sacred mountain by Armenians. It is an icon for Armenian irredentism. Along with Noah's Ark, it is depicted on the coat of arms of Armenia. Mount Ararat forms a near-quadripoint between Turkey, Armenia and Iran, its summit is located some 16 km west of both the Iranian border and the border of the Nakhchivan exclave of Azerbaijan, 32 km south of the Armenian border.
The Turkish–Armenian–Azerbaijani and Turkish–Iranian–Azerbaijani tripoints are some 8 km apart, separated by a narrow strip of Turkish territory containing the E99 road which enters Nakhchivan at 39.6553°N 44.8034°E / 39.6553. From the 16th century until 1828 the range was part of the Ottoman-Persian border. Following the 1826–28 Russo-Persian War and the Treaty of Turkmenchay, the Persian controlled territory was ceded to the Russian Empire. Little Ararat became the point where the Turkish and Russian imperial frontiers converged; the current international boundaries were formed throughout the 20th century. The mountain came under Turkish control during the 1920 Turkish–Armenian War, it formally became part of Turkey according to the 1921 Treaty of Treaty of Kars. In the late 1920s, Turkey crossed the Iranian border and occupied the eastern flank of Lesser Ararat as part of its effort to quash the Kurdish Ararat rebellion, during which the Kurdish rebels used the area as a safe haven against the Turkish state.
Iran agreed to cede the area to Turkey in a territorial exchange. The Iran-Turkey boundary skirts east of the lower peak of the Ararat massif; as of 2004 the mountain is open to climbers only with "military permission". The procedure to obtain the permission involves submitting a formal request to a Turkish embassy for a special "Ararat visa", it is mandatory to hire an official guide from the Turkish Federation for Alpinism. Access is still limited for climbers who obtain the necessary permission, those who venture off the approved path may be fired upon without warning. Ararat is the Greek version of the Hebrew spelling of the name Urartu, a kingdom that existed in the Armenian plateau in the 9th–6th centuries BC. German orientalist and Bible critic Wilhelm Gesenius speculated that the word "Ararat" came from the Sanskrit word Arjanwartah, meaning "holy ground." Some Armenian historians, such as Ashot Melkonyan, link the origin of the word "Ararat" to the root of the endonym of the indigenous peoples of the Armenian Highland, including the Armenians.
The mountain is known as Ararat in European languages, none of the native peoples have traditionally referred to the mountain by that name. In classical antiquity in Strabo's Geographica, the peaks of Ararat were known in ancient Greek as Ἄβος and Νίβαρος; the traditional Armenian name is Masis. However, the terms Masis and Ararat are both often interchangeably, used in Armenian; the folk etymology expressed in Movses Khorenatsi's History of Armenia derives the name from king Amasya, the great-grandson of the legendary Armenian patriarch Hayk, said to have called the mountain Masis after himself. According to Russian orientalist Anatoly Novoseltsev the word Masis derives from Middle Persian masist, "the largest." According to Armenian historian Sargis Petrosyan the mas root in Masis means "mountain", cf. Proto-Indo-European *mņs-. According to archaeologist Armen Petrosyan it originates from the Māšu mountain mentioned in the Epic of Gilgamesh, which sounded Māsu in Assyrian; the Turkish name is Ağrı Dağı, Ottoman Turkish: اغـر طﺎﻍ Ağır Dağ), i.e. "Mountain of Ağrı".
Ağrı translates to "pain" or "sorrow". This name has been known since the late Middle Ages. Greater and Lesser Ararat are known as Küçük Ağrı, respectively; the traditional Persian name is کوه نوح, Kūh-e Nūḥ the "mountain of Noah". The Kurdish name of the mountain is çiyayê Agirî, which translates to "fiery mountain". Mount Ararat is located in the Eastern Anatolia Region of Turkey between the provinces of Ağrı and Iğdır, near the border with Iran and Nakhchivan exclave of Azerbaijan, between the Aras and Murat rivers, its summit is located some 16 km west of the Turkey-Iran border and 32 km south of the Turco-Armenian border. The Ararat plain runs along its northwest to western side. An elevation of 5,165 m for Mount Ararat is given by some encyclopedias and reference works such as Merriam-Webster's Geographical Dictionary and Encyclopedia of World Geography. However, a number of sources, such as the United Stat
Rowan Douglas Williams, Baron Williams of Oystermouth, is a Welsh Anglican bishop and poet. He served as the 104th Archbishop of Canterbury from December 2002 to December 2012; the Bishop of Monmouth and Archbishop of Wales, Williams was the first Archbishop of Canterbury in modern times not to be appointed from within the Church of England. Williams' primacy was marked by speculation that the Anglican Communion was on the verge of fragmentation over disagreements on contemporary issues such as homosexuality and the ordination of women. Williams worked to keep all sides talking to one another. Notable events during his time as Archbishop of Canterbury include the rejection by a majority of dioceses of his proposed Anglican Covenant and, in the final General Synod of his tenure, his unsuccessful attempt to secure a sufficient majority for a measure to allow the appointment of women as bishops in the Church of England. Having spent much of his earlier career as an academic at the universities of Cambridge and Oxford successively, Williams speaks three languages and reads at least nine.
After standing down as Archbishop, Williams took up the positions of Master of Magdalene College, Cambridge in 2013, Chancellor of the University of South Wales in 2014. He delivered the Gifford Lectures at the University of Edinburgh in 2013. Justin Welby succeeded Williams as Archbishop of Canterbury on 9 November 2012, being enthroned in March 2013. On 26 December 2012, 10 Downing St announced Williams' elevation to the peerage as a Life Baron, so that he could continue to speak in the Upper House of Parliament. Following the creation of his title on 8 January and its gazetting on 11 January 2013, he was introduced to the temporal benches of the House of Lords as Baron Williams of Oystermouth on 15 January 2013, sitting as a crossbencher. Williams was born on 14 June 1950 in Swansea, into a Welsh-speaking family, he was the only child of Aneurin Williams and his wife Nancy Delphine Williams – Presbyterians who became Anglicans in 1961. He was educated at the state-sector Dynevor School in Swansea, before going on to study theology at Christ's College, whence he graduated with starred first-class honours.
He went to Wadham College, where he studied under A. M. Allchin and graduated with a Doctor of Philosophy degree in 1975 with a thesis entitled The Theology of Vladimir Nikolaievich Lossky: An Exposition and Critique. Williams lectured and trained for ordination at the College of the Resurrection in Mirfield, West Yorkshire, for two years. In 1977, he returned to Cambridge to teach theology as a tutor at Westcott House. While there, he was ordained a priest the Petertide following, by Peter Walker, Bishop of Ely, at Ely Cathedral. Williams did not have a formal curacy until 1980, when he served at St George's, until 1983, after having been appointed a university lecturer in divinity at Cambridge. In 1984 he became dean and chaplain of Clare College and, in 1986 at the age of 36, he was appointed to the Lady Margaret Professor of Divinity at Oxford, a position which brought with it appointment to a residentiary canonry of Christ Church Cathedral. In 1989 he received the degree of Doctor of Divinity and, in 1990, was elected a Fellow of the British Academy.
On 5 December 1991, Williams was elected Bishop of Monmouth in the Church in Wales: he was consecrated a bishop on 1 May 1992 at St Asaph Cathedral and enthroned at Newport Cathedral on 14 May. He continued to serve as Bishop of Monmouth after he was elected to be the Archbishop of Wales in December 1999, in which capacity he was enthroned again at Newport Cathedral on 26 February 2000. In 2002, he was announced as the successor to George Carey as Archbishop of Canterbury — the senior bishop in the Church of England and "first among equals" in the Anglican Communion; as a bishop of the disestablished Church in Wales, Williams was the first Archbishop of Canterbury since the English Reformation to be appointed to this office from outside the Church of England. His election by the Chapter of Canterbury Cathedral was confirmed by nine bishops in the customary ceremony in London on 2 December 2002, when he became Archbishop of Canterbury, he was enthroned at Canterbury Cathedral on 27 February 2003 as the 104th Archbishop of Canterbury.
The translation of Williams to Canterbury was canvassed. As a bishop he had demonstrated a wide range of interests in social and political matters and was regarded, by academics and others, as a figure who could make Christianity credible to the intelligent unbeliever; as a patron of Affirming Catholicism, his appointment was a considerable departure from that of his predecessor and his views, such as those expressed in a published lecture on homosexuality were seized on by a number of evangelical and conservative Anglicans. The debate had begun to divide the Anglican Communion and Williams, in his new role as its leader was to have an important role; as Archbishop of Canterbury, Williams acted ex officio as visitor of King's College London, the University of Kent and Keble College, governor of Charterhouse School, since 2005, as chancellor of Canterbury Christ Church University. In addition to these ex officio roles, Cambridge University awarded him an honorary doctorate in divinity in 2006.