SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Tug of war

Tug of war is a sport that pits two teams against each other in a test of strength: teams pull on opposite ends of a rope, with the goal being to bring the rope a certain distance in one direction against the force of the opposing team's pull. The Oxford English Dictionary says that the phrase "tug of war" meant "the decisive contest. Only in the 19th century was it used as a term for an athletic contest between two teams who haul at the opposite ends of a rope; the origins of tug of war are uncertain, but this sport was practised in Cambodia, ancient Egypt, Greece and China. According to a Tang dynasty book, The Notes of Feng, tug of war, under the name "hook pulling", was used by the military commander of the State of Chu during the Spring and Autumn period to train warriors. During the Tang dynasty, Emperor Xuanzong of Tang promoted large-scale tug of war games, using ropes of up to 167 metres with shorter ropes attached, more than 500 people on each end of the rope; each side had its own team of drummers to encourage the participants.

In ancient Greece the sport was called helkustinda and dielkustinda, which derives from dielkō, meaning amongst others "I pull through", all deriving from the verb helkō, "I draw, I pull". Helkustinda and efelkustinda seem to have been ordinary versions of tug of war, while dielkustinda had no rope, according to Julius Pollux, it is possible that the teams held hands when pulling, which would have increased difficulty, since handgrips are more difficult to sustain than a grip of a rope. Tug of war games in ancient Greece were among the most popular games used for strength and would help build strength needed for battle in full armor. Archeological evidence shows that tug of war was popular in India in the 12th century: There is no specific time and place in history to define the origin of the game of Tug of War; the contest of pulling on the rope originates from ancient rituals. Evidence is found in countries like Egypt, Myanmar, New Guinea... The origin of the game in India has strong archaeological roots going back at least to the 12th century AD in the area what is today the State of Orissa on the east coast.

The famous Sun Temple of Konark has a stone relief on the west wing of the structure showing the game of Tug of War in progress. Tug of war stories about heroic champions from Scandinavia and Germany circulate Western Europe where Viking warriors pull on animal skins over open pits of fire in tests of strength and endurance, in preparation for battle and plunder.1500 and 1600 – tug of war is popularised during tournaments in French châteaux gardens and in Great Britain 1800 – tug of war begins a new tradition among seafaring men who were required to tug on lines to adjust sails while ships were under way and in battle. The Mohave people used tug-of-war matches as means of settling disputes. There are tug of war clubs in many countries, both men and women participate; the sport has not been included since. The sport is part of the World Games; the Tug of War International Federation, organises World Championships for nation teams biannually, for both indoor and outdoor contests, a similar competition for club teams.

In England the sport was formally governed by the AAA until 1984, but is now catered for by the Tug of War Association, the Tug of War Federation of Great Britain. In Scotland, the Scottish Tug of War Association was formed in 1980; the sport features in Highland Games there. Between 1976 and 1988 Tug of War was a regular event during the television series Battle of the Network Stars. Teams of celebrities representing each major network competed in different sporting events culminating into the final event, the Tug of War. Lou Ferrigno's epic tug-o'-war performance in May 1979 is considered the greatest feat in'Battle' history; the sport is played in every country in the world. However, a small selection of countries have set up a national body to govern the sport. Most of these national bodies are associated with the International governing body call TWIF which stands for The Tug of War International Federation; as of 2008 there are 53 countries associated with TWIF, among which are Scotland, England, Switzerland, Italy, South Africa and the United States.

In Myanmar, the tug of war, called lun hswe has both historical origins. It features as an important ritual in phongyibyan, the ceremonial cremation of high-ranking Buddhist monks, whereby the funerary pyres are tugged between opposite sides; the tug of war is used as a traditional rainmaking custom, called mo khaw, to encourage rain. The tradition originated during the rain of King Shinmahti in the Bagan era; the Rakhine people hold tug of war ceremonies called yatha hswe pwe during the Burmese month of Tabodwe. In Indonesia, Tarik Tambang is a popular sport held in many events, such as the Indonesian Independence Day celebration, school events, scout events; the rope used is called made from fibers of lar between two jousters. Two cinder blocks are placed a distance apart and the two jousters stand upon the blocks with a rope stretched between them; the objective for each jouster is to either a) cause their opponent to fall off their block, or b) to take their opponent's end of the rope from them.

In Japan, the tug of war is a staple of schoo

Shahjahan Yousuf

Sardar Shahjahan Yousuf Urdu: سردار شاه ‌جہاں یوسف‎) is a Pakistani politician, a Member of the National Assembly of Pakistan from 2002 to 2013. He was elected to the National Assembly of Pakistan from NA-20 as candidate of Pakistan Muslim League in 2002 Pakistani general election, he was re-elected to the National Assembly of Pakistan from NA-20 as candidate of Pakistan Muslim League in 2008 Pakistani general election. In 2011, he was inducted into the federal cabinet of Prime Minister Yousaf Raza Gillani as minister of state for Production. In 2012, he was inducted into the federal cabinet of Prime Minister Raja Pervaiz Ashraf as minister of state

Classified information

Classified information is material that a government body deems to be sensitive information that must be protected. Access is restricted by law or regulation to particular groups of people with the necessary security clearance and need to know, mishandling of the material can incur criminal penalties. A formal security clearance is required to view or handle classified documents or to access classified data; the clearance process requires a satisfactory background investigation. Documents and other information must be properly marked "by the author" with one of several levels of sensitivity—e.g. Restricted, confidential and top secret; the choice of level is based on an impact assessment. This includes security clearances for personnel handling the information. Although "classified information" refers to the formal categorization and marking of material by level of sensitivity, it has developed a sense synonymous with "censored" in US English. A distinction is made between formal security classification and privacy markings such as "commercial in confidence".

Classifications can be used with additional keywords that give more detailed instructions on how data should be used or protected. Some corporations and non-government organizations assign levels of protection to their private information, either from a desire to protect trade secrets, or because of laws and regulations governing various matters such as personal privacy, sealed legal proceedings and the timing of financial information releases. With the passage of time much classified information can become a bit less sensitive, or becomes much less sensitive, may be declassified and made public. Since the late twentieth century there has been freedom of information legislation in some countries, whereby the public is deemed to have the right to all information, not considered to be damaging if released. Sometimes documents are released with information still considered confidential obscured, as in the adjacent example; the question exists among some political science and legal experts, whether the definition of classified ought to be information that would cause injury to the cause of justice, human rights, rather than information that would cause injury to the national interest, to distinguish when classifying information is in the collective best interest of a just society or the best interest of a society acting unjustly, to protect its people, government, or administrative officials from legitimate recourses consistent with a fair and just social contract.

The purpose of classification is to protect information. Higher classifications protect information. Classification formalises what constitutes a "state secret" and accords different levels of protection based on the expected damage the information might cause in the wrong hands. However, classified information is "leaked" to reporters by officials for political purposes. Several U. S. presidents have leaked sensitive information to get their point across to the public. Although the classification systems vary from country to country, most have levels corresponding to the following British definitions. Top Secret is the highest level of classified information. Information is further compartmented so that specific access using a code word after top secret is a legal way to hide collective and important information; such material would cause "exceptionally grave damage" to national security if made publicly available. Prior to 1942, the United Kingdom and other members of the British Empire used Most Secret, but this was changed to match the United States' category name of Top Secret in order to simplify Allied interoperability.

The Washington Post reported in an investigation entitled Top Secret America that, as of 2010, "An estimated 854,000 people... hold top-secret security clearances" in the United States. Secret material would cause "serious damage" to national security. In the United States, operational "Secret" information can be marked with an additional "LIMDIS", to limit distribution. Confidential material would cause "damage" or be prejudicial to national security if publicly available. Restricted material would cause "undesirable effects"; some countries do not have such a classification such as commercial industries. Such a level is known as "Private Information". Official material forms the generality of government business, public service delivery and commercial activity; this includes a diverse range of information, of varying sensitivities, with differing consequences resulting from compromise or loss. OFFICIAL information must be secured against a threat model, broadly similar to that faced by a large private company.

The OFFICIAL SENSITIVE classification replaced the Restricted classification in April 2014 in the UK. Unclassified is technically not a classification level, but this is a feature of some classification schemes, used for government documents that do not merit a particular classification or which have been declassified; this is because the information is low-impact, therefore does not require any special protection, such as vetting of personnel. A plethora of pseudo-classifications exist under this category. Clearance is a general classification, that comprises a variety of rules controlling the level of permission required to view some classified information, how it must be stored