Uttar Pradesh is a state in northern India. With over 200 million inhabitants, it is the most populous state in India as well as the most populous country subdivision in the world, it was created on 1 April 1937 as the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh during British rule, was renamed Uttar Pradesh in 1950. The state is divided into 75 districts with the capital being Lucknow; the main ethnic group is the Hindavi people. On 9 November 2000, a new state, was carved out from the state's Himalayan hill region; the two major rivers of the state, the Ganga and Yamuna, join at Allahabad and flow as the Ganga further east. Hindi is the most spoken language and is the official language of the state; the state is bordered by Rajasthan to the west, Himachal Pradesh and Delhi to the northwest and Nepal to the north, Bihar to the east, Madhya Pradesh to the south, touches the states of Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh to the southeast. It covers 243,290 square kilometres, equal to 7.33% of the total area of India, is the fourth-largest Indian state by area.
The economy of Uttar Pradesh is the fourth-largest state economy in India with ₹15.79 lakh crore in gross domestic product and a per capita GDP of ₹57,480. Agriculture and service industries are the largest parts of the state's economy; the service sector comprises travel and tourism, hotel industry, real estate and financial consultancies. President's rule has been imposed in Uttar Pradesh ten times since 1968, for different reasons and for a total of 1,700 days; the natives of the state are called Uttar Bhartiya, or more either Awadhi, Bhojpuri, Bundeli, Kannauji, or Rohilkhandi depending upon their region of origin. Hinduism is practised by more than three-fourths of the population, with Islam being the next largest religious group. Uttar Pradesh was home to powerful empires of medieval India; the state has several historical and religious tourist destinations, such as Agra, Vrindavan and Allahabad. Modern human hunter-gatherers have been in Uttar Pradesh since between around 85,000 and 72,000 years ago.
There have been prehistorical finds in Uttar Pradesh from the Middle and Upper Paleolithic dated to 21,000–31,000 years old and Mesolithic/Microlithic hunter-gatherer settlement, near Pratapgarh, from around 10550–9550 BC. Villages with domesticated cattle and goats and evidence of agriculture began as early as 6000 BC, developed between c. 4000 and 1500 BC beginning with the Indus Valley Civilisation and Harappa Culture to the Vedic period and extending into the Iron Age. The kingdom of Kosala, in the Mahajanapada era, was located within the regional boundaries of modern-day Uttar Pradesh. According to Hindu legend, the divine king Rama of the Ramayana epic reigned in Ayodhya, the capital of Kosala. Krishna, another divine king of Hindu legend, who plays a key role in the Mahabharata epic and is revered as the eighth reincarnation of the Hindu god Vishnu, is said to have been born in the city of Mathura, in Uttar Pradesh; the aftermath of the Mahabharata yuddh is believed to have taken place in the area between the Upper Doab and Delhi, during the reign of the Pandava king Yudhishthira.
The kingdom of the Kurus corresponds to the Black and Red Ware and Painted Gray Ware culture and the beginning of the Iron Age in northwest India, around 1000 BC. Control over Gangetic plains region was of vital importance to the power and stability of all of India's major empires, including the Maurya, Kushan and Gurjara-Pratihara empires. Following the Huns' invasions that broke the Gupta empire, the Ganges-Yamuna Doab saw the rise of Kannauj. During the reign of Harshavardhana, the Kannauj empire reached its zenith, it spanned from Punjab in the north and Gujarat in the west to Bengal in the east and Odisha in the south. It included parts of central India, north of the Narmada River and it encompassed the entire Indo-Gangetic plain. Many communities in various parts of India claim descent from the migrants of Kannauj. Soon after Harshavardhana's death, his empire disintegrated into many kingdoms, which were invaded and ruled by the Gurjara-Pratihara empire, which challenged Bengal's Pala Empire for control of the region.
Kannauj was several times invaded by the south Indian Rashtrakuta Dynasty, from the 8th century to the 10th century. After fall of Pala empire, the Chero dynasty ruled from 12th century to 18th century. Parts or all of Uttar Pradesh were ruled by the Delhi Sultanate for 320 years. Five dynasties ruled over the Delhi Sultanate sequentially: the Mamluk dynasty, the Khalji dynasty, the Tughlaq dynasty, the Sayyid dynasty, the Lodi dynasty. In the 16th century, Babur, a Timurid descendant of Timur and Genghis Khan from Fergana Valley, swept across the Khyber Pass and founded the Mughal Empire, covering India, along with modern-day Afghanistan and Bangladesh; the Mughals were descended from Persianised Central Asian Turks. In the Mughal era, Uttar Pradesh became the heartland of the empire. Mughal emperors Humayun ruled from Delhi. In 1540 an Afghan, Sher Shah Suri, took over the reins of Uttar Pradesh after defeating the Mughal king Humanyun. Sher Shah and his son Islam Shah ruled Uttar Pradesh from their capital at Gwalior.
After the death of Islam Shah Suri, his prime minister Hemu became the de facto ruler of Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, th
A fortification is a military construction or building designed for the defense of territories in warfare, is used to solidify rule in a region during peacetime. The term is derived from the Latin fortis and facere. From early history to modern times, walls have been necessary for cities to survive in an ever-changing world of invasion and conquest; some settlements in the Indus Valley Civilization were the first small cities to be fortified. In ancient Greece, large stone walls had been built in Mycenaean Greece, such as the ancient site of Mycenae. A Greek phrourion was a fortified collection of buildings used as a military garrison, is the equivalent of the Roman castellum or English fortress; these constructions served the purpose of a watch tower, to guard certain roads and lands that might threaten the kingdom. Though smaller than a real fortress, they acted as a border guard rather than a real strongpoint to watch and maintain the border; the art of setting out a military camp or constructing a fortification traditionally has been called "castrametation" since the time of the Roman legions.
Fortification is divided into two branches: permanent fortification and field fortification. There is an intermediate branch known as semi-permanent fortification. Castles are fortifications which are regarded as being distinct from the generic fort or fortress in that they are a residence of a monarch or noble and command a specific defensive territory. Roman forts and hill forts were the main antecedents of castles in Europe, which emerged in the 9th century in the Carolingian Empire; the Early Middle Ages saw the creation of some towns built around castles. Medieval-style fortifications were made obsolete by the arrival of cannons in the 14th century. Fortifications in the age of black powder evolved into much lower structures with greater use of ditches and earth ramparts that would absorb and disperse the energy of cannon fire. Walls exposed to direct cannon fire were vulnerable, so the walls were sunk into ditches fronted by earth slopes to improve protection; the arrival of explosive shells in the 19th century led to yet another stage in the evolution of fortification.
Star forts did not fare well against the effects of high explosive, the intricate arrangements of bastions, flanking batteries and the constructed lines of fire for the defending cannon could be disrupted by explosive shells. Steel-and-concrete fortifications were common during the early 20th centuries; however the advances in modern warfare since World War I have made large-scale fortifications obsolete in most situations. Demilitarized zones along borders are arguably another type of fortification, although a passive kind, providing a buffer between hostile militaries. Many US military installations are known as forts. Indeed, during the pioneering era of North America, many outposts on the frontiers non-military outposts, were referred to generically as forts. Larger military installations may be called fortresses; the word fortification can refer to the practice of improving an area's defence with defensive works. City walls are fortifications but are not called fortresses; the art of setting out a military camp or constructing a fortification traditionally has been called castrametation since the time of the Roman legions.
The art/science of laying siege to a fortification and of destroying it is called siegecraft or siege warfare and is formally known as poliorcetics. In some texts this latter term applies to the art of building a fortification. Fortification is divided into two branches: permanent fortification and field fortification. Permanent fortifications are erected at leisure, with all the resources that a state can supply of constructive and mechanical skill, are built of enduring materials. Field fortifications—for example breastworks—and known as fieldworks or earthworks, are extemporized by troops in the field assisted by such local labour and tools as may be procurable and with materials that do not require much preparation, such as earth and light timber, or sandbags. An example of field fortification was the construction of Fort Necessity by George Washington in 1754. There is an intermediate branch known as semi-permanent fortification; this is employed when in the course of a campaign it becomes desirable to protect some locality with the best imitation of permanent defences that can be made in a short time, ample resources and skilled civilian labour being available.
An example of this is the construction of Roman forts in England and in other Roman territories where camps were set up with the intention of staying for some time, but not permanently. Castles are fortifications which are regarded as being distinct from the generic fort or fortress in that it describes a residence of a monarch or noble and commands a specific defensive territory. An example of this is the massive medieval castle of Carcassonne. From early history to modern times, walls have been a necessity for many cities. In Bulgaria, near the town of Provadia a walled fortified settlement today called Solnitsata starting from 4700 BC had a diameter of about 300 feet, was home to 350 people living in two-storey houses, was encircled by a fortified wall; the huge walls around the settlement, which were built tall and with stone blocks which are 6 feet high and 4.5 feet thick, make it one of the earliest walled settlements in Europe but it is younger than the walled town of Sesklo in Greece from 6800 BC.
Uruk in ancient Su
Open-pit, open-cast or open cut mining is a surface mining technique of extracting rock or minerals from the earth by their removal from an open pit or borrow. This form of mining differs from extractive methods that require tunnelling into the earth, such as long wall mining. Open-pit mines are used when deposits of commercially useful ore or rocks are found near the surface, it is applied to ore or rocks found at the surface because the overburden is thin or the material of interest is structurally unsuitable for tunnelling. In contrast, minerals that have been found underground but are difficult to retrieve due to hard rock, can be reached using a form of underground mining. To create an open-pit mine, the miners must determine the information of the ore, underground; this is done through drilling of probe holes in the ground plotting each hole location on a map. The information gained through the holes with provide an idea of the vertical extent of the ore's body; this vertical information is used to pit tentative locations of the benches that will occur in the mine.
It is important to consider the grade and economic value of the ore in the potential pit. Open-pit mines that produce building materials and dimension stone are referred to as "quarries." Open-pit mines are enlarged until either the mineral resource is exhausted, or an increasing ratio of overburden to ore makes further mining uneconomic. When this occurs, the exhausted mines are sometimes converted to landfills for disposal of solid wastes. However, some form of water control is required to keep the mine pit from becoming a lake, if the mine is situated in a climate of considerable precipitation or if any layers of the pit forming the mine border productive aquifers. Open-pit mining is to be considered one of the most dangerous sectors in the industrial world, it causes significant effects to miners health, as well as damage to the ecological land. Open-pit mining causes changes to vegetation and bedrock, which contributes to changes in surface hydrology, groundwater levels, flow paths. Additionally, open-pit produces harmful pollutants depending on the type of mineral being mined, the type of mining process being used.
Open-cast mines are dug on benches. The interval of the benches depends on the deposit being mined, the mineral being mined, the size of the machinery, being used. Large mine benches are 12 to 15 metres thick. In contrast, many quarries do not use benches, as they are shallow. Mining can be conducted on more than one bench at a time, access to different benches is done with a system of ramps; the width of each bench is determined by the size of the equipment being used 20-40 metres wide. Downward ramps are created to allow mining on a new level to begin; this new level will become progressively wider to form the new pit bottom. Most walls of the pit are mined on an angle less than vertical. Waste rock is stripped when the pit becomes deeper, therefore this angle is a safety precaution to prevent and minimize damage and danger from rock falls. However, this depends on how weathered and eroded the rocks are, the type of rocks involved, it depends on the amount of structural weaknesses occur within the rocks, such as a faults, joints or foliations.
The walls are stepped. The inclined section of the wall is known as the batter, the flat part of the step is known as the bench or berm; the steps in the walls help prevent. In some instances additional ground support is required and rock bolts, cable bolts and shotcrete are used. De-watering bores may be used to relieve water pressure by drilling horizontally into the wall, enough to cause failures in the wall by itself. A haul road is situated at the side of the pit, forming a ramp up which trucks can drive, carrying ore and waste rock. Open-pit mines create a significant amount of waste. One million tons of ore and waste rock can move from the largest mines per day, a couple thousand tons moved from small mines per day. There is four main operations in a mine that contribute to this load: drilling, blasting and hauling. Waste rock is hauled to a waste dump. Waste dumps can be piled at the surface of the active pit, or in mined pits. Leftover waste from processing the ore is called tailings, is in the form of a slurry.
This is pumped to a tailings settling pond, where the water is reused or evaporated. Tailings dams can be toxic due to the presence of unextracted sulfide minerals, some forms of toxic minerals in the gangue, cyanide, used to treat gold ore via the cyanide leach process. If proper environmental protections are not in place, this toxicity can harm the surrounding environment. Open-pit mining involves the process of disrupting the ground, which leads to the creation of air pollutants; the main source of air pollutants comes from the transportation of minerals, but their are various other factors including drilling and the loading and unloading of overburden. These type of pollutants cause significant damage to public health and safety in addition to damaging the air quality; the inhalation of these pollutants can cause issues to the lungs and increase mortality. Furthermore, the pollutants affect fauna in the areas surrounding open-pit mines. Open-pit gold mining is one of the highest potential mining threats on the environment as it affects the air and water chemistry.
The exposed dust may be toxic or radioactive, making it a health concern for the workers and the surrounding communities. A form of open-
Badarpur is a historic town in South Delhi district in Delhi, at a distance of 17 km in south east. Situated close to its edge with Haryana state, Faridabad district, the area is known as "Badarpur Border". Situated on Mathura Road joining Delhi with Mathura, Agra, on NH 2 National Highway, a part of the historic Grand Trunk Road that once joined Bengal to Kabul, it is the starting point for the on the "Mehrauli- Badarpur Road" that passed through Tughlaqabad, Delhi, Saket towards Mehrauli. The Delhi Faridabad Skyway elevated highway opened at the starting of MB Road, it is serviced by Badarpur station of Delhi Metro on Violet Line. Badarpur is home to the Badarpur Thermal Power Station of National Thermal Power Corporation, opened in 1973 and an important power source to South Delhi and East Delhi district. Badarpur once housed one of many sarais, known as Sarai Badarpur, along the historics Grand Trunk Road built during the period of Jahangir in the 16th century. Prior to that, Ghiyas-ud-din Tughlaq built the Qutub-Badarpur Road as he established the fifth historic city of Delhi, Tughlaqabad, in the 13th century AD, which connected the city to the Grand Trunk Road.
The road is now known as the Mehrauli-Badarpur Road, an important if congested road connecting Badarpur in southwest Delhi to Mehrauli in south Delhi. The original village of Badarpur lies east of the Meethapur-Palla road which passes from Aali village down to Palla village to the south. Constituent areas include Molarband Extension, its surrounding areas include Pul Prahladpur, Lal Kuan, Tughluqabad Extension, Railway Colony, on the south west. Other areas nearby include Jasola and Tughlaqabad, along with smaller blocks to the east of Badarpur such as Anand Vihar, Saraswati Vihar, Ekta Vihar, Harsh Vihar, Shakti Vihar, Roop Nagar, among others. Upmarket developments include Lakewood City. Further east, Badarpur Khadar, a village situated in the river bed of Yamuna, has a population of around 1100 and 560 voters. Badarpur is not to be confused with Badalpur the home village of former Chief Minister Mayawati; the National Power Training Institute for North India Region under Ministry of Power, Government of India was established at Badarpur in 1974, within the Badarpur Thermal Power Station complex.
Kendriya Vidyalaya NTPC and Notre Dame School is situated with NTPC campus. It is part of the Kalkaji sub-district of South Delhi district, it is a constituency of the Legislative Assembly of Delhi, part of the South Delhi Lok Sabha, prior to it Badarpur was part of the Outer Delhi constituency. After the Delhi state assembly elections, Current MLA is Narayan Dutt Sharma from AAP. Bardarpur is situated on National Highway 2. Delhi Transport Corporation and Cluster buses ply to Badarpur Border from Old Delhi Railway Station, New Delhi Railway Station, ISBT and other places. DTC and Haryana Roadways buses going to Faridabad and Ballabgarh from Inter state Bus Terminal stop at BTPS Complex. DTC and Cluster Buses of Route No. 405A, 405, 415, 418A, 460, 473 & 479 ply to Badarpur, are crowded over-crowded in peak hours. Buses are available from Faridabad, right across the border; the Badarpur elevated station of Delhi Metro on the Violet line opened on 14 January 2011, along with two preceding elevated stations, Mohan Estate, Tughlakabad, which extended the line beyond Sarita Vihar.
An extension southwards till Escorts Mujesar in Faridabad was inaugurated by Prime Minister Narendra Modi on 6 September 2015. Metro trains ply alternately to Escorts Mujesar in Faridabad; the Delhi Faridabad Skyway, a 4.4 km elevated highway, started construction after 2008, was opened in late 2010. It passed over five important traffic junctions including NTPC, Mehrauli-Badarpur Road, Sarai Bypass and Sector 37 Faridabad. Situated at the road junction of Mehrauli-Badarpur Road, which has become congested over the years, as it lies off highway NH 2 which carries major traffic to important cities of North India. Within Badarpur, there are autos shared autos, cycle rickshaws available. Many people in Badarpur walk to the Metro station or bus stops on the main road. Badarpur at Google Maps Official Website of NPTI Northern Regional Centre, Badarpur Badarpur at wikimapia
Syed Muhammad Nizamuddin Auliya known as Hazrat Nizamuddin, Mahbub-e-Ilahi was a Sufi saint of the Chishti Order and unarguably one of the most famous Sufis on the Indian Subcontinent. His predecessors were Fariduddin Ganjshakar, Qutbuddin Bakhtiyar Kaki, Moinuddin Chishti. In that sequence, they constitute the initial spiritual chain or silsila of the Chishti order prevalent in the Indian subcontinent. Nizamuddin Auliya, like his predecessors, stressed love as a means of realising God. For him his love of God implied a love of humanity, his vision of the world was marked by a evolved sense of religious pluralism and kindness. It is claimed by the 14th century historiographer Ziauddin Barani that his influence on the Muslims of Delhi was such that a paradigm shift was effected in their outlook towards worldly matters. People began to be inclined towards remaining aloof from the world. Nizamuddin Auliya was born in Uttar Pradesh. At the age of five, after the death of his father, Syed Abdullah bin Ahmad AlHussaini Badayuni, he came to Delhi with his mother, Bibi Zulekha.
His biography finds mention in Ain-i-Akbari, a 16th-century document written by Mughal Emperor Akbar’s vizier, Abu'l-Fazl ibn Mubarak. At the age of twenty, Nizāmuddīn went to Ajodhan and became a disciple of the Sufi saint Fariduddin Ganjshakar known as Baba Farid. Nizāmuddīn did not take up residence in Ajodhan but continued with his theological studies in Delhi while starting the Sufi devotional practices and the prescribed litanies, he visited Ajodhan each year to spend the month of Ramzan in the presence of Baba Farid. It was on his third visit to Ajodhan. Shortly after that, when Nizāmuddīn returned to Delhi, he received news. Nizāmuddīn lived at various places in Delhi, before settling down in Ghiyaspur, a neighbourhood in Delhi undisturbed by the noise and hustle of city life, he built his Khanqah here, a place where people from all walks of life were fed, where he imparted spiritual education to others and he had his own quarters. Before long, the Khanqah became a place thronged with all kinds of people and poor alike.
Many of his disciples achieved spiritual height, including Shaikh Nasiruddin Chirag Delhavi, Amir Khusro, noted scholar/musician, the royal poet of the Delhi Sultanate. He died on the morning of 3 April 1325, his shrine, the Nizamuddin Dargah, is located in Delhi. and the present structure was built in 1562. The shrine is visited by people of all faiths, through the year, though it becomes a place for special congregation during the death anniversaries, or Urs, of Nizamuddin Auliya and Amīr Khusro, buried at the Nizāmuddīn Dargāh. Besides believing in the traditional Sufi ideas of embracing God within this life, by destroying the ego and cleansing the soul, that this is possible through considerable efforts involving Sufi practices, Nizamuddin expanded and practised the unique features introduced by past saints of the Chisti Sufi order in India; these included: Emphasis on renunciation and having complete trust in God. The unity of mankind and shunning distinctions based on social and religious status.
Helping the needy, feeding the hungry and being sympathetic to the oppressed. Strong disapproval of mixing with the Sultans, the princes and the nobles. Exhortation in making close contact with the poor and the downtrodden Adopting an uncompromising attitude towards all forms of political and social oppression. A bold stance in favour of Sema, which some considered unislamic; this was with the view that this was in consonance with the role of music in some modes of Hindu worship, could serve as a basis of contact with local people and would facilitate mutual adjustments between the two communities. In fact Qawwali, a form of devotional music, was created by one of his most cherished disciples: Amir Khusro. Nizamuddin did not much bother about the theoretical aspects of Sufism, believing rather that it were the practical aspects that counted, as it was anyway not possible to describe the diversified mystical experiences called spiritual states or stations which a practicing Sufi encountered, he discouraged the demonstration of Keramat and emphasised that it was obligatory for the Auliya to hide the ability of Keramat from the commoners.
He was quite generous in accepting disciples. Whoever came to him saying that he wanted to become a disciple was granted that favour; this resulted in him being always surrounded by people from all strata of society. He formalized as official policy the custom of Moinuddin Chishti of accepting and training students of all faiths without asking a conversion to Islam. Like many saints before him, Nizamuddin Aulia traced his lineage from the family of Muhammad; the eldest son of'Alī al-Naqī was Ḥasan al-'Askarī and the other son was Ja'far Bukhārī. After the death of'Ali al-Naqi, Hasan al-Askari became the accepted Imām of Shī'ah twelver. Ja'far Bukhārī migrated to Bukhara in Uzbekistan. After a few generations, one of his descendants called'Alī, known as Syed Ali Dāniyāl AlHussaini, the grandfather of Nizāmuddīn Auliyā', migrated to the city of Badāyūn in Uttar Pradesh, India, he was sixteen or seventeen years old when he first heard the name of Farīduddīn Ganjshakar, feelings of love and respect arose in hi
Jahanpanah was the fourth medieval city of Delhi established in 1326–1327 by Muhammad bin Tughlaq, of the Delhi Sultanate. To address the constant threat of the Mongols, Tughlaq built the fortified city of Jahanpanah subsuming the Adilabad fort, built in the 14th century and all the establishments lying between Qila Rai Pithora and Siri Fort. Neither the city nor the fort has survived. Many reasons have been offered for such a situation. One of, stated as the idiosyncratic rule of Mohammed bin Tughlaq when inexplicably he shifted the capital to Daulatabad in the Deccan and came back to Delhi soon after; the ruins of the city’s walls are now discerned in the road between Siri to Qutub Minar and in isolated patches behind the Indian Institute of Technology, in Begumpur, Khirki Masjid near Khirki village and many other nearby locations. The mystery of the city’s precincts has unfolded over the years with day excavations revealing a large number of monuments in the villages and colonies of South Delhi.
Due to compulsions of urban expansion of the Capital City of Delhi, Jahanpanah is now part of the upscale urban development of South Delhi. The village and the wealth of ruins scattered all around are now enclosed by South Delhi suburbs of Panchshil Park South, Malviya Nagar, the Aurobindo Ashram, Delhi branch and other smaller housing colony developments, it is hemmed in the North–South direction between the Outer Ring Road and the Qutb Complex and on the east–west direction by the Mehrauli road and the Chirag Delhi road, with Indian Institute of Technology located on the other side of the Mehrauli road as an important landmark. Jahanpanah’s etymology consists of two Persian words, جهان ‘Jahan’, "the world", پناه ‘panah’,"shelter", thus "Refuge of the World" Mohammed bin Tughlaq, son of Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq who built Tughlaqabad, constructed his new city of Jahanpanah between 1326 and 1327 by encircling the earlier cities of Siri and Lal Kot with 13 gates, but what remains of the city and Adilabad fort are large ruins, which leave much ambiguity and conjectures regarding its physical status as to why and when it was built by Tughlaq.
Some of the structures which have survived are the Bijay Mandal, Begumpur Mosque, Serai Shaji Mahal, Lal Gumbad, Baradari with other nearby structures and scattered swathes of rubble masonry walls. From Ibn Batuta’s chronicle of the period it is inferred that Lal Kot was the urban area, Siri was the military cantonment and the remaining area consisted of his palace and other structures like mosques, etc. Ibn Batuta has reasoned that Muhammad Shah wished to see a unified city comprising Old Delhi, Siri and Tughlaqabad with one contiguous fortification encompassing them but cost considerations forced him to abandon the plan halfway. In his chronicle, Batuta stated that the Hazar Sutan Palace, built outside the Siri fort limits but within the Jahanpanah city area, was the residence of the Tughlaq. Hazar Sutan Palace was located within the fortified area of the Jahnapanah in Bijaya Mandal; the grand palace with its audience hall of beautifully painted wooden canopy and columns is vividly described but it does no longer exists.
The Fort acted as a safe haven for the people living between Siri. Tughalqabad continued to act as Tughlaq’s centre of government until, for strange and inexplicable reasons, he shifted his capital to Daulatabad, however he returned after a short period. Adilabad, a fort of modest size, built on the hills to the south of Tughlaqabad was provided with protective massive ramparts on its boundary around the city of Jahanpanah; the fort was much smaller than Tughlaqabad fort, but of similar design. Archaeological Survey of India in its evaluation of the status of the fort for conservation has recorded that two gates, one with barbicans between two bastions on the south-east and another on the south-west. Inside, it, separated by a bailey, is a citadel consisting of walls and gates within which lay the palaces; the fort was known as ‘Muhammadabad’, but inferred as a day development. The two gates on the southeast and southwest of Adilabad fort had chambers at the lower level while the east and west gates had grain bins and courtyards at the upper floors.
The fortifications built, linking with the other two city walls, was 12 m in thickness and extended to a length of 8 km. Another smaller fortress, called the Nai-ka-kot was built at a distance of about 700 m from Adilabad, with citadel and army camps, which are now seen only in ruins. Tughlaq’s primary attention to infrastructure of iron supply to the city, was well thought out. A structure with seven sluices was built on a stream; this structure called the Satpula is still existing near Khirki village on the boundary walls of Jahanpanah. Similar structures had been built at Tughlaqabad and Delhi in Hauz Khas Complex, thus covering the water supply needs of entire population of Jahanpanah. Khirki Mosque lies in Khirki village. Now, remnants of the city lie scattered in Begumpur village, as a mute reminder of its ancient glory; the Begumpur Mosque, a vestige of the old city, of overall layout plan of 90 m × 94 m
Tughlaqabad Fort is a ruined fort in Delhi, built by Ghiyas-ud-din Tughlaq, the founder of Tughlaq dynasty, of the Delhi Sultanate of India in 1321, as he established the third historic city of Delhi, abandoned in 1327. It lends its name to the nearby Tughlaqabad residential-commercial area as well as the Tughlaqabad Institutional Area. Tughlaq built Qutub-Badarpur Road, which connected the new city to the Grand Trunk Road; the road is now known as Mehrauli-Badarpur Road. The entry fee for the Fort is Rs. 15 for Indians. Nearby is the Asola Bhatti Wildlife Sanctuary, Dr. Karni Singh Shooting Range and Okhla Industrial Area. Ghazi Malik was a feudatory of the Khalji rulers of India. Once while on a walk with his Khalji master, Ghazi Malik suggested that the king build a fort on a hillock in the southern portion of Delhi; the king jokingly told Ghazi Malik for building the fort himself. In 1321, Ghazi Malik drove away the Khaljis and assumed the title of Ghias-ud-din Tughlaq, starting the Tughlaq dynasty.
He started the construction of his fabled city, which he dreamt of as an impregnable, yet beautiful fort to keep away the Mongol marauders. However, destiny would not be. Ghias-ud-din is perceived as a liberal ruler. However, he was so passionate about his dream fort that he issued a dictate that all labourers in Delhi must work on his fort. Saint Nizamuddin Auliya, a Sufi mystic, got incensed; the confrontation between the Sufi saint and the royal emperor has become a legend in India. The saint uttered a curse, to resonate throughout history right until today: Ya rahey ujjar, ya basey gujjar which can be translated to "either remain inhabited or would live gujjars". So, after the fall of sultanate, Gujjars of the area captured the Qila and till date village Tughlakabad is situated in it. Another of the saint's curses was Hunuz Dilli dur ast; the Emperor was engrossed in a campaign in Bengal at this time. He was on his way to Delhi. However, his son, Muhammad bin Tughlaq, met him at Kara in Uttar Pradesh.
At the prince's orders, a Shamiana fell on the Emperor, crushed to death. The'Mausoleum of Ghiyath al-Din Tughluq' is connected by a causeway to the southern outpost of the fortification; this elevated causeway 600 ft in length, supported by 27 arches, leads across a former artificial lake, however sometime in 20th century portion of causeway was pierced by the Mehrauli-Badarpur road. After passing an old Pipal tree, the complex of Ghiyath al-Din Tughluq's tomb is entered by a high gateway made up of red sandstone with a flight of steps; the actual mausoleum is made up of a single-domed square tomb with sloping walls crowned by parapets. In contrast to the walls of the fortification made up of granite, the sides of the mausoleum are faced by smooth red sandstone and inlaid with inscribed panels and arch borders from marble; the edifice is topped by an elegant dome resting on an octagonal drum, covered with white slabs of marble and slate. Inside the mausoleum are three graves: The central one belongs to Ghiyath al-Din Tughluq and the other two are believed to be those of his wife and his son and successor Muhammad bin Tughluq.
In the north-western bastion of the enclosure wall with its pillared corridors is another octagonal tomb in similar style with a smaller marble dome and inscribed marble and sandstone slabs over its arched doors. According to an inscription over its southern entrance this tomb houses the remains of Zafar Khan, his grave has been at the site prior to the construction of the outpost and was consciously integrated into the design of the mausoleum by Ghiyath al-Din himself. Tughluqabad still consists of remarkable, massive stone fortifications that surround the irregular ground plan of the city; the sloping rubble-filled city walls, a typical feature of monuments of the Tughluq dynasty, are between 10 and 15 meters high, topped by battlemented parapets and strengthened by circular bastions of up to two stories height. The city is supposed to once have had as many as 52 gates of; the fortified city contained seven rainwater tanks. Tughluqabad is divided into three parts: the wider city area with houses built along a rectangular grid between its gates the citadel with a tower at its highest point known as Bijai-Mandal and the remains of several halls and a long underground passage the adjacent palace area containing the royal residences.
A long underground passage below the tower still remains. Today most of the city is inaccessible due to dense thorny vegetation. An increasing part of the former city area is occupied by modern settlement in the vicinity of its lakes. South of Tughlaqabad was a vast artificial water reservoir within the fortified outpost of Ghiyath al-Din Tughluq's Tomb; this well preserved mausoleum remains connected to the fort by an elevated causeway that still stands today. Well visible in the southeast are the remains of the Fortress of Adilabad, built years by Ghiyathu'd-Din's successor, Muhammad Tughluq which shares the main characteristics of construction with Tughlaqabad fort. History of Delhi