The Tuileries Palace was a royal and imperial palace in Paris which stood on the right bank of the River Seine. It was the usual Parisian residence of most French monarchs, from Henry IV to Napoleon III, until it was burned by the Paris Commune in 1871. Built in 1564, it was extended until it closed off the western end of the Louvre courtyard and displayed an immense façade of 266 metres. Since the destruction of the Tuileries, the Louvre courtyard has remained open and the site is now the location of the eastern end of the Tuileries Garden, forming an elevated terrace between the Place du Carrousel and the gardens proper. After the accidental death of Henry II of France in 1559, his widow Catherine de' Medici planned a new palace, she sold the medieval Hôtel des Tournelles, where her husband had died, began building the palace of Tuileries in 1564, using architect Philibert de l'Orme. The name derives from the tile kilns or tuileries which had occupied the site; the palace was formed by a range of narrow buildings.
During the reign of Henry IV, the building was enlarged to the south, so it joined the long riverside gallery, the Grande Galerie, which ran all the way to the older Louvre Palace in the east. During the reign of Louis XIV, major changes were made to the Tuileries Palace. From 1659 to 1661 it was extended to the north by the addition of the Théâtre des Tuileries. From 1664 to 1666 the architect Louis Le Vau and his assistant François d'Orbay made other significant changes, they transformed Philibert de l'Orme's facades and central pavilion, replacing its grand central staircase with a colonnaded vestibule on the ground floor and the Salle des Cents Suisses on the floor above and adding a rectangular dome. A new grand staircase was installed in the entrance of the north wing of the palace, lavishly decorated royal apartments were constructed in the south wing; the king's rooms were on the ground floor, facing toward the Louvre, the queen's on the floor above, overlooking the garden. At the same time, Louis' gardener, André Le Nôtre, redesigned the Tuileries Garden.
The Court moved into the Tuileries Palace in November 1667, but left in 1672, soon thereafter went to the Palace of Versailles. The Tuileries Palace was abandoned and used only as a theatre, but its gardens became a fashionable resort of Parisians; the boy-king Louis XV was moved from Versailles to the Tuileries Palace on 1 January 1716, four months after ascending to the throne. He moved back to Versailles on 15 June three months before his coronation. Both moves were made at the behest of the Regent, the duc d'Orléans; the king resided at the Tuileries for short periods during the 1740s. On 6 October 1789, during the French Revolution, Louis XVI and his family were forced to leave Versailles and brought to the Tuileries where they were kept under surveillance. For the next two years the palace remained the official residence of the king. On 9 November 1789, the National Constituent Assembly the Estates-General of 1789, had moved its deliberations from the tennis court at Versailles to the Tuileries, following the removal of the court to Paris.
The Tuileries' covered riding ring, the Salle du Manège, home to the royal equestrian academy, provided the largest indoor space in the city. The royal family tried to escape after dark, on 20 June 1791, but were captured at Varennes and brought back to the Tuileries; the following year, on 10 August 1792, the palace was stormed by an armed mob, which overwhelmed and massacred the Swiss Guard as the royal family fled through the gardens and took refuge with the Legislative Assembly. The Paris National Guard defended the King, but the daughter of King Louis XVI claimed that many of the guard were in favor of the revolution. In November 1792, the Armoire de fer incident took place at the Tuileries Palace; this was the discovery of a hiding place at the royal apartments, believed to contain the secret correspondence of Louis XVI with various political figures. The incident created a considerable scandal; the Tuileries accommodated the Constituent Assembly, its successor, the National Convention and, in 1795, the Council of Five Hundred of the Directoire until the body moved to the Palais-Bourbon in 1798.
In 1799, the Jacobin Club du Manège had its headquarters there. The Committee of Public Safety met in the Pavillon de Flore. A courtier of a era could summon up nightmarish visions of the palace's Salle de Spectacle, or theater, where many Convention sessions were held during the Reign of Terror: At night a single lamp illumined this huge deserted hall, peopled with terrible memories; these I would muse over as I stopped at the spot once occupied by the chair of the president, where Boissy d'Anglas had saluted the bleeding head of Feraud, where Thuriot had listened impassively to the outburst of Robespierre at bay: "President of assassins, once more I ask your ear!" I saw in imagination the "Mountain," the "Plain," the crowded tribunes. When Napoleon Bonaparte came into power in 1799, he made the Tuileries the official residence of the First Consul and the imperial palace. In 1808, Napoleon began constructing the northern gallery which connected to the Louvre, enclosing a vast square; as Napoleon I's chief residence, the Tuilerie
Kevin Alfred Strom is an American white nationalist, neo-Nazi, Holocaust denier, white separatist and associate editor of National Vanguard. Strom resigned from National Vanguard in July 2006, but rejoined in 2012. In 2008, Strom pleaded guilty to possession of child pornography and was sentenced to 23 months in prison, of which he served four months. Kevin Alfred Strom was born in Anchorage, Alaska in 1956. After encouraging his hatred of communism, a high school teacher informed him about the John Birch Society where Strom reputedly first met members of the National Alliance led by the neo-nazi William Luther Pierce and abandoned the JBS because, he said, members of the society were forbidden to discuss race. Via Pierce, Strom learned of such notions as ZOG, White supremacy and the Civil rights movement was degenerate, he began to work for Pierce after graduating from high schoolIn 1982, Strom became a member of the NA, a group described as antisemitic and neo-Nazi. In 1991, he founded and delivered the American Dissident Voices radio broadcasts, broadcast by the NA.
In 1995, he founded and edited Free Speech magazine, published by the Alliance as an adjunct to the radio program. In early 2002, the Alliance's founder, William Luther Pierce, shortly before his death from cancer on July 23, named Strom editor of National Vanguard magazine and media director for the Alliance. Pierce named Strom editor of the Alliance's monthly Bulletin. During the weekend of April 16–17, 2005, Strom and several others were expelled from the National Alliance because of a dispute with the new Alliance leader Erich Gliebe; the expelled former Alliance members, led by Strom, formed their own organization which they called the National Vanguard. As he had done for the National Alliance, Strom again delivered weekly Internet radio broadcasts which he called American Dissident Voices for National Vanguard, but they were 1–3 weeks late; these broadcasts ceased with his departure. Strom was the managing editor of The Truth at Last newspaper during 2005. Several sources have described this tabloid as being antisemitic and racist referring to Africans as an inferior race.
Strom's boss at The Truth at Last, Edward Fields, is a former Grand Dragon of the New Order Knights of the Ku Klux Klan. Strom was a close associate of University of Illinois Classics professor and nationalist writer Revilo P. Oliver, described as "one of America's most notorious fascists" and, according to B'nai Brith Canada, was "a long time proponent of antisemitism". Strom was chosen by the Oliver estate to be the archivist and publisher of Oliver's papers after Oliver committed suicide in 1994. In 2002, Strom published The Jewish Strategy. Strom is a former broadcast engineer and holds amateur radio license WB4AIO. Between 1983 and 1991, a pirate radio station named Voice of Tomorrow operated on shortwave and mediumwave frequencies, broadcast racist and neo-Nazi material. According to Strom's ex-wife, Kirsten Kaiser, Voice of Tomorrow was operated by Strom. On January 4, 2007, Strom was arrested in Greene County, Virginia on charges of possession of child pornography and witness tampering.
The Grand Jury added the charges of receiving child pornography and of seeking to coerce a 10-year-old into a sexual relationship. At the October 2007 federal trial on charges of "attempting to coerce a 10-year-old girl into a sexual relationship by sending her anonymous gifts, driving past her house and writing lyrics to love songs declaring his desire to marry her", of witness intimidation, Judge Norman K. Moon threw out both charges due to lack of evidence of actual solicitation of sex, but added that Strom in his early 50s, had engaged in questionable conduct. At the plea hearing on January 14, 2008, Strom pleaded guilty to one count of possession of child pornography in exchange for the other charges to be dropped, was held at Albemarle-Charlottesville Regional Jail while awaiting sentencing, he was sentenced to 23 months in prison in April 2008. Strom told the court before being sentenced that he was "not a pedophile" and was "in fact the precise opposite of what has been characterized in this case," saying he had been "unwillingly" possessing 10 images of child pornography and that those came from an online forum he had visited, "flooded with spam," which included "sleazy, tragic" pictures of children that he deleted.
The judge of the case responded: "Mr. Strom, you pled guilty to charges that now you're saying you're innocent. I prefer people plead not guilty than put it on me.". Strom claimed he was a victim of domestic violence, confirmed by his alleged attacker. Strom was released from prison on September 3, 2008, at which point he resided in Earlysville, Virginia. Kevin Strom announced the opening of the new National Alliance on December 28, 2013 and is continuing broadcasts of American Dissident Voices in the original format, from a compound under construction in Tennessee with a group of original followers of William Pierce; the statement "To learn who rules over you find out who you are not allowed to criticize" is attributed to Strom, due its use in Strom's 1993 essay "All America Must Know the Terror That is Upon Us" in which he wrote: "To determine the true rulers of any society, all you must do is ask yourself this question: Who is it that I am not permitted to criticize?"The remark is misattributed to Voltaire, the French philosopher active during the Age of Enlightenment.
The phrase is "most attributed" to Strom, which in turn is itself used against those who use the phrase as a political attack in and of itself. Strom had three children with his fi
The Stockholm Environment Institute, or SEI, is a non-profit, independent research and policy institute specialising in sustainable development and environmental issues. SEI works on climate change, energy systems, water resources, air quality, land-use, food security, trade issues with the aim to shift policy and practice towards sustainability. SEI wants to support decision-making and induce change towards sustainable development around the world by providing knowledge that bridges science and policy in the field of environment and development. SEI was established in 1989 as an initiative of the Government of Sweden; the name of the Stockholm Environment Institute is derived from the 1972 UN Conference on the Human Environment in Stockholm. Ecological Sanitation Research Programme LEAP: Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning System Resources and Energy Analysis Programme Regional Air Pollution In Developing Countries Sustainable Mekong Research Network Programme weADAPT WEAP: Water Evaluation And Planning System TRASE Transparent supply chains for sustainable economies.
SEI was one of the organizations who founded the Sustainable Sanitation Alliance in 2007 together with the German Development Organization 1989–1990 Gordon T. Goodman 1991–1995 Michael J. Chadwick 1996–1999 Nicholas C. Sonntag 2000 Bert Bolin 2000 Lars J. Nilsson 2000–2004 Roger Kasperson 2004–2012 Johan Rockström 2012–2018 Johan L. Kuylenstierna 2018–present Måns Nilsson SEI operates in seven countries: Sweden, United States, United Kingdom, Thailand and Colombia; the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency is SEI's main donor. SEI receives funding from development agencies, governments, NGOs, universities and financial institutions. For example, the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation provides funds to SEI in the area of maternal health and in sustainable sanitation. At the SEI Science Forum in 2015, Melinda Gates took part to discuss sustainability and gender torgether with SEI staff to help shape SEI's future research. Stockholm Resilience Centre Official website