click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Tubac, Arizona

Tubac is a census-designated place in Santa Cruz County, United States. The population was 1,191 at the 2010 census; the place name "Tubac" is an English borrowing from a Hispanicized form of the O'odham name, which translates into English as "rotten". The original O'odham name is written Cuwak; the first syllable is accented. When first taken into Spanish speech, it was spelled Tubaca. Over time the last "a" was dropped. Tubac is situated on the Santa Cruz River. Tubac was the original Spanish colonial garrison in Arizona, it was depopulated during the O'odham Uprising in the 18th century. During the 19th century, the area was repopulated by miners and ranchers, but the town of Tubac is best known today as an artists' colony. Tubac is located at 31°37′32″N 111°3′7″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 10.8 square miles, all land. Established in 1752 as a Spanish presidio, the first Spanish colonial garrison in what is now Arizona, Tubac was one of the stops on the Camino Real from Mexico to the Spanish settlements in California.

Tubac's most famous Spanish resident was Juan Bautista de Anza. While stationed at Tubac, de Anza built the chapel of Santa Gertrudis, the foundations of which lie beneath today's St. Ann's Church. Apaches attacked the town in the 1840s, forcing the Sonoran Mexicans to abandon both Tumacacori and Tubac. Tubac was the scene of a four-day siege in 1861, between Tubac's male population, Confederate militia and Apache warriors. In the 1930s - 1960s Tubac became an art colony. Painter Dale Nichols opened an art school in the small desert village in 1948 and restored some of Tubac's historic buildings. Students included sculptor Bob Brisley. In 1961, the Santa Cruz Valley Art Association was formed with 80 members and the group founded the Tubac Festival of the Arts in 1964. Other significant artists in the Village included Sophie and Harwood Steiger, Hal Empie and Hugh Cabot; the remains of the old Spanish presidio are preserved by Tubac Presidio State Historic Park. The park features a regional museum, an underground archeology display, other historic buildings.

Modern Tubac is home to over 100 art galleries, home decor boutiques, gift shops, potters, artists of every kind. There is a active Art school, many gourmet restaurants, a golf resort nestled along a verdant valley with one of the oldest stands of cottonwoods in the state; as of the census of 2010, there were 1,191 people residing in Tubac. The racial makeup of Tubac was 76.67% non-Hispanic White, 0.59% Native American, 0.42% Black or African American, 0.59% Asian, 6.47% from other races, 1.09% from two or more races. 20.65% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. In Tubac 1.5% of the population was age 0-4, 4.7% from 5 to 17, 50.97% from 18 to 64, 42.49% 65 years of age or older. The population of Tubac is 47.61 % male. As of the census of 2000, there were 949 people, 481 households, 303 families residing in the CDP; the population density was 115.9 people per square mile. There were 569 housing units at an average density of 69.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the CDP was 88.72% White, 1.16% Native American, 0.42% Asian, 8.96% from other races, 0.74% from two or more races.

18.23 % of the population were Latino of any race. There were 481 households out of which 12.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.3% were married couples living together, 2.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 36.8% were non-families. 32.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 21.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 1.97 and the average family size was 2.45. In the CDP, the population was spread out with 12.3% under the age of 18, 2.5% from 18 to 24, 12.1% from 25 to 44, 37.8% from 45 to 64, 35.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 58 years. For every 100 females, there were 92.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.5 males. The median income for a household in the CDP was $39,444, the median income for a family was $59,375. Males had a median income of $36,528 versus $30,268 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $46,643. About 2.1% of families and 6.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including none of those under age 18 and 7.9% of those age 65 or over.

Media related to Tubac, Arizona at Wikimedia Commons Henry F. Dobyns, "Tubac Through Four Centuries" Tubac Presidio State Historic Park "Through Our Parents' Eyes: History & Culture of Southern Arizona"

Marcelo Quinteros

Marcelo Nildo Quinteros is an Argentine football midfielder. Quinteros started his professional playing career in 2000 with Rosario Central. In 2003, he had a spell with Deportivo Cuenca in Ecuador before joining Gimnasia y Esgrima de Jujuy in 2004. In 2005 Quinteros was part of the Gimnasia team that won the 2nd division Clausura 2005 and obtained promotion to the Argentine Primera. In 2009, he joined Banfield after failing to prevent the relegation of previous club, San Martín de Tucumán, he played in every game of the Apertura 2009 championship, helping Banfield to win the Argentine league championship for the first time in their history. Gimnasia y Esgrima de Jujuy Primera B Nacional: Clausura 2005Banfield Primera División Argentina: Apertura 2009 Argentine Primera statistics Football-Lineups player profile

Morris Dees

Morris Seligman Dees Jr. is an American attorney, known as the co-founder and former chief trial counsel for the Southern Poverty Law Center, based in Montgomery, Alabama. He ran a direct marketing firm, before founding SPLC. Along with his law partner, Joseph J. Levin Jr. Dees founded the SPLC in 1971. Dees and his colleagues at the SPLC have been "credited with devising innovative ways to cripple hate groups" such as the Ku Klux Klan by using "damage litigation". On March 14, 2019 the SPLC announced that Dees had been fired from the organization and the SPLC would hire an "outside organization" to assess the SPLC's workplace climate. Former employees alleged that Dees was "complicit" in harassment and racial discrimination, said that at least one female employee had accused him of sexual harassment. Dees was born in 1936 in Shorter, the son of Annie Ruth and Morris Seligman Dees, Sr. tenant cotton farmers. His family was Baptist, his grandfather named his son "Morris Seligman" after a Jewish friend.

After graduating magna cum laude from the University of Alabama School of Law in 1960, Dees returned to Montgomery, where he opened a law office. Dees ran Fuller & Dees Marketing Group with Millard Fuller, he bought Fuller out in 1964 for $1 million. After what Dees described in his autobiography as "a night of soul searching at a snowed-in Cincinnati airport" in 1967, he sold the company in 1969 to Times Mirror, the parent company of the Los Angeles Times. While major civil rights legislation had been passed, Dees knew there were many injustices and organizations that continued to oppose minority rights, he used the revenue from the sale to found a legal firm in 1971. Dees's former marketing firm partner Millard Fuller founded Habitat for Humanity International in 1976 and served there in executive roles until 2005. Dees was financial director of George McGovern's presidential campaign in 1972, he was national finance director in 1976 for Jimmy Carter's presidential campaign, finance chairman in 1980 for Edward Kennedy's presidential campaign.

In his 1991 autobiography Dees wrote that in 1962, as a young lawyer, he had represented Ku Klux Klan member Claude Henley, who faced Federal charges for attacking Freedom Riders in an incident documented by a Life magazine photographer. When Dees learned that another lawyer had asked for $15,000 to represent Henley, Dees offered to do the job for $5,000, the median household salary in America at the time. Dees's defense helped Henley gain an acquittal, but Dees said he had an "epiphany" and regretted defending Henley. In 1969, Dees sued the Young Men's Christian Association in Montgomery, Alabama, at the request of African-American civil rights activist Mary Louise Smith, she said that her son Vincent and nephew Edward had been refused admission to attend a YMCA summer camp. The YMCA was a private organization and therefore not bound by the provisions of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, which prohibited racial discrimination in public facilities, but Dees discovered that, in order to avoid desegregating its recreational facilities, the city of Montgomery had signed a secret agreement with the YMCA to operate them as private facilities and on the city's behalf.

He introduced evidence of this agreement in court and challenged the constitutionality of the YMCA position. The trial court ruled that the YMCA had a "municipal charter" by this agreement with the city, was therefore bound by the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution to desegregate its facilities. According to historian Timothy Minchin, Dees was "emboldened by this victory" when he founded the SPLC in 1971; the United States Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit affirmed the trial judge's finding, reversing his order that the YMCA use affirmative action to racially integrate its board of directors. Dees was one of the principal architects of a strategy that used civil lawsuits to secure a court judgment for monetary damages against an organization for a wrongful act; the courts could seize organization assets in order to gain payment of the judgment. Dees said that the aim was to gain large judgements which would "clean their clock". In 1981, SPLC represented by Dees sued the United Klans of America and won a $7 million judgment for the mother of Michael Donald, an African American, lynched by UKA members in Alabama.

Payment of the judgment bankrupted the United Klans of America and resulted in its national headquarters being sold for $51,875. A decade in 1991, Dees obtained a judgment of $12 million against Tom and John Metzger and the White Aryan Resistance, he was instrumental in securing a $6.5 million judgment in 2001 against the Aryan Nations. Dees's most famous cases have involved landmark damage awards that have driven several prominent neo-Nazi groups into bankruptcy causing them to disband, they have sometimes re-organized under different leaders. Dees's critics have included the Montgomery Advertiser, which has portrayed his work with the SPLC as self-promotional, contending that Dees exaggerates the threat of hate groups. In 1994, a Montgomery Advertiser series alleged that Dees discriminated against the SPLC's black employees, some of whom "felt threatened and banded together."A 2000 article by Ken Silverstein in Harper's Magazine alleged that Dees kept the SPLC focused on fighting anti-minority groups such as the KKK, instead of focusing on issues like homelessness because of the greater fundraising potential of the former.

The article claimed that the SPLC "spends t

Ignacio Warnes

José Ignacio Warnes y García de Zúñiga was an Argentine soldier who fought in the Argentine War of Independence. Son of the mayor of the city of Buenos Aires Manuel Antonio Warnes y Durango and Ana Jacoba García de Zúñiga y Lizola, his sister Manuela married president of Chile. He enlisted in the Blandengues army regiment when young. Between 1806 and 1807 he fought against the British invasions. In 1810 he supported the May Revolution, he was part of Manuel Belgrano's expedition. He was taken prisoner during the Paraguay campaign at Tacuarí, was released rejoining the forces that would fight in the Army of the North campaigns under general Belgrano. Warnes distinguished himself at the battles of Tucumán and Salta, when the army attempted the liberation of Upper Peru, he fought with distinction in the defeats of Vilcapugio and Ayohuma. After these battles, Belgrano ordered him to command a troop to advance through the Gran Chaco to liberate Santa Cruz de la Sierra. Warnes assumed the government of the city.

Theoretically he was bound to the authority of the province of Cochabamba, part of the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata, but in practice he worked with absolute independence. He organized a local army training the men and organizing local arms manufacture. While the rest of the army was retreating to Salta, Warnes maintained control of his province as military governor, he proved to be a brilliant military organizer. He created battalions of Pardos y Morenos and Cazadores. A little by his convictions and in order to recruit and fill the first of these battalions, he decreed the immediate release of slaves in the province, he did not send help disregarding the insistent pleas from governor Arenales. Though they disagreed, Arenales proved generous and marched his troops to help when Warnes was defeated by the royalist colonel Blanco at Angostura. Together they defeated the royalists at the battle of La Florida on 25 May 1814. During that battle, Arenales was wounded when attacked by a small enemy party and left for dead, but he survived.

Following that skirmish, when the battle was over, Warnes fought a sabre duel and killed the commander, colonel Blanco. Reintegrated to the Army of the North, he contacted general Rondeau, offering him horses and cavalry troops, plus services of coordination and messengers. Rondeau, declined the offer and instead sent ex-governor of Córdoba Santiago Carrera to replace Warnes in the government of Santa Cruz; when Carrera arrived, Warnes' supporters killed Carrera and several of his party. A few days when Rondeau was defeated at the Battle of Sipe Sipe, Warnes was again in charge of Santa Cruz "until when this army would return replenished...", as Rondeau told him. But the Army of the North never returned and Warnes was pressured by the royalist army more. In September 1816, colonel Francisco Javier Aguilera, a Santa Cruz native defeated the rebel army at Santa Cruz. Warnes went to help with his 1,000 men and fought Aguilera at El Parí; the royalist cavalry was defeated and Aguilera lost half his men but Warnes was hit by a bullet and killed.

Seeing their leader killed, led to a patriot defeat. The few survivors were executed. Aguilera entered the city with Warnes' head on a pike. Ignacio Warnes became a hero of Santa Cruz and today there is a city and a province in Bolivia that carry his name. Bidondo, Emilio, La guerra de la independencia en el Alto Perú, Ed. Círculo Militar, Bs. As. 1979 Mitre, Bartolomé, Historia de Belgrano y de la independencia argentina. Ed. Estrada, Bs. As. 1947 O’Donell, Pacho, El grito sagrado, Ed. Sudamericana, Bs. As. 1997 Pezuela, Joaquín, Memoria de gobierno, Escuela de Estudios Hispano-Americanos, Sevilla, 1947

Toul-Rosières Solar Park

The Toul-Rosières Solar Park is a 115 megawatt solar farm located at the Toul-Rosières Air Base, in France. It is the largest solar power station using photovoltaic technology in France; the project is developed by EDF Énergies Nouvelles. The solar park has about 1.4 million thin-film PV panels based on CdTe technology made by the US company First Solar. It covers area of 367 hectares. In 2012, the Luxembourg-based Marguerite Fund acquired 36 MW stake in the solar park. 24 MW stake was sold to the independent power producer Sonnedix. Photovoltaic power stations List of photovoltaic power stations Solar power in France

David Carnegie (explorer)

The Hon. David Wynford Carnegie was an explorer and gold prospector in Western Australia. In 1896 he led an expedition from Coolgardie through the Gibson and Great Sandy Deserts to Halls Creek, back again. David Carnegie was born in London on 23 March 1871, the youngest child of James Carnegie, 9th Earl of Southesk, he was educated at Charterhouse in Godalming, Surrey but dropped out without graduating, was thereafter educated by a private tutor. He entered the Royal Indian Engineering College, but again dropped out without completing the course. In 1892, he travelled to Ceylon to work on a tea plantation. Finding it boring, he quit after a few weeks, set sail for Australia with his friend Lord Percy Douglas. On arriving in Albany, Western Australia in September 1892, Carnegie and Douglas learned of Arthur Bayley's discovery of gold at Coolgardie, decided to leave the ship and join the gold rush. Together, they prospected around Coolgardie with little success. Douglas left the field to raise finances in order for them to continue prospecting.

Carnegie continued prospecting, joining the rush to Kalgoorlie after Paddy Hannan's discovery of gold there. He had little success, by the middle of 1893 he was destitute. Unable to make a living as a prospector, he took a job at the Bayley's Reward mine in Coolgardie. Late in 1893, Douglas was appointed a director of a new mining exploration company, thus securing finances for Carnegie's prospecting. In March 1894, Carnegie commenced his first prospecting expedition, in the company of a prospector and camel handler named Gus Luck; the pair explored the Hampton Plains east of Kalgoorlie, but finding it dry, they travelled instead to Queen Victoria Spring, about 250 km east of Kalgoorlie. From there they travelled north through unknown country to Mount Shenton, about 100 km north east of the present-day town of Laverton. After prospecting around Mount Margaret and Mount Ida, they returned to Coolgardie, having been away for ninety days and having travelled about 1,350 km, they had found little evidence of gold, nothing worth claiming a lease on.

In November 1894, Carnegie set out on his second prospecting expedition, this time in the company of two prospectors: an American named Jim Conley and an Irish-Victorian named Paddy Egan. The party travelled north, but hearing rumours of promising country near Lake Roe, they turned to the south east. After meeting no success around Lake Roe, they returned to the north, again exploring around Mount Margaret and Mount Ida. Early in February, after failing to locate a pool at Erlistoun, the party sought water in a granite outcrop near Lake Darlot, about 60 km east of the present-day town of Leinster. There, they had the good fortune to stumble upon the scene of a rich new find, before news of the find had reached Coolgardie. Having beaten the rush, Carnegie was able to lay claim to a high quality reef. After working the reef for a period, the company sold the mine, Carnegie received a substantial sum. Carnegie formed a syndicate with some friends, into which he deposited his camels returned to England to visit his family.

Finding that his family were disappointed and embarrassed by his lack of an education and career, he returned to Australia determined to prove that I am not the useless devil they have prophesied I would become1. While he was away, his syndicate had pegged another mine, shortly after his return it was sold. Carnegie invested his profits from the two mines in preparations for his major expedition. Much of the area through which he intended to travel was unexplored and unmapped, Carnegie hoped to find good pastoral or gold-bearing land, to make a name for himself as an explorer. Carnegie's party consisted of nine camels, his travelling companions were the prospectors Charles Stansmore and Godfrey Massie, bushman Joe Breaden, Breaden's Aboriginal companion Warri. The party left Coolgardie on 9 July 1896, they travelled north to Menzies north east. On 23 July they entered unexplored country, were affected by the extreme scarcity of water. By 9 August they were short of water; the supply they were led to was an underground spring in a hidden cave, which Carnegie named Empress Spring after Queen Victoria.

The party realised. This became the pattern for the remainder of the expedition: whenever short of water, the party tracked down and captured natives, tried to force them to lead the expedition to water. Leaving the spring, the expedition continued north. Throughout August and October, the party passed through the desert country of the Gibson and Great Sandy Deserts. At first, the terrain was flat, consisted entirely of spinifex and sand; the flatness of the land was broken up by regular sandridges, running in an east-west direction. Since the party was travelling in a northerly direction, they had to cross these sandridges at right angles, this made travel more difficult. Carnegie wrote of the land What heartbreaking country, lifeless, without interest, without excitement save when the stern necessity of finding water forced us to seek out the natives in their primitive camps.2Carnegie managed to bring the party entirely through the desert without loss. However, on 2 November, with their journey nearing completion, a number of Carnegie's