Hideaki Anno is a Japanese animator, film director, actor. He is best known for creating the popular anime series Neon Genesis Evangelion, his style has become defined by his incorporation of postmodernism and the extensive portrayal of characters' thoughts and emotions through unconventional scenes presenting the mental deconstruction of those characters. Anno's other directorial efforts include Gunbuster, Nadia: The Secret of Blue Water, Kare Kano, Love & Pop, Shiki-Jitsu, Cutie Honey, Re: Cutie Honey, Rebuild of Evangelion, Shin Godzilla. Anime directed by Anno that have won the Animage Anime Grand Prix award have been Nadia: The Secret of Blue Water in 1990, Neon Genesis Evangelion in 1995 and 1996, The End of Evangelion in 1997. Anno was born in Yamaguchi. Anno is an agnostic and has stated that he has found Japanese spiritualism to be closest to his personal beliefs. Anno is a vegetarian. Anno began his career after attending Osaka University of Arts as an animator for the anime series The Super Dimension Fortress Macross.
Wrapped up in producing the DAICON III and IV Opening Animations with his fellow students, he was expelled from Osaka. Anno did not gain recognition until the release of his work on Hayao Miyazaki's 1984 film Nausicaä of the Valley of the Wind. Running short on animators, the film's production studio posted an ad in the famous Japanese animation magazine Animage, announcing that they were in desperate need of more animators. Anno, in his early twenties at the time, read the ad and headed down to the film's studio, where he met with Miyazaki and showed him some of his drawings. Impressed with his ability, Miyazaki hired him to draw some of the most complicated scenes near the end of the movie, valued his work highly. Anno went on to become one of the co-founders of Gainax in December 1984, he worked as an animation director for their first feature-length film, Royal Space Force: The Wings of Honneamise, became Gainax's premiere anime director, leading the majority of the studio's projects such as Gunbuster and Nadia: The Secret of Blue Water.
However, Anno fell into a four-year depression following Nadia — the series was handed down to him from NHK from an original concept by Hayao Miyazaki and he was given little creative control. In 1994, the minor planet 9081 Hideakianno was named after him by his old friend Akimasa Nakamura. Anno's next project was the anime television series Neon Genesis Evangelion, which would be touted as an influential animated series. Anno's history of clinical depression was the main source for many of the psychological elements of the series and its characters, as he wrote down on paper several of the trials and tribulations of his condition. During the show's production, Anno became disenchanted with the Japanese "otaku" lifestyle. For this and other reasons, Evangelion's plot became dark and psychological as the series progressed, despite being broadcast in a children's television timeslot. Anno felt that people should be exposed to the realities of life at as young an age as possible, by the end of the series all attempts at traditional narrative logic were abandoned, with the final two episodes taking place within the main character's mind.
The show did not garner high ratings in Japan at its initial time slot, but after being moved to a more adult-oriented venue, it gained considerable popularity. Budgeting issues at Gainax forced Anno to replace the planned ending of Evangelion with two episodes set in the main characters' minds. After these last two episodes were aired, Anno received numerous letters and emails from fans, both congratulating him on the series and criticizing the last two episodes. Among these were death threats and letters of disappointment from fans who thought Anno had ruined the series for them. In 1997, Gainax launched a project to re-adapt Evangelion's scrapped ending into a feature-length film. Once again, budgeting issues left the film unfinished, the completed 27 minutes of animation were included as the second act of Evangelion: Death and Rebirth; the project culminated in The End of Evangelion, a three-act film that served as a finale to Neon Genesis Evangelion. In September 1999, Anno appeared on the NHK TV-documentary "Welcome Back for an Extracurricular Lesson, Senpai!", answering some Evangelion-related questions, including the origin of the name Evangelion, teaching children about animation production.
On April 15, 2015, Anno spoke about his feelings regarding Rei. He claimed: "The truth is. In the midst of making Eva, I realized that I had forgotten her, her existence. For example, in episode seven, I added one shot with Rei. I had no attachment to her at all. I think, okay, because in episode eight, she didn't appear. Not in a single shot." After Evangelion, Anno directed the 1998 anime series Kareshi Kanojo no Jijō, the first Gainax television series to be directly adapted from previously-written material. During the production of Kare Kano, Anno became frustrated with the restrictions placed on the show by TV Tokyo after the Pokémon seizure incident and has not directed television anime since the
Tetsuo Hara is a Japanese manga artist, best known for drawing the series Fist of the North Star, which he co-authored with Buronson. He is cousin to comedian Ryo Fukawa. A native of Tokyo, Hara attended Hongō Junior and Senior High School and worked as an assistant to manga artist Yoshihiro Takahashi after graduating; as an amateur, he won the first prize of the 33rd Fresh Jump award for his boxing short story Super Challenger. Hara's professional career began with his first published work: Mad Fighter in 1982, his first serialized work in the Weekly Shōnen Jump was the Iron Don Quixote, a motocross manga which lasted only ten weeks in serialization. He achieved fame after the publication of Hokuto no Ken in 1983, which he co-created with Buronson and ran for six years in Weekly Jump, his next long-running serial was Hana no Keiji,a period tale loosely based on a novel by Keiichiro Ryu, published in Weekly Jump from 1990 to 1993. He would go on to produce several shorter serials and one-shots for Shueisha until departing from the company in 2000.
In 2001, he became one of the founding members of the manga editing company Coamix and would go on to illustrate Sōten no Ken, a prequel to Hokuto no Ken, serialized in Weekly Comic Bunch from 2001 until the magazine's final issue in 2010. Published as a weekly serial, Sōten no Ken was changed to a semi-regular feature after Hara was diagnosed with keratoconus. Despite announcing his intentions to retire after completing Sōten no Ken, he would go on to illustrate his current series Ikusa no Ko: The Legend of Nobunaga Oda, published in Monthly Comic Zenon since 2010. An English edition of Ikusa no Ko is concurrently published at the official Silent Manga Audition Community website. Kōryū no Mimi - Ichimu An Fūryū Ki Hokuto no Ken: Jubaku no Machi Miyamoto Musashi Saturday Night Slam Masters/Muscle Bomber - promotional illustrations; the character portraits in the arcade version were done by another artist, but they were replaced by Hara's own renditions in the console versions for the Super NES and Sega Genesis.
Muscle Bomber Duo - promotional illustrations Ring of Destruction: Slam Masters II/Super Muscle Bomber - promotional and in-game illustrations. Itadaki Muscle! - illustrations for the opening intro. Mori no Senshi Bonolon - producer, character designer Gifū Dōdō Naoe Kanetsugu - Co-author with Horie Nobuhiko, cover illustrations. Hara Tetsuo Official Website
Mamoru Hosoda is a Japanese film director and animator. He was nominated for an Academy Award in the category Best Animated Feature Film at the 91st Academy Awards for his seventh film Mirai. Hosoda was born in Kamiichi, Nakaniikawa District, Japan, his father worked as a railway engineer, his mother was a tailor. Hosoda felt inspired to take up animation as a career after seeing The Castle of Cagliostro, the first film directed by Hayao Miyazaki of Studio Ghibli fame, he majored in oil painting at the Kanazawa College of Art in Ishikawa Prefecture. After graduation, Hosoda was able to land an animation job at Toei Animation, after submitting a short film that he had animated in his spare time, he applied at Studio Ghibli. During his time at Toei, Hosoda worked his way up, garnering public attention in the early 2000s with the first two films in the Digimon Adventure series, it was his first co-directed film, Digimon: The Movie, which attracted the eye of Ghibli head producer Toshio Suzuki. Studio Ghibli announced that Hosoda was to direct the film Howl's Moving Castle in September 2001.
This was scheduled for a summer 2003 release. However, production on the film became strained due to creative differences. According to Hosoda, he "was told to make similar to how Miyazaki would have made it, but wanted to make own film the way wanted to make it". In the end, Hosoda left in the summer of 2002 during the early production stages, after failing to come up with a concept acceptable to Studio Ghibli bosses. Proceeding his departure from Ghibli, Hosoda returned to Toei and worked on a few animations in collaboration with artist Takashi Murakami, such as the commercial Superflat Monogram for Louis Vuitton. During this time, he directed an episode of Ojamajo Doremi, inspired by his turbulent time at Ghibli; this episode led to him being hired at the animation studio Madhouse, which he worked at from 2005 to 2011. At Madhouse, Hosoda earned critical acclaim with his directing efforts, including 2006's The Girl Who Leapt Through Time and 2009's Summer Wars. Hosoda left Madhouse in 2011 to establish his own animation studio, Studio Chizu, with Yuichiro Saito who produced The Girl Who Leapt Through Time and Summer Wars.
As of March 2019, Studio Chizu has released three films directed by Hosoda: 2012's Wolf Children, 2015's The Boy and the Beast, 2018's Mirai. Mirai was nominated for Best Animated Feature for the 2019 Oscars. Digimon: The Movie One Piece: Baron Omatsuri and the Secret Island The Girl Who Leapt Through Time Summer Wars Wolf Children The Boy and the Beast Mirai Untitled Upcoming Film Digimon Adventure Digimon Adventure Ojamajo Doremi Dokkān Digimon Adventure: Our War Game! One Piece Superflat Monogram Ashita no Nadja Samurai Champloo Ashita no Nadja Crying Freeman Dragon Ball: The Path to Power Dragon Ball Z Dragon Ball Z: Broly – The Legendary Super Saiyan Dragon Ball Z: Broly – Second Coming Galaxy Express 999 ~Eternal Fantasy~ Slam Dunk Sailor Moon Sailor Stars Sailor Moon Super S: The Movie Yu Yu Hakusho The Movie: Poltergeist Report Mamoru Hosoda at Anime News Network's encyclopedia Mamoru Hosoda on IMDb
Clamp (manga artists)
Clamp is an all-female Japanese manga artist group that formed in the mid-1980s. It consists of leader Nanase Ohkawa, three artists whose roles shift for each series: Mokona, Tsubaki Nekoi, Satsuki Igarashi. 100 million Clamp tankōbon copies have been sold worldwide as of October 2007. Beginning as an eleven-member dōjinshi circle in the mid-1980s, they began creating original work in 1987. By the time they debuted with RG Veda in 1989, the group was reduced to seven members. In 1993, three more members left, leaving the four members who are still part of the group. In 2006, the members decided to change their names. Clamp began in the mid-1980s as an eleven-member dōjinshi circle named Clamp Cluster; this included O-Kyon, Sei Nanao, Tamayo Akiyama, Leeza Sei, Sōshi Hishika, Kazue Nakamori, Shinya Ōmi. Three of Clamp's artists—Mokona, Tsubaki Nekoi, Satsuki Igarashi—first began drawing manga when they were teenagers, inspired by friends; the three artists were good friends in the same school. They befriended Nanase Ohkawa through one of her friends who had bought comics from Mokona.
The original group of twelve members began to meet at every event held in Osaka and Kobe, which occurred once a month. Before they began creating original work, the group produced dōjinshi of Captain Tsubasa, yaoi dōjinshi of Saint Seiya. However, in 1987 the group began creating original work, their first collaborative work was entitled "Clamp", which they continued to work on until shortly after their debut. The group debuted as professional manga artists when they decided to print the manga RG Veda, which they had first started as a fan comic. After seeing the comic digest of the manga series that Clamp had published, an editor for Shinshokan's Wings manga magazine asked the group to work for them, they submitted an sixty-page story as a sample, but the work was rejected. Ohkawa lambasted the draft, stating that "everything was bad" and attributing the quality to the group's lack of experience, since they had never before completed a story as a cohesive group; the group was given another chance at publication should they submit a new story that Shinshokan liked.
During the time before their official debut, the group moved to Tokyo and rented a small, two-bedroom apartment. Ohkawa stated that she thought she was "gonna die there". Nekoi stated that "the only private space had was under desk." By the group's professional debut in 1989 with the manga RG Veda, serialized in Shinshokan's Wings magazine, its members had gone down to seven. During the production of the manga RG Veda, O-Kyon had left the group. In June 1990, Sei Nanao left the group, Sōshi Hishika, Kazue Nakamori, Shinya Omi left in March 1993. In October 1992, Tamayo Akiyama and Leeza Sei left the group. RG Veda was planned to be a single story rather than a series, although because of good reader response and higher-than-expected sales for its first volume Shinshokan permitted the group to create more volumes, however after each chapter of the manga was released, Shinshokan threatened that it would cease serialization should its popularity fall. In July 1989, Genki Comics began serializing Man of Many Faces.
It began serializing Duklyon: Clamp School Defenders in August 1991, which became the work that the three artists Mokona and Igarashi enjoyed working on most. In March 1990, Wings began serializing Tokyo Babylon. In December 1990, Monthly Asuka ran Clamp School Detectives, in May 1992, it began serializing X. Clamp was serialized by many other magazines and publishers including Kobunsha publishing Shirahime-Syo: Snow Goddess Tales on June 10, 1992. In 1993, Clamp released two different manga: in March, Miyuki-chan in Wonderland, which began serializing in Newtype, in November, Magic Knight Rayearth, serialized in Nakayoshi. Nakayoshi began to serialize Cardcaptor Sakura in May 1996. Kadokawa Shoten published The One I Love on July 17, 1995. Wish first began serializing in Asuka Comics DX in October 1996. In December 1998, Suki: A Like Story began first serializing in Asuka Comics DX, in January 1999, Angelic Layer first began serializing in Monthly Shōnen Ace. In 2001, Young Magazine began serializing Clamp's Chobits which completed its run in 2002.
Although their previous works are targeted at a female audience, Chobits marked the first time Clamp wrote for an older teen male audience. Clamp began writing the two works that tell separate parts of the same overarching plot, xxxHolic serialized in Young Magazine beginning in 2003 followed by Tsubasa: Reservoir Chronicle serialized in the Weekly Shōnen Magazine beginning in the same year. Tsubasa marked the first time Clamp had tried writing for a younger male audience, although their first work published in the Shōnen genre was Angelic LayerIn 2004, Clamp's 15th anniversary as a manga artist group, the members changed their names from Nanase Ohkawa, Mokona Apapa, Mick Nekoi, Satsuki Igarashi to Ageha Ohkawa, Tsubaki Nekoi and Satsuki Igarashi
Shotaro Ishinomori was a Japanese manga artist who became an influential figure in manga and tokusatsu, creating several immensely popular long-running series such as Cyborg 009, the Super Sentai series, the Kamen Rider Series. He was twice awarded by the Shogakukan Manga Award, in 1968 for Sabu to Ichi Torimono Hikae and in 1988 for Hotel and Manga Nihon Keizai Nyumon, he was born and named Shotaro Onodera in Tome and was known as Shotaro Ishimori before 1986, when he changed his family name to Ishinomori with "ノ". On December 1954, Ishinomori published Nikyuu Tenshi, in Manga Shonen. In 1956 he became an assistant to Osamu Tezuka. During his time working under Tezuka, Ishinomori worked on Alakazam the Great. In 1960, Ishinomori published Flying Phantom Ship and in 1969 it was made into an animated feature film. Cyborg 009, created in 1963, became the first superpowered hero team created in Japan, featuring nine cybernetic warriors; that same year, Kazumasa Hirai and Jiro Kuwata created 8 Man.
The success of the tokusatsu superhero TV series Kamen Rider, produced by Toei Company Ltd. in 1971, led to the birth of the "Transforming" superhero, resulted in many sequel shows to this day. Ishinomori created many similar superhero dramas, which were once again all produced by Toei or in Sarutobi Ecchan's case Toei Animation, including Android Kikaider, Henshin Ninja Arashi, Robotto Keiji, Himitsu Sentai Gorenger, Kaiketsu Zubat, Akumaizer 3, Sarutobi Ecchan, the Toei Fushigi Comedy Series, countless others, he created popular children's shows such as Hoshi no Ko Chobin, Ganbare!! Robokon. In 1963, he founded the anime company Studio Zero. From 1967 to 1970, the manga 009-1 was serialized in the Futabasha publication Weekly Manga Action, it was illustrated by Ishinomori. There was a television drama of it in 1969 and an anime in 2006. Ishinomori's art is reminiscent of that of Osamu Tezuka; the true story of his first meeting with Tezuka was illustrated in a short four-page tale drawn up as supplementary material for the 1970s Astro Boy manga reprints.
In 1954, Ishinomori submitted his first official work, Nikyu Tenshi, to a contest seeking new talent in the magazine, Manga Shōnen. Tezuka was impressed by his drawings and sent a telegraph to Ishinomori, asking him to work as his assistant with Astro Boy. In the American release, this story can be seen in Volume 15, along with Ishinomori's earliest work on the "Electro" story arc. After graduating from high school in 1956 Ishinomori moved to Tokiwa-so with Tezuka, lived there until the end of 1961. Ishinomori illustrated a comic adaptation of the Super NES video game The Legend of Zelda: A Link to the Past, produced for the American publication Nintendo Power; the comic consisted of 12 chapters, which were serialized from January 1992 to December 1992. The comic was republished as a graphic novel collection in 1993, and, as of 2015, is back in print through Viz Media. At the end of 1997, Kazuhiko Shimamoto, a young and up and coming manga artist was contacted by an ill Shotaro Ishinomori and asked if he would do a continuation of his 100-page, one-shot manga from 1970, Skull Man.
Ishinomori, one of Shimamoto's boyhood heroes, faxed him copies of the proposed story and plot notes. Shimamoto was astounded that he had been chosen to work on his idol's great work. Shimamoto had been involved in the revival of one of Ishinomori's other earlier works but little did he dream that, as only one of many whom Ishinomori had inspired, he would be chosen for the final collaboration and resurrection of Skull Man, it was recently adapted into an anime in 2007. Ishinomori died of heart failure on 28 January 1998, just three days after his 60th birthday, his final work was the tokusatsu superhero TV series, televised a year later. Two years the Kamen Rider Series would be revived with Kamen Rider Kuuga. All of the series made in the Heisei period credit Ishinomori as the creator; the Ishinomori Manga Museum named in his honor opened in Ishinomaki, Miyagi in 2001. Special trains in the Senseki Line were commissioned featuring his artwork leading to the museum, his work posthumously awarded him the Guinness World Record for most comics published by one author, totaling over 128,000 pages across 770 titles across 500 volumes.
Ishimori Production Inc. – Official website Ishimori Production Inc. – Official website Ishimori Production Inc. – Official website Mangattan Museum website Shotaro Ishinomori Complete Comic Works Shotaro Ishinomori Memorial Museum – Official website Entry in the Encyclopedia of Science Fiction
Fujio Akatsuka was a pioneer Japanese artist of comical manga known as the Gag Manga King. His name at birth is 赤塚 藤雄, whose Japanese pronunciation is the same as 赤塚 不二夫, he was born in Rehe, the son of a Japanese military police officer. After World War II, he grew up in Nara Prefecture; when he was 19, he moved to Tokyo. While working at a chemical factory, he drew many manga. After that, Tokiwa-so accepted him, he started his career as a shōjo artist, but in 1958, his Nama-chan became a hit, so he became a specialist in comic manga. He won the Shogakukan Manga Award in 1964 for Osomatsu-kun and the Bungeishunjū Manga Award in 1971 for Tensai Bakabon, he is said to have been influenced by MAD magazine. In 1965, Akatsuka established his own company "Fujio Productions Ltd.". In 2000, he drew manga in braille for the blind. Many of his manga featured supporting characters who ended up becoming more popular and more associated with their series than the main character, such as Papa, Iyami and Nyarome.
In April 2002 he was hospitalized for intra-axial hematoma and was said to be in a persistent vegetative state from 2004 until his death. In July 2006, his second wife Machiko, nursing him died from a subarachnoid hemorrhage. On August 2, 2008, he died of pneumonia at a hospital in Tokyo. Among Akatsuka's extensive body of work, his series of Osomatsu-kun, Himitsu no Akko-chan, Tensai Bakabon, Mōretsu Atarō are considered his top four major series by Fujio Pro, due to their success in garnering animated adaptations and their lengthy runs and revivals. Angel in the Dark - Assisted Shotaro Ishinomori and Hideko Mizuno, published under the shared pseudonym U. MIA Matsuge-chan July–December 1961, Ribon Nama-chan Ohana-chan Happy-chan Tunnel Team Okazu-chan Kantarō January 1964-April 1965, Shonen Book Osomatsu-kun - Serialization changed to monthly from August 13, 1967 to allow for less frequent but longer chapters April 1964-March 1969, Separate Edition Shonen Sunday April to December 1966, Boys' Life April to October 1966, Elementary School 4th Grade April to December 1966, Elementary School 2nd Grade April 1966-March 1967, Kindergarten May 1966-March 1967, Elementary School 1st Grade July 1966-March 1967, Monthly Shogakukan Book March 19, 1972 – December 24, 1973, Weekly Shonen King November 1987-March 1990, Comic BomBom February 1988-January 1990, TV Magazine O-chan's Eleven Friends Jinx-kun Himitsu no Akko-chan November 1968-December 1969, Ribon October 1988-September 1989, Nakayoshi Otasuke-kun Circus Jinta You're a Shinobi, Sasuke-kun Makasete Chōta Mechakucha NO. 1 January–September 1967, Adventure King Songo-kun Opposite Address 3 Jajako-chan You Love Me-kun Giant Mama Kibimama-chan Thriller Professor Phantom Thief 1/2 Face Fujio Akatsuka's Ganbarima Show Good Morning with Mi-tan Chibita-kun Kikanpo Gen-chan Tensai Bakabon August 1967-January 1969, Separate Edition Shonen Magazine August 24, 1969 – April 5, 1970, Weekly Shonen Sunday September 9, 1969-June 1970, Deluxe Shonen Sunday May 10, 1971 – June 1, 1971, Weekly Bokura Magazine June 27, 1971 – December 7, 1976, Weekly Shonen Magazine August 1974-May 1975, Separate Edition Shonen Magazine June 1976-December 1978, Monthly Shonen Magazine October 1987-October 1991, Comic BomBom November 1987-January 1991, TV Magazine January 1988-February 1989, Monthly Shonen Magazine October 1989-January 1991, Monthly Hero Magazine November 1991-December 1992, Deluxe BomBom Hennako-chan Tamanegi Tama-chan Hippie-chan Mōretsu Atarō April 1969-October 1971, Kindergarten October 1969-March 1971, Elementary School 4th Grade January 1970-June 1971, Elementary School 3rd Grade January 1970-November 1971, Elementary School 2nd Grade April 1990-January 1991, Comic BomBom May 1990-January 1991, TV Magazine Dekunobo of the Wilderness We are 8 Pro The Flower of Dekoppachi Tensai Bakabon's Old
Yaoi known as boys' love or BL, is a genre of fictional media originating in Japan that features homoerotic relationships between male characters. It is created by women for women and is distinct from homoerotic media marketed to gay male audiences, such as bara, but it attracts male readers, it spans a wide range of media, including manga, drama CDs, novels and fan production. Boys love and its abbreviation BL are the generic terms for this kind of media in Japan and have, in recent years, become more used in English as well. However, yaoi remains more prevalent in English. A defining characteristic of yaoi is the practice of pairing characters in relationships according to the roles of seme, the sexual top or active pursuer, uke, the sexual bottom or passive pursuant. Common themes in yaoi include forbidden relationships, depictions of rape and humor. Yaoi and BL stories cover a diverse range of genres such as high school love comedy, period drama, science fiction and fantasy, detective fiction and include sub-genres such as omegaverse and shotacon.
Yaoi finds its origins in commercial publishing. As James Welker has summarized, the term yaoi dates back to dōjinshi culture of the late 1970s to early 1980s where, as a portmanteau of "yamanashi ochinashi iminashi", it was a self-deprecating way to refer to amateur fan works that parodied mainstream manga and anime by depicting the male characters from popular series in vaguely or explicitly sexual situations; the use of yaoi to refer to parody dōjinshi is still predominant in Japan. In commercial publishing, the genre can be traced back to shōnen'ai, a genre of beautiful boy manga that began to appear in shōjo manga magazines in the early 1970s. From the 1970s to 1980s, other terms such as tanbi and June emerged to refer to specific developments in the genre. In the early 1990s, these terms were eclipsed with the commercialization of male-male homoerotic media under the label of boys love. Yaoi has a robust global presence. Yaoi works are available across the continents in various languages both through international licensing and distribution and through circulation by fans.
Yaoi works and fandom have been studied and discussed by scholars and journalists worldwide. The genre known as Boy's Love, BL, or yaoi derives from two sources. Female authors writing for shōjo manga magazines in the early 1970s published stories featuring platonic relationships between young boys, which were known as tanbi or shōnen ai. In the late 1970s going into the 1980s, women and girls in the dōjinshi markets of Japan started to produce sexualized parodies of popular shōnen anime and manga stories in which the male characters were recast as gay lovers. By the end of the 1970s, magazines devoted to the nascent genre started to appear, in the 1990s the term boys' love or BL would be invented and would become the dominant term used for the genre in Japan. Although yaoi derives from girl's and women's manga and still targets the shōjo and josei demographics, it is considered a separate category. Keiko Takemiya's manga serial Kaze to Ki no Uta, first published in 1976, was groundbreaking in its depictions of "openly sexual relationships" between men, spurring the development of the boys' love genre in shōjo manga, as well as the development of sexually explicit amateur comics.
Another noted female manga author, Kaoru Kurimoto, wrote shōnen ai mono stories in the late 1970s that have been described as "the precursors of yaoi". The term yaoi is an acronym created in the late 1970s by Yasuko Sakata and Akiko Hatsu from the words Yama nashi, ochi nashi, imi nashi "No peak, no fall, no meaning"; this phrase was first used as a "euphemism for the content" and refers to how yaoi, as opposed to the "difficult to understand" shōnen-ai being produced by the Year 24 Group female manga authors, focused on "the yummy parts". The phrase parodies a classical style of plot structure. Kubota Mitsuyoshi says that Osamu Tezuka used yama nashi, ochi nashi, imi nashi to dismiss poor quality manga, this was appropriated by the early yaoi authors; as of 1998, the term yaoi was considered "common knowledge to manga fans". A joking alternative yaoi acronym among fujoshi is oshiri ga itai. In the 1980s, the genre was presented in an anime format for the first time, including the works Patalliro! which showed a romance between two supporting characters, an adaptation of Kaze to Ki no Uta and Earthian, released in the original video animation format.
Prior to the popularization of the term yaoi, material in the nascent genre was called juné, a name derived from Juné, a magazine that published male/male tanbi romances which took its name from the homoerotic stories of the French writer Jean Genet. In China, the term danmei is used, derived from tanbi; the term bishōnen manga was used in the 1970s, but fell from favor in the 1990s when manga in this genre began to feature a broader range of protagonists beyond the traditional adolescent boys. In Japan, the term juné would die out in favor of boys' love, which remains the most common name in Japan. Mizoguchi suggests that publishers wishing to get a foothold in the juné market coined "boys' love" to disassociate the genre from the publisher of Juné. While yaoi has become an umbrella term in the West for women's manga or Japanese-influenced comics with male-male relationships, it is the term preferentially used by American manga publishers for works of t