Lake Malawi known as Lake Nyasa in Tanzania and Lago Niassa in Mozambique, is an African Great Lake and the southernmost lake in the East African Rift system, located between Malawi and Tanzania. It is the fourth largest fresh water lake in the world by volume, the ninth largest lake in the world by area—and the third largest and second deepest lake in Africa. Lake Malawi is home to more species of fish than any other lake, including at least 700 species of cichlids; the Mozambique portion of the lake was declared a reserve by the Government of Mozambique on June 10, 2011, while in Malawi a portion of the lake is included in Lake Malawi National Park. Lake Malawi is a meromictic lake; the permanent stratification of Lake Malawi's water and the oxic-anoxic boundary are maintained by moderately small chemical and thermal gradients. Lake Malawi is between 560 kilometres and 580 kilometres long, about 75 kilometres wide at its widest point; the lake has a total surface area of about 29,600 square kilometres.
The lake is 706 m at its deepest point, located in a major depression in the north-central part. Another smaller depression in the far north reaches a depth of 528 m; the southern half of the lake is shallower. The lake has shorelines on western Mozambique, eastern Malawi, southern Tanzania; the largest river flowing into it is the Ruhuhu River, there is an outlet at its southern end, the Shire River, a tributary that flows into the large Zambezi River in Mozambique. Evaporation accounts for more than 80% of the water loss from the lake more than the outflowing Shire River; the lake is about 350 kilometres southeast of Lake Tanganyika, another of the great lakes of the East African Rift. The Lake Malawi National Park is located at the southern end of the lake. Malawi is one of an ancient lake; the lake lies in a valley formed by the opening of the East African Rift, where the African tectonic plate is being split into two pieces. This is called a divergent plate tectonics boundary. Malawi has been estimated to be 1—2 million years old, but more recent evidence points to a older lake with a basin that started to form about 8.6 mya and deep-water condition first appeared 4.5 mya.
The water levels have varied over time, ranging from 600 m below current level to 10–20 m above. During periods the lake dried out completely, leaving only one or two small alkaline and saline lakes in what are Malawi's deepest parts. A water chemistry resembling the current conditions only appeared about 60,000 years ago. Major low-water periods are estimated to have occurred about 1.6 to 1.0—0.57 million years ago, 420,000 to 250,000—110,000 years ago, about 25,000 years ago and 18,000–10,700 years ago. During the peak of the low-water period between 1390 and 1860 AD, it may have been 120–150 m below current water levels; the lake's water is alkaline and warm with a typical surface temperature between 24 and 29 °C, while deep sections are about 22 °C. The thermocline is located at a depth of 40–100 m; the oxygen limit is at a depth of 250 m restricting fish and other aerobic organisms to the upper part. The water is clear for a lake and the visibility can be up to 20 m, but less than half this figure is more common and it is below 3 m in muddy bays.
However during the rainy season months of January to March, the waters are more muddy due to muddy river inflows. The Portuguese trader Candido José da Costa Cardoso was the first European to visit the lake in 1846. David Livingstone reached the lake in 1859, named it Lake Nyasa, he referred to it by a pair of nicknames: Lake of Stars and Lake of Storms. The Lake of Stars nickname came after Livingstone observed lights from the lanterns of the fishermen in Malawi on their boats, that resemble, from a distance, stars in the sky. After experiencing the unpredictable and violent gales that sweep through the area he referred to it as the Lake of Storms. On 16 August 1914, Lake Malawi was the scene of a brief naval battle when the British gunboat SS Gwendolen, commanded by a Captain Rhoades, heard that World War I had broken out, he received orders from the British Empire's high command to "sink, burn, or destroy" the German Empire's only gunboat on the lake, the Hermann von Wissmann, commanded by a Captain Berndt.
Rhoades's crew found the Hermann von Wissmann in a bay near Sphinxhaven, in German East African territorial waters. Gwendolen disabled the German boat with a single cannon shot from a range of about 1,800 metres; this brief gunboat conflict was hailed by The Times in England as the British Empire's first naval victory of World War I. The partition of the lake's surface area between Malawi and Tanzania is under dispute. Tanzania claims. On the other hand, Malawi claims the whole of the surface of this lake, not in Mozambique, including the waters that are next to the shoreline of Tanzania. Both sides cite the Heligoland Treaty of 1890 between Great Britain and Germany concerning the border; the wrangle in this dispute occurred when the British colonial government, just after they had captured Tanganyika from Germany, placed all of the waters of the lake under a single jurisdiction, that of the territory of Nyasaland, without a sepa
The Kipengere Range known as the Livingstone Mountains, lies in southwest Tanzania at the northern end of Lake Malawi. The northern end of the range is known as the Poroto Mountains and near Lake Malawi they are known as the Kinga Mountains, it is a plateau-like ridge of mountains running southeastwards from the valley of the Great Ruaha River in the north to that of the Ruhuhu River in the south, forms part of the eastern escarpment of the East African Rift. The underlying rock is composed of horizontally bedded quartzites and conglomerates; the highest point is Mount Jamimbi. The uplands are clad in grass, with forests in the depressions, the lower slopes are covered with scrub. From the town of Mbeya the range runs south-east and forms part of the eastern escarpment of the East African Rift, extending about 100 km down the north-eastern shore of the lake to the Ruhuhu River. At the north-western end of the range they are known as the Poroto Mountains. Where they tower above the lake they are known as the Kinga Mountains.
In parts these highlands present rather the character of a plateau than of a true mountain range, but the latter name may be justified by the fact that they form a comparatively narrow belt of country, which falls to the east as well as to the west. The northern end is well marked in 8° 50′ S by an escarpment falling to the Ruaha River valley, regarded as a north-eastern branch of the main rift valley. Southwards the Livingstone range terminates in the deep valley of the Ruhuhu in 10° 30′ S, the first decided break in the highlands, reached from the north, on the east coast of Lake Malawi. Geologically the range is formed on the side of the lake by a zone of gneiss running in a series of ridges and valleys parallel to its axis; the ridge nearest the lake, rises to an absolute height of 7,870 ft, or 6,200 ft above falls sheer to the water, the same steep slope being continued beneath the surface. Towards the south the range appears to have a width of some 20 m only, but northwards it widens out to about 40 m, though broken here by the depression, drained towards the Ruaha, of Buanyi, on the south side of, the highest known summit of the range.
North and east of Buanyi, as in the eastern half of the range table-topped mountains occur, composed above of horizontally bedded quartzites and conglomerates. The uplands are clothed in rich grass, forest occurring principally in the hollows, while the slopes towards the lake are covered with poor scrub; the climate is here healthy, night frosts occur in the cold season. Temperate crops can be raised with success. At the foot of the mountains on Lake Malawi are the ports of Manda, near the mouth of the Ruhuhu, Matema, at the north-east corner of the lake. Nena people Kinga Kitulo National Park
Mbeya Region is one of Tanzania's 31 administrative regions. It is located in the country's southwest; the regional capital is the city of Mbeya. According to the 2012 national census, the region had a population of 2,707,410, lower than the pre-census projection of 2,822,396. For 2002-2012, the region's 2.7 percent average annual population growth rate was tied for the tenth highest in the country. It was tied for the eighteenth most densely populated region with 45 people per square kilometre. In 2016, the town of Tunduma and the districts of Ileje, Mbozi and Songwe were split from Mbeya Region to create Songwe Region. Mbeya Region is now bordered to the northwest by Tabora Region, to the northeast by Singida Region, to the east by Iringa Region, to the south by Songwe Region and Malawi, to the west by Songwe Region. Prior to the creation of Songwe Region, Mbeya Region covered an area of 62,420 square kilometres, it now covers an area of 35,954 square kilometres. The commissioner for Mbeya Region is Amos Gabriel Makalla.
In 2012, the region was administratively divided into eight districts: After the 2016 reorganization, Mbeya now comprises seven districts: Busokelo, Kyela, Mbeya City, Mbeya Rural, Rungwe. It was announced in February 2012 that the collapsed volcano 200 km north of Mbeya, Mount Ngualla, contained one of the largest rare earth oxide deposits in the world. Godfrey Mwakikagile Christopher Mwashinga Fadhy Mtanga Christopher Zacharia Lameck
Tea is an aromatic beverage prepared by pouring hot or boiling water over cured leaves of the Camellia sinensis, an evergreen shrub native to East Asia. After water, it is the most consumed drink in the world. There are many different types of tea. Tea originated in Southwest China during the Shang dynasty. An early credible record of tea drinking dates to the 3rd century AD, in a medical text written by Hua Tuo, it was popularized as a recreational drink during the Chinese Tang dynasty, tea drinking spread to other East Asian countries. Portuguese priests and merchants introduced it to Europe during the 16th century. During the 17th century, drinking tea became fashionable among Britons, who started large-scale production and commercialization of the plant in India. Combined and India supplied 62% of the world's tea in 2016; the term herbal tea refers to drinks not made from Camellia sinensis: infusions of fruit, leaves, or other parts of the plant, such as steeps of rosehip, chamomile, or rooibos.
These are sometimes called tisanes or herbal infusions to prevent confusion with tea made from the tea plant. The Chinese character for tea is 茶 written with an extra stroke as 荼, acquired its current form during the Tang Dynasty; the word is pronounced differently in the different varieties of Chinese, such as chá in Mandarin, zo and dzo in Wu Chinese, ta and te in Min Chinese. One suggestion is that the different pronunciations may have arisen from the different words for tea in ancient China, for example tú may have given rise to tê. There were other ancient words for tea, it has been proposed that the Chinese words for tea, tu, cha and ming, may have been borrowed from the Austro-Asiatic languages of people who inhabited southwest China. Most Chinese languages, such as Mandarin and Cantonese, pronounce it along the lines of cha, but Hokkien and Teochew Chinese varieties along the Southern coast of China pronounce it like teh; these two pronunciations have made their separate ways into other languages around the world.
Starting in the early 17th century, the Dutch played a dominant role in the early European tea trade via the Dutch East India Company. The Dutch borrowed the word for "tea" from Min Chinese, either through trade directly from Hokkien speakers in Formosa where they had established a port, or from Malay traders in Bantam, Java; the Dutch introduced to other European languages this Min pronunciation for tea, including English tea, French thé, Spanish té, German Tee. This pronunciation is the most common form worldwide; the Cha pronunciation came from the Cantonese chàh of Guangzhou and the ports of Hong Kong and Macau, which were major points of contact with the Portuguese traders who settled Macau in the 16th century. The Portuguese adopted the Cantonese pronunciation "chá", spread it to India. However, the Korean and Japanese pronunciations of cha were not from Cantonese, but were borrowed into Korean and Japanese during earlier periods of Chinese history. A third form, the widespread chai, came from Persian چای chay.
Both the châ and chây forms are found in Persian dictionaries. They are derived from the Northern Chinese pronunciation of chá, which passed overland to Central Asia and Persia, where it picked up the Persian grammatical suffix -yi before passing on to Russian as чай, Arabic as شاي, Urdu as چائے chay, Hindi as चाय chāy, Turkish as çay, etc; the few exceptions of words for tea that do not fall into the three broad groups of te, cha and chai are from the minor languages from the botanical homeland of the tea plant from which the Chinese words for tea might have been borrowed originally. English has all three forms: char, attested from the 16th century. However, the form chai refers to a black tea mixed with sugar or honey and milk in contemporary English. Tea plants are native to East Asia, originated in the borderlands of north Burma and southwestern China. Chinese tea Chinese Western Yunnan Assam tea Indian Assam tea Chinese Southern Yunnan Assam teaChinese type tea may have originated in southern China with hybridization of unknown wild tea relatives.
However, since there are no known wild populations of this tea, the precise location of its origin is speculative. Given their genetic differences forming distinct clades, Chinese Assam type tea may have two different parentages – one being found in southern Yunnan and the other in western Yunnan. Many types of Southern Yunnan assam tea have been hybridized with the related species Camellia taliensis. Unlike Southern Yunnan Assam tea, Western Yunnan Assam tea shares many genetic similarities with Indian Assam type tea. Thus, Western Yunnan Assam tea and Indian Assam tea both may have originated from the same parent plant in the area where southwestern China, Indo-Burma
Lutheranism is a major branch of western Christianity that identifies with the teaching of Martin Luther, a 16th century German reformer. Luther's efforts to reform the theology and practice of the church launched the Protestant Reformation; the reaction of the government and church authorities to the international spread of his writings, beginning with the 95 Theses, divided Western Christianity. The split between the Lutherans and the Catholics was made public and clear with the 1521 Edict of Worms: the edicts of the Diet condemned Luther and banned citizens of the Holy Roman Empire from defending or propagating his ideas, subjecting advocates of Lutheranism to forfeiture of all property, half of the seized property to be forfeit to the imperial government and the remaining half forfeit to the party who brought the accusation; the divide centered on two points: the proper source of authority in the church called the formal principle of the Reformation, the doctrine of justification called the material principle of Lutheran theology.
Lutheranism advocates a doctrine of justification "by grace alone through faith alone on the basis of Scripture alone", the doctrine that scripture is the final authority on all matters of faith. This is in contrast to the belief of the Roman Catholic Church, defined at the Council of Trent, concerning authority coming from both the Scriptures and Tradition. Unlike Calvinism, Lutherans retain many of the liturgical practices and sacramental teachings of the pre-Reformation Church, with a particular emphasis on the Eucharist, or Lord's Supper. Lutheran theology differs from Reformed theology in Christology, divine grace, the purpose of God's Law, the concept of perseverance of the saints, predestination; the name Lutheran originated as a derogatory term used against Luther by German Scholastic theologian Dr. Johann Maier von Eck during the Leipzig Debate in July 1519. Eck and other Roman Catholics followed the traditional practice of naming a heresy after its leader, thus labeling all who identified with the theology of Martin Luther as Lutherans.
Martin Luther always disliked the term Lutheran, preferring the term Evangelical, derived from εὐαγγέλιον euangelion, a Greek word meaning "good news", i.e. "Gospel". The followers of John Calvin, Huldrych Zwingli, other theologians linked to the Reformed tradition used that term. To distinguish the two evangelical groups, others began to refer to the two groups as Evangelical Lutheran and Evangelical Reformed; as time passed by, the word Evangelical was dropped. Lutherans themselves began to use the term Lutheran in the middle of the 16th century, in order to distinguish themselves from other groups such as the Anabaptists and Calvinists. In 1597, theologians in Wittenberg defined the title Lutheran as referring to the true church. Lutheranism has its roots in the work of Martin Luther, who sought to reform the Western Church to what he considered a more biblical foundation. Lutheranism spread through all of Scandinavia during the 16th century, as the monarch of Denmark–Norway and the monarch of Sweden adopted Lutheranism.
Through Baltic-German and Swedish rule, Lutheranism spread into Estonia and Latvia. Since 1520, regular Lutheran services have been held in Copenhagen. Under the reign of Frederick I, Denmark–Norway remained Catholic. Although Frederick pledged to persecute Lutherans, he soon adopted a policy of protecting Lutheran preachers and reformers, the most significant being Hans Tausen. During Frederick's reign, Lutheranism made significant inroads in Denmark. At an open meeting in Copenhagen attended by the king in 1536, the people shouted. Frederick's son Christian was Lutheran, which prevented his election to the throne upon his father's death. However, following his victory in the civil war that followed, in 1537 he became Christian III and advanced the Reformation in Denmark–Norway; the constitution upon which the Danish Norwegian Church, according to the Church Ordinance, should rest was "The pure word of God, the Law and the Gospel". It does not mention the Augsburg Confession; the priests had to understand the Holy Scripture well enough to preach and explain the Gospel and the Epistles for their congregations.
The youths were taught from Luther's Small Catechism, available in Danish since 1532. They were taught to expect at the end of life: "forgiving of their sins", "to be counted as just", "the eternal life". Instruction is still similar; the first complete Bible in Danish was based on Martin Luther's translation into German. It was published with 3,000 copies printed in the first edition. Unlike Catholicism, the Lutheran Church does not believe that tradition is a carrier of the "Word of God", or that only the communion of the Bishop of Rome has been entrusted to interpret the "Word of God"; the Reformation in Sweden began with Olaus and Laurentius Petri, brothers who took the Reformation to Sweden after studying in Germany. They led elected king in 1523, to Lutheranism; the pope's refusal to allow the replacement of an archbishop who had supported the invading forces opposing Gustav Vasa during the Stockholm Bloodbath led to the severing of any official connection between Sweden and the papacy in 1523.
Four years at the Diet of Västerås, the king succeeded in forcing the diet to accept his dominion over the national church. The king was given possession of all church properties, as well as the church appointments and approval of the clergy. While this granted official sanction to Lutheran ideas, Lutheranism did not become official until 1593. At that time the Uppsa
Germany the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central and Western Europe, lying between the Baltic and North Seas to the north, the Alps to the south. It borders Denmark to the north and the Czech Republic to the east and Switzerland to the south, France to the southwest, Luxembourg and the Netherlands to the west. Germany includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,386 square kilometres, has a temperate seasonal climate. With 83 million inhabitants, it is the second most populous state of Europe after Russia, the most populous state lying in Europe, as well as the most populous member state of the European Union. Germany is a decentralized country, its capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while Frankfurt serves as its financial capital and has the country's busiest airport. Germany's largest urban area is the Ruhr, with its main centres of Essen; the country's other major cities are Hamburg, Cologne, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf, Dresden, Bremen and Nuremberg. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity.
A region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period, the Germanic tribes expanded southward. Beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation. After the collapse of the Holy Roman Empire, the German Confederation was formed in 1815; the German revolutions of 1848–49 resulted in the Frankfurt Parliament establishing major democratic rights. In 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire. After World War I and the revolution of 1918–19, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic; the Nazi seizure of power in 1933 led to the establishment of a dictatorship, the annexation of Austria, World War II, the Holocaust. After the end of World War II in Europe and a period of Allied occupation, Austria was re-established as an independent country and two new German states were founded: West Germany, formed from the American and French occupation zones, East Germany, formed from the Soviet occupation zone.
Following the Revolutions of 1989 that ended communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe, the country was reunified on 3 October 1990. Today, the sovereign state of Germany is a federal parliamentary republic led by a chancellor, it is a great power with a strong economy. As a global leader in several industrial and technological sectors, it is both the world's third-largest exporter and importer of goods; as a developed country with a high standard of living, it upholds a social security and universal health care system, environmental protection, a tuition-free university education. The Federal Republic of Germany was a founding member of the European Economic Community in 1957 and the European Union in 1993, it is part of the Schengen Area and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999. Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G7, the G20, the OECD. Known for its rich cultural history, Germany has been continuously the home of influential and successful artists, musicians, film people, entrepreneurs, scientists and inventors.
Germany has a large number of World Heritage sites and is among the top tourism destinations in the world. The English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine; the German term Deutschland diutisciu land is derived from deutsch, descended from Old High German diutisc "popular" used to distinguish the language of the common people from Latin and its Romance descendants. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz "popular", derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- "people", from which the word Teutons originates; the discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago. The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a coal mine in Schöningen between 1994 and 1998 where eight 380,000-year-old wooden javelins of 1.82 to 2.25 m length were unearthed. The Neander Valley was the location where the first non-modern human fossil was discovered.
The Neanderthal 1 fossils are known to be 40,000 years old. Evidence of modern humans dated, has been found in caves in the Swabian Jura near Ulm; the finds included 42,000-year-old bird bone and mammoth ivory flutes which are the oldest musical instruments found, the 40,000-year-old Ice Age Lion Man, the oldest uncontested figurative art discovered, the 35,000-year-old Venus of Hohle Fels, the oldest uncontested human figurative art discovered. The Nebra sky disk is a bronze artefact created during the European Bronze Age attributed to a site near Nebra, Saxony-Anhalt, it is part of UNESCO's Memory of the World Programme. The Germanic tribes are thought to date from the Pre-Roman Iron Age. From southern Scandinavia and north Germany, they expanded south and west from the 1st century BC, coming into contact with the Celtic tribes of Gaul as well