Tubers are enlarged structures in some plant species used as storage organs for nutrients. They are used for the plant's perennation, to provide energy and nutrients for regrowth during the next growing season, as a means of asexual reproduction. Stem tubers form thickened stolons. Common plant species with stem tubers include yam; some sources treat modified lateral roots under the definition. The term originates from Latin tuber, meaning "lump, swelling"; some sources define the term "tuber" to mean only structures derived from stems. A stem tuber forms from thickened stolons; the top sides of the tuber produce shoots that grow into typical stems and leaves and the under sides produce roots. They tend to form at the sides of the parent plant and are most located near the soil surface; the underground stem tuber is a short-lived storage and regenerative organ developing from a shoot that branches off a mature plant. The offspring or new tubers are attached to a parent tuber or form at the end of a hypogeogenous rhizome.
In the autumn the plant dies, except for the new offspring stem tubers which have one dominant bud, which in spring regrows a new shoot producing stems and leaves, in summer the tubers decay and new tubers begin to grow. Some plants form smaller tubers and/or tubercules which act like seeds, producing small plants that resemble seedlings; some stem tubers are long-lived, such as those of tuberous begonia, but many plants have tubers that survive only until the plants have leafed out, at which point the tuber is reduced to a shriveled-up husk. Stem tubers start off as enlargements of the hypocotyl section of a seedling but sometimes include the first node or two of the epicotyl and the upper section of the root; the stem tuber has a vertical orientation with one or a few vegetative buds on the top and fibrous roots produced on the bottom from a basal section the stem tuber has an oblong rounded shape. Tuberous begonia and Cyclamen are grown stem tubers. Mignonette vine produces aerial stem tubers on 12-to-25-foot-tall vines, the tubers fall to the ground and grow.
Plectranthus esculentus of the mint family Lamiaceae, produces tuberous under ground organs from the base of the stem, weighing up to 1.8 kg per tuber, forming from axillary buds producing short stolons that grow into tubers. Though legumes are not associated with forming stem tubers, Lathyrus tuberosus is an example native to Asia and Europe, where it was once grown as a crop. Potatoes are stem tubers. Enlarged stolons thicken to develop into storage organs; the tuber has all the parts including nodes and internodes. The nodes are the eyes and each has a leaf scar; the nodes or eyes are arranged around the tuber in a spiral fashion beginning on the end opposite the attachment point to the stolon. The terminal bud is produced at the farthest point away from the stolon attachment and tubers thus show the same apical dominance as a normal stem. Internally, a tuber is filled with starch stored in enlarged parenchyma like cells; the inside of a tuber has the typical cell structures of any stem, including a pith, vascular zones, a cortex.
The tuber is produced in one growing season and used to perennate the plant and as a means of propagation. When fall comes, the above-ground structure of the plant dies, but the tubers survive over winter underground until spring, when they regenerate new shoots that use the stored food in the tuber to grow; as the main shoot develops from the tuber, the base of the shoot close to the tuber produces adventitious roots and lateral buds on the shoot. The shoot produces stolons that are long etiolated stems; the stolon elongates during long days with the presence of high auxins levels that prevent root growth off of the stolon. Before new tuber formation begins, the stolon must be a certain age; the enzyme lipoxygenase makes a hormone, jasmonic acid, involved in the control of potato tuber development. The stolons are recognized when potato plants are grown from seeds; as the plants grow, stolons are produced around the soil surface from the nodes. The tubers form close to the soil surface and sometimes on top of the ground.
When potatoes are cultivated, the tubers are planted much deeper into the soil. Planting the pieces deeper creates more area for the plants to generate the tubers and their size increases; the pieces sprout shoots. These shoots generate short stolons from the nodes while in the ground; when the shoots reach the soil surface, they produce roots and shoots that grow into the green plant. A tuberous root or storage root, is a modified lateral root, enlarged to function as a storage organ; the enlarged area of the root-tuber, or storage root, can be produced at the end or middle of a root or involve the entire root. It is thus similar in function and appearance to a stem tuber. Examples of plants with notable tuberous roots include the sweet potato and dahlia. Root tubers are perennating organs, thickened roots that store nutrients over periods when the plant cannot grow, thus permitting survival from one year to the next; the massive enlargement of secondary roots represented by sweet potato, have the internal and external cell and tissue structures of a normal root, they produce adventitious roots and stems which
The Infernal Depths of Hatred is Anata's first full length album released on Season of Mist Records on CD in 1998 reissued on vinyl through KaosKvlt in 2016. "Released When You Are Dead" – 4:22 "Let the Heavens Hate" – 3:49 "Under Azure Skies" – 5:39 "Vast Lands / Infernal Gates" - 5:07 "Slain Upon His Altar" - 4:39 "Those Who Lick the Wounds of Christ" - 6:48 "Dethrone the Hypocrites" - 6:04 "Aim Not at the Kingdom High" - 5:46 "Day of Suffering" - 1:37 Fredrik Schälin - vocals, guitar Andreas Allenmark - guitar Henrik Drake - bass Robert Petersson - drums
Carl Koch was a noted American architect. He was most associated with the design of prefabricated homes and development of the Techcrete building system, he was born Albert Carl Koch in Wisconsin. He was educated at Harvard College and received his Master of Architecture degree from the Harvard University Graduate School of Design, he completed his studies in 1937. The time he spent at Harvard overlapped with arrival of Walter Gropius, founder of the Bauhaus in Germany. After completing his education, he moved to Sweden where he worked for Sven Markelius for six months. There he blended; these influences were evident in his work the Techbuilt homes. Koch believed that the American lifestyle would be best served by a housing system which could be assembled and reconfigured; this passion led him to pioneer prefabrication technologies. His Techbuilt series of homes was designed to be built with prefabricated panels for the walls and roof, his prime legacy is the Techbuilt system of home construction.
In the Techbuilt house, the post and beam system combined with a variety of modular exterior wall panels permits the client to customize the design. Snake Hill, Massachusetts group of eight houses Acorn House Staff housing for the US Embassy, Belgrade The Techcrete Academy Homes Eliot House, Mount Holyoke College Spruce Hill Road, Massachusetts Ocean Village, for the Urban Development Corporation, New York City Koch, Carl. At Home with Tomorrow. New York: Rinehart & Company. Koch, Carl, "Design and the Industrialized House", in Kelly, Burnham and Production of Houses, New York: McGraw-Hill, pp. 83–111 Koch, Carl. Roadblocks to Innovation in the Housing Industry. Washington: National Commission on Urban Problems. Carl Koch is known for his successful early designs for prefabricated housing, he created the Techbuilt System of home construction. Progressive Architecture magazine gave him the unofficial title "The Grandfather of Prefab" in 1994. In total, over 3,000 Techbuilt homes were sold. First Award American Institute of Architects