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Tsonga language

Tsonga or Xitsonga is a Bantu language spoken by the Tsonga people. It is mutually intelligible with Tswa and Ronga, the name "Tsonga" is used as a cover term for all three sometimes referred to as Tswa-Ronga; the Xitsonga language has been standardized for both academic and home use, making it the base language for the Tsonga people. Like with many other languages, there are various dialects within the Tsonga language group; the Xitsonga language was studied in great detail by the Swiss missionary, Henri-Alexandre Junod between the year 1890 and 1920, who made the conclusion that the Xitsonga language began to develop in Mozambique before the 1400s. In his own words, Junod states the following: My conclusion is that the Thonga language was already-spoken by the primitive occupants of the country more than 500 years ago and that, together with a certain number of customs, it formed the great bond which bound the Thonga clans together in past centuries. Further studies were carried out by Junod and other Swiss missionaries such as Henri Berthoud and Ernest Creux, who began to unify the language in order to have a standard way of writing and reading.

"Shigwamba" was a term used by the missionaries in order to group the language under a unified identity, however the name was unfamiliar to many of the Tsonga people and had to be replaced with "Thonga/Tsonga". Harries makes reference to this: As the term Gwamba was unknown outside the Spelonken, Henri Berthoud recommended that the mission abandon the term and replace it with the accepted genericism, Tonga/Thonga. Swiss missionaries engaged with the Tsonga people and used their assistance to translate the Bible from English and Sesotho into the Tsonga language. Paul Berthoud published the first book in 1883 which came as a result of the help he received from the translations by Mpapele or Mandlati; the two men were active in teaching and translating the language to the missionaries since none of the missionaries were familiar with it and had to dedicate a lot of their time to learn. The language of the Tsonga people and the dialects were put into print and the first books were published; the language was on registered as "Xitsonga" within the Constitution of South Africa and it was declared an official language.

The standardization of the Xitsonga language as a result made it possible for the Tsonga people to develop a common way of speaking and writing. Xitsonga Famous Surnames 1. Baloyi 2. Chauke 3. Chavalala 4. Mabunda 5. Maluleke 6. Makamu 7. Mathevula 8. Ngoveni 9. Nkuna 10. Shibambu 11. Shikweni 12. Rikhotso 13. Zitha 14. Mashava The name "Tsonga" is the root of Xitsonga, Vatsonga, etc. In the language of the Vatsonga themselves, the root never appears by itself, it is Tsonga for the accessibility of the wider international community. As for the origins of the name, there are three theories; the first states that Tsonga is another pronunciation for Dzonga, which means "South" and the name of one of the dialects of Xitsonga. The second theory is that it is an alternate spelling of the old ancestral name of the Chopi and Tembe groups, Tonga/Thonga; the other Zulu explanation for the alternative spelling of "Thonga" is that the Tembe and Rhonga people, who were the first to arrive at the Delagoa Bay and around the Natal Bay, transitioned the Rhonga "Rh" into the Zulu form of "Th".

An example is rhuma. The third and most accepted is that it is another pronunciation for "Rhonga", the root for the word "vurhonga" for east or the direction where the sun rises. Vurhonga means dawn in Xitsonga. Rhonga is one of the Tsonga languages; the physical evidence of most Tsonga people residing along the eastern coast of Africa in the south, extending inland in a westward direction, makes this explanation inviting. Much of the history about the Tsonga people had been overlooked and thus a lot of the history speaks about the aftermath of the mfecane where the Nguni people overran a lot of the pre-existing African tribes of South Africa, Eswatini and Zimbabwe; the 1800s was a period where a lot of the European writers were documenting a lot of the events that dominated in the Shaka Zulu era and the Tsonga history was overlooked in favor of Nguni conquests. Tsonga people and languages are: Chopi, Ndau, Ronga and Tswa. Among these languages, three language groups can be identified; these are S50, S60, Ndau language falling under the Shona group.

In total there are six recognised languages. Chopi Group Chopi dialects are Copi, Lambwe, Lenge and Tonga. Tonga. Ndau Group Ndau dialects are Changa, Dondo, Ndau, andTswa-Ronga Group Ronga dialects are Kalanga, Konde and Ssonge. Gwamba dialects are Bila, Hlanganu, Kande, Luleke, N'walungu, Songa, Valoyi and Xonga. Tswa dialects are Dzibi, Dzibi-Dzonga, Hlengwe, Makwakwe-Khambani, Mandla and Nhayi; some dialects have been mentioned here for completeness. For example and Luleke comprise the N'walungu dialect. There is no Gwamba dialect. Formally Xitsonga has been called Gwamba. Tswa-Ronga

Mujandjae Kasuto

Mujandjae Kasuto is a Namibian amateur boxer who has competed twice at the Olympics. At the Commonwealth Games 2006 he lost early at junior welterweight. Kasuto competed for Namibia at the 2008 Summer Olympics in boxing at welterweight after qualifying for the Games by winning his division at the qualifying tournament held in Windhoek in March 2008. At the 2008 Games, Kasuto lost in the round of 32 to Russia's Andrey Balanov. At the Commonwealth Games 2010 he lost to Northern Irishman Patrick Gallagher. At the All Africa Games 2011 he lost to Felix Mwamba. At the Olympic qualifier he qualified for the Olympics at middleweight, beating fighters like Abdelmalek Rahou although he lost the final to local Badreddine Haddioui. At the 2012 Summer Olympics, he lost to Zoltán Harcsa in the second round. At the 2014 Commonwealth Games he again competed at middleweight, reaching the last 16 where he lost to India's Vijender Vijender

Neck Amphora by Exekias (Berlin F 1720)

The Neck Amphora by Exekias ia a neck amphora in the black figure style by the Attic vase painter and potter Exekias. It is found in the possession of the Antikensammlung Berlin under the inventory number F 1720 and is on display in the Altes Museum, it depicts Herakles' battle with the sons of Theseus on the other. The amphora could only be restored for the first time a hundred and fifty years after its original discovery due to negligence and political difficulties; the clay neck amphora is 40.5 cm high. It is dated to around 545/0 BC and is executed in the black figure style, still common at the time; the painter Exekias was a master of this style. He added his own innovations and modifications which appear in part in this amphora; the vase is fragmentary. Conspicuous absences include the loss of one of the two handles, a pair of sherds from the body of the vase; the surviving pieces are in good condition. Both sides of the amphora's belly are framed above and below by chains of painted and stylisted lotus flowers and buds.

The area around the handles is decorated with palmettes. The scenes on each side are of similar size and are not divided into a front main image and a reversed opposite on the reverse as in times. On the edge of the mouth there is a signature of Exekias, the most well-known Attic vase painter and potter, which reads ΕΞΣΕΚΙΑΣ ΕΓΡΑΦΣΕ ΚΑ ΠΟΕΣΕ ΜΕ, "Exekias painted and made me." On one side the battle between Herakles and the Nemean Lion is depicted – one of the twelve tasks which the son of Zeus had to perform in the service of King Eurystheus. Herakles strangles the lion, whose skin could not be wounded, while his brother Iolaos and the goddess Athena look on, serving to frame the scene; the naked Herakles has his left arm on the neck of the lion and holds the paw of the lion in his right hand. The lion is attempting to free itself from the hero's grip. Many details are indicated in red paint, like Iolaos' beard, Athena's shield and details of the lion's mane. On the other side of the vase is a depiction of the two sons of Theseus and Demophon with their horses, which are named by inscriptions as Kalliphora and Phalios.

Between the two horses, which are led to the right by their masters, is a vertical Kalos inscription, reading ΟΝΕΤΟΡΙΔΕΣ ΚΑΛΟΣ, "Onetorides is gorgeous". Both men carry two spears over their shoulders; the shields are detailed in white paint. Their helmets have high plumes painted in red; the sons of Theseus are departing to fight in the Trojan War. The scenes can be understood as combining two Greek regions which interacted with each other: Herakles is the hero of the Peloponnese, while Theseus' sons represent the Athenians' conception of themselves; this vase marks the first appearance of the sons of Theseus in Attic art. The scene from the outbreak of the Trojan War stresses increasing Athenian self-importance; the participation of their heroes in the legendary Trojan War symbolically placed Athens on the same level as the traditionally important city-states of the Peloponnese, including the leading power of the time, Sparta. In subsequent Athenian art, the sons of Theseus were symbols of the new self-consciousness of the Athenian aristocracy.

In addition to the art historical significance of the vase, the fate of the amphora and its individual sherds since its discovery is of archaeological-historical significance. The vase was found in the Etruscan necropolis of Ponte dell' Abbadia near Vulci. In Athens, vases were produced for export to Etruria, where they were used as grave goods. Thus, several works of Exekias have been found in Etruscan cemeteries; when the amphora was discovered in one of the Etruscan graves at Vulci, under excavation from 1828, it was broken and was no longer complete. The sherds that were discovered were not carefully collected; the reconstruction of the vase from its sherds was, by modern standards, faulty. As was common in the mid-nineteenth century, missing pieces were replaced and repainted to create the appearance of a complete work. After the restoration, the amphora came into the possession of the painter Eduard Magnus; the sale of smaller archaeological discoveries was common at the time when no other, more expensive and higher valued artworks could be found.

Together with the painter's other pieces, the amphora soon entered the newly founded Museum at Lustgarten, in 1831. It stayed, in the semi-basement of the museum. According to Jakob Andreas Konrad Levezow's 1834 exhibition catalogue, the vase stood on one of the glass tables placed in a prominent position; when the portable art collection was transferred to the Neue Galerie New York, Exekias' Amphora was taken there as well. In the 1920s, the amphoras had to be restored for reasons. In the process, the retouching and additions from the original restoration were removed; the additions were now made distinct from the original sherds. Due to the war, the amphora was stored in box 167 in the Zoobunker. In 1945 the box was taken to the Soviet Union as booty; as part of the return of art to the DDR, the amphora was brought back to the Antikensammlung Berlin in 1958, now divided between East and West Berlin. The Exekian Neck Amphora was one of the few vases which came into the possession of the East Berlin Pergamonmuseum since the majority of the vases had been kept in the Magazin before the war and were hence s

Suck My Pussy

"Suck My Pussy" is an electronic dance song by a short-lived project known as Pussy, released in 1995. The song was produced by French DJs Pascal Henninot and Bertrand de Carey, samples sexually explicit vocals from American performance artist Karen Finley's 1986 recording "Tales of Taboo". Finley rants "You don't own me bastard", alluding to the feminist agenda of the original track, demands that her partner perform cunnilingus on her, while she offers him fellatio. "Suck My Pussy" was released in France on Ramdam Factory, where it peaked at number 22, staying in charts for 14 weeks. It subsequently was released internationally on various minor labels, with no further chart success; the song would appear on numerous various artists compilation, among others Super Dance Mix 95


Safaitic is a variety of the South Semitic script used by the nomads of the basalt desert of southern Syria and northern Jordan, the so-called Ḥarrah, to carve rock inscriptions in various dialects of Old Arabic and Ancient North Arabian. The Safaitic script is a member of the Ancient North Arabian sub-grouping of the South Semitic script family, the genetic unity of which has yet to be demonstrated. Safaitic inscriptions are named after the area where they were first discovered in 1857: As-Safa, a region of basalt desert to the southeast of Damascus, Syria. Since they have been found over a wide area including south Syria, eastern Jordan and northwestern Saudi Arabia. Isolated examples occur further afield in places such as Palmyra in Syria, in Lebanon, in Wadi Hauran in western Iraq, in Ha'il in north central Saudi Arabia; the largest concentration appears to be in the Harrat al-Shamah, a black basalt desert, stretching south and east from Jabal al-Druze through Jordan and into Saudi Arabia.

30,000 inscriptions have been recorded, although doubtless many hundreds of thousands more remain undiscovered due to the remoteness and inhospitable nature of the terrain in which they are found. The inscriptions are found on the rocks and boulders of the desert scatter, or on the stones of cairns. In many cases it is unclear whether the inscriptions on the cairns pre- or post-date the construction of the cairns. A small number of Safaitic inscriptions have been found outside the Harrat al-Sham, including examples from Palmyra, the Hejaz and Pompeii; the Safaitic alphabet comprises 28 letters. Several abecedaries are known, but all are written in different orders, giving strength to the suggestion that the script was casually learned rather than taught systematically; the Safaitic script exhibits considerable variability in letter shapes and writing styles. The inscriptions can be written in nearly any direction and there are no word dividers. There are two primary variants of the script: normal and square.

The normal variant exhibits a large degree of variation, depending on the hand of individual authors and writing instrument. The square script appears to be a deliberate stylistic variant, making use of more angular forms of the letters. Inscriptions employ the square variants but mix these shapes with normal letter forms. A minority of inscriptions exhibit a mix of Safaitic and Hismaic letter shapes; the linguistic classification of the dialects expressed by the Safaitic script continues to be debated. The traditional view held that because the Safaitic inscriptions make use of the definite article ha-, in contrast to Classical Arabic'al, that their language should not be regarded as Arabic proper, but rather as Ancient North Arabian. However, as more inscriptions have come to light, it is clear that the Safaitic dialects make use of a variety of definite article forms, including'al, a simple'a-. Based on this fact, the competing view holds that the dialects attested in the Safaitic script represent a linguistic continuum, on which Classical Arabic and other older forms of the language lie.

Most Safaitic inscriptions are graffiti that reflect the current concerns of the author: the availability of grazing for his camel herd, mourning the discovery of another inscription by a person who has since died, or listing his genealogy and stating that he made the inscription. Others pray for booty, or mention religious practices. A few inscriptions by female authors are known. Inscriptions are sometimes accompanied by rock art, showing hunting or battle scenes and horses and their riders, bedouin camp scenes, or occasional female figures. Al-Jallad, Ahmad. An Outline of the Grammar of the Safaitic Inscriptions. Leiden: Brill. ISBN 90-04-28929-1 – via Google Books. Al-Jallad, Ahmad. A Dictionary of the Safaitic Inscriptions. Leiden: Brill. ISBN 978-90-04-40042-9. King, G. "The Basalt Desert Rescue Survey and some preliminary remarks on the Safaitic inscriptions and rock drawings" Proceedings of the Seminar for Arabian Studies 20:55-78 Macdonald, M. C. A. "Inscriptions, Safaitic" in The Anchor Bible Dictionary Vol 3 Doubleday Macdonald, M. C. A.

"Reflections on the linguistic map of pre-Islamic Arabia" Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy 11:28–79 Oxtoby, W. G; some Inscriptions of the Safaitic Bedouin American Oriental Society, Oriental Series 50. New Haven, Connecticut Winnett, F. V. and Harding, G. L. Inscriptions from Fifty Safaitic Cairns Toronto Information on the Safaitic Database Project Exhibition of Safaitic inscriptions Southern Arabic Writings in Syria - Safaitic, Arab Writers Union in Damascus

Hannah Neumann

Hannah Neumann is a German politician of the Alliance 90/The Greens, serving as a Member of the European Parliament since 2019. Neumann studied media studies at TU Ilmenau from 2002 until 2007 and political science at Free University of Berlin from 2008 until 2012. During her studies, she spent a year abroad at Ateneo de Manila University from 2004 until 2005. Neumann worked as legislative assistant to Tom Koenigs and as chief of staff to Omid Nouripour in the German Bundestag. From 2018 until 2019, she was an associate fellow at the German Council on Foreign Relations. Neumann has been a Member of the European Parliament since the 2019 European elections, she has since been serving on the Subcommittee on Human Rights and the Subcommittee on Security and Defence. In addition to her commiteee assignments, she chairs the Parliament’s delegation for relations with the Arab Peninsula and is a member of the European Parliament Intergroup on LGBT Rights. German Council on Foreign Relations, Member of the Presidium