Tai Mo Shan
Tai Mo Shan is the highest peak in Hong Kong, with an elevation of 957 m. It is the tallest coastal peak in Southern China and second tallest coastal peak in China after Mount Lao, located at the geographical centre of the New Territories; the Tai Mo Shan Country Park covers an area of 14.40 km² around Tai Mo Shan. It is located to the north of Tai Lam Country Park, it is noted to have the highest waterfall in Hong Kong. The whole Tai Mo Shan mountain range, known as Guang Fu Mountain in Ming and Qing dynasties, covers over 350 square km, stretches from Tai Lam Chung Reservoir in the West near Tuen Mun and Ma On Shan in the east and the mountains of Kowloon and Clear Water Bay in the south. Two other significant coastal peaks, the Lantau Peak on Lantau Island and Mount Wutong in Shenzhen are 27 km to the southwest and 21.5 km to the northeast respectively. Tai Mo Shan is an extinct volcano dating from the Jurassic period. A small hill known as "Kwun Yum Shan" near the mountain still vents warm air though cracks in the rocks that lead all the way to the mantle.
The holes that exhale warm air are known as "hot pots". When the surface temperature is cold, the warmth of the expelled air is discernible, this phenomenon is referred to by locals as "dragon's breath". If the air temperature at the summit is 6 degrees Celsius the air emerging from the interior of Kwun Yum Shan is somewhere between 13 and 21 degrees Celsius; these "hot pots" are remnants of the active volvano's superheated steam vents. The area's volcanic rocks are coarse ash crystal tuff. Under the Köppen climate classification, Tai Mo Shan features a humid subtropical climate, bordering a subtropical highland climate. Due to the height of the mountain, Tai Mo Shan is claimed to be Hong Kong's most misty area, as it is covered in clouds. In summer it is covered with cumulus clouds on rainy days, in winter stratus clouds and fog cover the peak, it is not uncommon for temperatures to drop below freezing point during the winter. In the past, Tai Mo Shan was famous for a type of green tea, called mist or cloud tea, which grew wild on the mountain side.
Local people can still be seen picking the tea shoots for brewing green tea. More than 1,500 species of plants have been recorded in Tai Mo Shan including 27 species of native wild orchids, the protected Chinese Lily which grows on the east side of the Mountain, 24 species of native ferns, including tree ferns, of which a total of only 4 tree ferns species have been recorded around the entire mountain, 19 species of native grasses, 7 species of native bamboos. Camellia sinensis var. waldenae are found on the mountain. A few types of wild orchids grow in the streams of Tai Mo Shan including the Chinese pholidota orchid, Hong Kong's most common orchid, the bamboo orchid, so called because of a distinct stem that looks like bamboo, which grows in the streams of Tai Mo Shan. During the Japanese occupation of Hong Kong in World War II, most of the trees in the park were cut down and extensive reforestation was carried out after the war. Trees that were planted are non-native such as Pinus massoniana, Acacia confusa, Lophostemon confertus, paper bark tree.
The area has now become one of the major forest plantations in Hong Kong. Local wildlife comprises birds and butterflies. There are freshwater crabs, feral dogs, feral cats and wild boar. In 1986, a 34-hour blaze destroyed 282,500 trees at Shing Mun and Tai Mo Shan and ravaged 7.40 km² of countryside. It is rather easy to hike to the peak. Visitors cannot access the highest point on Tai Mo Shan, as it is occupied by a Hong Kong Observatory weather radar station, it was reported in July 2014 that the station additionally houses facilities of the People's Liberation Army. List of mountains and hills in Hong Kong Country parks and conservation in Hong Kong Kadoorie Farm and Botanic Garden Tai Mo Shan Country Park
Pat Heung is an area in the middle of New Territories, Hong Kong. Located at the east of Kam Tin and north of Shek Kong, it is the exit to Sheung Fanling. Administratively, it belongs to Yuen Long District. Two historic buildings, in Pat Heung have been declared as monuments. Pat Heung comprises 30 villages; the population is estimated to be about three thousand people. Tsat Sing Kong Ha Che Sheung Tsuen Sheung Che Tai Kong Po * Tai Wo Yuen Kong Yuen Kong San Tsuen Shui Lau Tin Shui Tsan Tin Ngau Keng Ta Shek Wu Tin Sam Kap Lung Shek Wu Tong Chuk Hang Ng Ka Tsuen * Ho Pui Kam Tsin Wai Cheung Kong Tsuen Cheung Po Ma On Kong Pang Ka Tsuen * Lui Kung Tin * Lin Fa Tei Wang Toi Shan Ha San Uk Wang Toi Shan Wing Ning Lei Wang Toi Shan Ho Lik Pui Wang Toi Shan Shan Tsuen Wang Toi Shan Lo Uk Tsuen *=非原居民村 The area is where Kam Sheung Road, Kam Tin Road, Lam Kam Road, Route Twisk and Fan Kam Road join; the Kam Sheung Road Station serves the nearby Kam Tin area. List of areas of Hong Kong
New towns of Hong Kong
The Hong Kong government started developing "New Towns" in the 1950s, in order to accommodate Hong Kong's booming population. At the first phase of development, the newly developed towns were called "satellite town", a concept borrowed from the United Kingdom, of which Hong Kong was still a colony. Kwun Tong, located at eastern Kowloon, Tsuen Wan, located at the south-west New Territories, were designated as the first two satellite towns, when the urban area in Hong Kong was still small, restricted to the central and western part of Kowloon Peninsula and the northern side of Hong Kong Island. Wah Fu Estate was built in a remote corner at the southern side of Hong Kong Island, with similar concepts in a smaller scale. Plans to develop new areas were continued in the late 1960s and 1970s, when the name "New Town" was adopted; as most flat lands in Kowloon and Hong Kong Island had been developed, the government proposed to build New Towns in the New Territories, a rural area at that time. The first phase of New Town development, which started in 1973, included Tsuen Wan, Sha Tin and Tuen Mun.
With the success and experience in these New Towns, further stages of new town development were launched in subsequent decades. Up until now, nine New Towns have been built and about half of the Hong Kong population reside in these newly developed areas. After building a new town on Lantau Island in the 1990s, the pace of developing New Towns slowed down in the 2000s, owing to the lowered rate of population growth. Responding to the high demand in the housing market and the difficulty of residents buying a new home, the Hong Kong government suggested to start building New Towns again in the 2010s, hoping that could increase the supply in private housing market and provide more flats for public housing. For example, Hung Shui Kiu New Town, Kwu Tung North New Town and North Fanling New Town are proposed by the government and under public consultation. Land use is planned in new towns and development provides plenty of room for public housing projects. Highways, tunnels and railways were built to improve the accessibility.
The first few New Towns, e.g. Tuen Mun, Sha Tin, Yuen Long, Tai Po, are intended to be self-reliant, with residential areas, industrial areas as well as recreational area in each town, such that residents need not travel between the New Towns and city centre for work and leisure. Therefore, a few industrial estates, such as Tai Po Industrial Estate and Yuen Long Industrial Estate, were built aiming at providing working opportunities to the residents in the respective New Town. Although the government turned most of the town centre of the new towns into a vibrant commercial and cultural centre in the area, the overall objective to make the New Town self-reliant was proved to fail, as most residents still have their jobs in Kowloon and Hong Kong Island; the aim became unaccomplishable. The British government had developed new towns in the United Kingdom to help relocate displaced populations following the Second World War; this experience influenced the development of new towns in Hong Kong by the British colonial government.
Before the 1950s, most of the population in Hong Kong lived in the urban area of Hong Kong, the central and western part of Kowloon Peninsula and the northern coastal area of Hong Kong Island. However, the population kept booming after the Second World War; the drastic growth was due to a series of political unrest in Mainland China and the resulted large number of refugees fleeing to Hong Kong from 1950s to early 1970s and the rapid advancement of Hong Kong economy from 1970s to early 1990s. The government in the 1950s had no plans to deal with the housing problem of the increasing population, until the Shek Kip Mei fire, which destroyed the home of 58,203 people in a shanty town, happened in 1953; the government, for the first time, built public housing to accommodate the victims and found a change in housing policy essential. As a result, the government, on one hand, started to provide public housing to members of the public, and, on the other hand, proposed to develop "satellite towns" in undeveloped areas, in order to avail more lands to satisfy the increasing housing need.
At first, Tsuen Wan and Kwai Chung were identified to be the first satellite towns, but it was found that Kwun Tong, located at the underdeveloped eastern Kowloon, would be attractive to the residents living in the slum area in nearby Ngau Tau Kok. Thus, in the late 1950s, Kwun Tong became the first developed satellite town. At the same time, the development of Tsuen Wan as a satellite town began. Wah Fu Estate, which lay to the west of Aberdeen in Pok Fu Lam, was built in a remote corner at the southern side of Hong Kong Island, with a similar concept in a smaller scale, in 1967. In the late 1960s and the 1970s, another stage of new town developments was launched and the term "New Town" was adopted; as most flat lands in Kowloon and Hong Kong Island had been developed, the government proposed to build new towns in New Territories, a rural area at that time. Kwun Town, as the first satellite town, was not considered as a New Town, as it was part of Kowloon and regarded by the government as part of the urban area.
The first phase of new town development was unveiled in 1973, including Tsuen Wan New Town, where full scale development was not unfolded as a satellite town, Sha Tin New Town and Tuen Mun New Town. They were intended to accommodate a few hundred thousands people (e.g. according to the first planning in 1961, the government planned to accommodate 360,000 people in Sha Tin, after the entire New Town has been built
Rambler Channel is a body of water in Hong Kong that separates Tsing Yi Island from Tsuen Wan and Kwai Chung in the New Territories. The channel separates the two landmasses by 900 metres at its widest point; the channel was known as Tsing Yi Mun and Tsing Yi Channel. The shoreline of the channel has changed in the last several decades, owing to the development of Tsuen Wan New Town and the Kwai Chung Container Port. Before extensive reclamation, Gin Drinkers Bay was located along the eastern shore of the channel, Tsing Yi Bay was located along the western shore. Three islands once stood in the channel as well. Six road bridges and one rail bridge span the channel: Ting Kau Bridge, connecting Tsing Yi Island with Tuen Mun Road and Tai Lam Tunnel Tsing Tsuen Bridge known as the Tsing Yi North Bridge Tsing Lai Bridge, the sole railway bridge, used by the MTR metro system Cheung Tsing Bridge, part of Tsing Kwai Highway, leading to Cheung Tsing Tunnel Tsing Yi Bridge known as the Tsing Yi South Bridge Kwai Tsing Bridge known as the second Tsing Yi South Bridge Stonecutters Bridge, connecting Tsing Yi Island with Stonecutters Island Tsuen Wan Ferry Pier Tsing Yi Ferry Pier Rambler Channel Typhoon Shelter "Rambler Channel".
Film Services Office. Archived from the original on 2007-09-27. Retrieved 2007-03-29
Standard Chinese known as Modern Standard Mandarin, Standard Mandarin, Modern Standard Mandarin Chinese, or Mandarin, is a standard variety of Chinese, the sole official language of China, the de facto official language of Taiwan and one of the four official languages of Singapore. Its pronunciation is based on the Beijing dialect, its vocabulary on the Mandarin dialects, its grammar is based on written vernacular Chinese. Like other varieties of Chinese, Standard Chinese is a tonal language with topic-prominent organization and subject–verb–object word order, it has more initial consonants but final consonants and tones than southern varieties. Standard Chinese is an analytic language, though with many compound words. There are two standardised forms of the language, namely Putonghua in Mainland China and Guoyu in Taiwan. Aside from a number of differences in pronunciation and vocabulary, Putonghua is written using simplified Chinese characters, Guoyu is written using traditional Chinese characters.
Many characters are identical between the two systems. In Chinese, the standard variety is known as: 普通话 in the People's Republic of China, as well as Hong Kong and Macau. Standard Chinese is commonly referred to by generic names for "Chinese", notably 中文. In total, there have been known over 20 various names for the language; the term Guoyu had been used by non-Han rulers of China to refer to their languages, but in 1909 the Qing education ministry applied it to Mandarin, a lingua franca based on northern Chinese varieties, proclaiming it as the new "national language". The name Putonghua has a long, albeit unofficial, history, it was used as early as 1906 in writings by Zhu Wenxiong to differentiate a modern, standard Chinese from classical Chinese and other varieties of Chinese. For some linguists of the early 20th century, the Putonghua, or "common tongue/speech", was conceptually different from the Guoyu, or "national language"; the former was a national prestige variety. Based on common understandings of the time, the two were, in fact, different.
Guoyu was understood as formal vernacular Chinese, close to classical Chinese. By contrast, Putonghua was called "the common speech of the modern man", the spoken language adopted as a national lingua franca by conventional usage; the use of the term Putonghua by left-leaning intellectuals such as Qu Qiubai and Lu Xun influenced the People's Republic of China government to adopt that term to describe Mandarin in 1956. Prior to this, the government used both terms interchangeably. In Taiwan, Guoyu continues to be the official term for Standard Chinese; the term Guoyu however, is less used in the PRC, because declaring a Beijing dialect-based standard to be the national language would be deemed unfair to speakers of other varieties and to the ethnic minorities. The term Putonghua, on the contrary, implies nothing more than the notion of a lingua franca. During the government of a pro-Taiwan independence coalition, Taiwan officials promoted a different reading of Guoyu as all of the "national languages", meaning Hokkien and Formosan as well as Standard Chinese.
Huayu, or "language of the Chinese nation" simply meant "Chinese language", was used in overseas communities to contrast Chinese with foreign languages. Over time, the desire to standardise the variety of Chinese spoken in these communities led to the adoption of the name "Huayu" to refer to Mandarin; this name avoids choosing a side between the alternative names of Putonghua and Guoyu, which came to have political significance after their usages diverged along political lines between the PRC and the ROC. It incorporates the notion that Mandarin is not the national or common language of the areas in which overseas Chinese live. Hanyu, or "language of the Han people", is another umbrella term used for Chinese. However, it has confusingly two different meanings: Standard Chinese; this term, as well as Hànzú, is a modern concept. A related concept is Hànzì; the term "Mandarin" is a translation of Guānhuà, which referred to the lingua franca of the late Chinese empire. The Chinese term is obsolete as a name for the standard language, but is used by linguists to refer to the major group of Mandarin dialects spoken natively across most of northern and southwestern China.
In English, "Mandarin" may refer to the standard language, the dialect group as a whole, or to historic forms such as the late Imperial lingua franca. The name "Modern Standard Mandarin" is sometimes used by linguists who wish to distinguish the current state of the shared language from other northern and historic dialects; the Chinese have different languages in different provinces, to such an extent
Yale romanization of Cantonese
The Yale romanization of Cantonese was developed by Gerard P. Kok for his and Parker Po-fei Huang's textbook Speak Cantonese circulated in looseleaf form in 1952 but published in 1958. Unlike the Yale romanization of Mandarin, it is still used in books and dictionaries for foreign learners of Cantonese, it shares some similarities with Hanyu Pinyin in that unvoiced, unaspirated consonants are represented by letters traditionally used in English and most other European languages to represent voiced sounds. For example, is represented as b in Yale, whereas its aspirated counterpart, is represented as p. Students attending The Chinese University of Hong Kong's New-Asia Yale-in-China Chinese Language Center are taught using Yale romanization. Only the finals m and ng can be used as standalone nasal syllables. Modern Cantonese has up to seven phonemic tones. Cantonese Yale represents these tones using a combination of diacritics and the letter h. Traditional Chinese linguistics treats the tones in syllables ending with a stop consonant as separate "entering tones".
Cantonese Yale follows modern linguistic conventions in treating these the same as the high-flat, mid-flat and low-flat tones, respectively. Sample transcription of one of the 300 Tang Poems by Meng Haoran: Cantonese phonology Jyutping Guangdong Romanization Cantonese Pinyin Sidney Lau romanisation S. L. Wong Barnett–Chao Romanisation Yale romanization of Mandarin Yale romanization of Korean Gwaan, Choi-wa 關彩華. English-Cantonese Dictionary - 英粤字典: Cantonese in Yale Romanization. Chinese University Press. ISBN 962-201-970-6. Matthews, Stephen & Yip, Virginia. Cantonese. A Comprehensive Grammar. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-08945-X. Ng Lam, Sim-yuk & Chik, Hon-man. Chinese-English Dictionary 漢英小字典: Cantonese in Yale Romanization, Mandarin in Pinyin. Chinese University Press. ISBN 962-201-922-6. Comparison chart of Romanization for Cantonese with Yale, S. Lau, Toho and LSHK MDBG free online Chinese-English dictionary Online Chinese Character to Yale Romanization of Cantonese lookup Conversion tool
Tin Hau temples in Hong Kong
The following is an incomplete list of the over 100 Tin Hau Temples dedicated to Tin Hau in Hong Kong. They include: Tin Hau temple, located at 10 Tin Hau Temple Road, Causeway Bay, east of Victoria Park, in Eastern District, on Hong Kong Island, it is a declared monument. The temple has given its name to the MTR station serving it, subsequently to the neighboring area of Tin Hau; the Tin Hau temple in Yau Ma Tei is famous in Hong Kong. The public square, Yung Shue Tau before it is surrounded by the popular Temple Street night market; the Tin Hau Temple at Joss House Bay is considered the most sacred. Built in 1266, it is the largest Tin Hau Temple in Hong Kong, it is a Grade I historic building. Two temples have a marine parade to celebrate the Tin Hau Festival: Tin Hau Temple on Leung Shuen Wan and Tin Hau Temple on Tap Mun, which has it once every ten years; the celebration at Tin Hau Temple, Joss House Bay is attended annually by upwards of 40,000 to 50,000 people. Another large celebration takes place at the Tai Shu Ha temple in Yuen Long District.
Note 1: Unless otherwise noted in italics, Tin Hau is the main deity of the temples listed below. Note 2: A territory-wide grade reassessment of historic buildings is ongoing; the grades listed in the table are based on this update. The temples with a "Not listed" status in the table below are not graded and do not appear in the list of historic buildings considered for grading. Places of worship in Hong Kong Tsui, Enid. "Why Hong Kong makes such a big deal of sea goddess Tin Hau's birthday". South China Morning Post