Tulane University is a private, nonsectarian research university in New Orleans, United States. It is the top university and the most selective institution of higher education in the state of Louisiana; the school is known to attract a geographically diverse student body, with 85 percent of undergraduate students coming from over 300 miles away. The school was founded as a public medical college in 1834, became a comprehensive university in 1847; the institution was made private under the endowments of Paul Tulane and Josephine Louise Newcomb in 1884. Tulane is the 9th oldest private university in the Association of American Universities, which consists of major research universities in the United States and Canada; the Tulane University Law School and Tulane University Medical School are considered the 12th oldest and 15th oldest law and medical schools in the United States. Alumni include prominent entrepreneurs and inventors in technology, medical devices, retail, mass media and public policy.
S. State governors. S. Senators. S. Members of Congress. S. diplomats. At least two Nobel laureates have been affiliated with the university; the university was founded as the Medical College of Louisiana in 1834 as a response to the fears of smallpox, yellow fever, cholera in the United States. The university became only the second medical school in the South, the 15th in the United States at the time. In 1847, the state legislature established the school as the University of Louisiana, a public university, the law department was added to the university. Subsequently, in 1851, the university established its first academic department; the first president chosen for the new university was Francis Lister Hawks, an Episcopalian priest and prominent citizen of New Orleans at the time. The university was closed from 1861 to 1865 during the American Civil War. After reopening, it went through a period of financial challenges because of an extended agricultural depression in the South which affected the nation's economy.
Paul Tulane, owner of a prospering dry goods and clothing business, donated extensive real estate within New Orleans for the support of education. This donation led to the establishment of a Tulane Educational Fund, whose board of administrators sought to support the University of Louisiana instead of establishing a new university. In response, through the influence of former Confederate general Randall Lee Gibson, the Louisiana state legislature transferred control of the University of Louisiana to the administrators of the TEF in 1884; this act created the Tulane University of Louisiana. The university was privatized, is one of only a few American universities to be converted from a state public institution to a private one. Paul Tulane's endowment to the school specified that the institution could only admit white students, Louisiana law passed in 1884 reiterated this condition. In 1884, William Preston Johnston became the first president of Tulane, he had succeeded Robert E. Lee as president of Lee University after Lee's death.
He had become president of Louisiana State University. In 1885, the university established its graduate division becoming the Graduate School. One year gifts from Josephine Louise Newcomb totaling over $3.6 million, led to the establishment of the H. Sophie Newcomb Memorial College within Tulane University. Newcomb was the first coordinate college for women in the United States and became a model for such institutions as Pembroke College and Barnard College. In 1894 the College of Technology formed, which would become the School of Engineering. In the same year, the university moved to its present-day uptown campus on historic St. Charles Avenue, five miles by streetcar from downtown New Orleans. With the improvements to Tulane University in the late 19th century, Tulane had a firm foundation to build upon as the premier university of the Deep South and continued this legacy with growth in the 20th century. In 1901, the first cornerstone was laid for the F. W. Tilton Library, endowed by New Orleans businessman and philanthropist Frederick William Tilton.
During 1907, the school established a four-year professional curriculum in architecture through the College of Technology, growing into the Tulane School of Architecture. One year Schools of Dentistry and Pharmacy were established, albeit temporarily; the School of Dentistry ended in 1928, Pharmacy six years later. In 1914, Tulane established a College of the first business school in the South. In 1925, Tulane established the independent Graduate School. Two years the university set up a School of Social Work the first in the southern United States. Tulane was instrumental in promoting the arts in New Orleans and the South in establishing the Newcomb School of Art with William Woodward as director, thus establishing the renowned Newcomb Pottery; the Middle American Research Institute was established in 1925 at Tulane "for the purpose of advanced research into the history, tropical botany (
The Miami Hurricanes are the varsity sports teams of the University of Miami, located in the Coral Gables suburb of Miami, Florida. In box scores for sporting events, the Hurricanes sports teams are referred to as Miami to differentiate from the Miami RedHawks, a Division I school in Ohio, they compete in the Coastal Division of the Atlantic Coast Conference. The university fields 15 athletic teams for 17 varsity sports. Men's teams compete in baseball, cross-country, football and track and field. Women's teams compete in basketball, cross-country and diving, rowing, tennis and field, volleyball. UM has equal participation by male and female varsity athletes in these sports; the athletic department's colors are orange and white. The school mascot is Sebastian the Ibis; the ibis was selected as the school's mascot because, according to university legend, it is the last animal to flee an approaching hurricane and the first to reappear after the storm, making it a symbol of leadership and courage.
The school's athletics logo is a simple green and orange, color of an orange tree, letter "U." The school's marching band is the Band of the Hour. Aside from being an independent in baseball, the Hurricanes were a full member of the Big East Conference from 1991 to 2004. In 2004, the school became a member of the Atlantic Coast Conference. UM has won four national championships and reached the College World Series 22 times in the 34 seasons since 1974. Five UM graduates are active on MLB teams; the team is coached by Jim Morris, the former head coach of the Georgia Tech baseball team. Former coach Ron Fraser was inducted into the College Baseball Hall of Fame in July 2006; the team plays its games in Alex Rodriguez Park at Mark Light Field. Morris' contract as coach has been extended through 2015. Morris has established a record of 850–344–3 in 19 seasons at Miami, his teams reached the College World Series in his first six seasons at an NCAA record. The Mascot for the baseball team is The Miami Maniac.
Miami holds the longest consecutive post season appearance streak at 44 consecutive years. This streak is the longest of any men's NCAA Div. 1 major sport, topping the football post season streak of 35 seasons and the basketball streak of 27 seasons. The Miami Hurricanes men's basketball team has produced three players who are on NBA rosters. Rick Barry, who played his collegiate basketball at UM, is a member of the Basketball Hall of Fame. Barry is the Hurricanes' only consensus All-American in basketball and led the nation in scoring his senior year with a 37.4 average during the 1964–65 campaign. The team plays its home games at the Watsco Center on the University of Miami's Coral Gables campus; the Board of Trustees attempted to shut the program down in the middle of the 1970 season, which forced Will Allen to organize his teammates and strike because it was not sufficient notice for the players to transfer schools. They held a press conference and this caught the attention of the national press, the university dropped the program after the 1971 season, with the board citing inadequate facilities, sagging attendance, serious financial losses as the reasons for the decision.
The program was revived before the 1985–86 season, though UM would be minimally competitive over the next several years. The program's fortunes turned around in 1990 when Miami hired Leonard Hamilton as head basketball coach and accepted an invitation to join the Big East. By the end of the decade, Hamilton had turned UM into one of the better basketball programs in the Big East and had guided UM to three straight NCAA tournament appearances, including a #2 seed in the 1999 tournament and a Sweet 16 appearance in 2000; the 1998 tournament appearance was UM's first since 1960. Hamilton left at the end of the 2000 season to become head coach of the NBA's Washington Wizards and was replaced by Perry Clark. During Clark's second season the team won a # 5 seed in the NCAA tournament. With the 2002 -- 03 season, the team moved into the Watsco Center. Despite a win over powerhouse North Carolina to christen the new arena, Clark's teams performed woefully over the next two seasons, leading to his dismissal following the 2003–04 season.
Clark was replaced by Frank Haith, whose teams were competitive in UM's first two seasons as a member of the Atlantic Coast Conference. In the 2007/2008 season, after being picked to finish last in the Atlantic Coast Conference the Hurricanes finished the year 23–11 and reached the second round of the NCAA Tournament before falling to the second seeded University of Texas at Austin; this was the team's first NCAA tournament bid since the 2001–2002 season. For the 2009/2010 season, Miami had a winning record overall, but finished in last place in the ACC with a record of 4–12. On April 4, 2011, Miami coach Frank Haith accepted a head coaching position at the University of Missouri. On April 22, 2011, George Mason Patriots head coach Jim Larranaga accepted the head coaching position after coaching the Patriots for 14 seasons. For the 2012–2013 season, Miami knocked down No. 1 Duke 90-63, won their first 13 ACC games, attained the highest AP ranking in school history, attaining a #2 ranking. However, the Hurricanes lost to Wake Forest, 80-65, ruining at the time, a perfect record in ACC play.
Miami clinched an ACC regular season title with a home triumph over Clemson. Miami entered the ACC Tournament as the #1 seed, won said tournament with a
Tulane University Marching Band
The Tulane University Marching Band is the marching band of Tulane University. It performs at every Tulane Green Wave football home game in Yulman Stadium, bowl games, some away games, it is marches in New Orleans Mardi Gras parades each year, having appeared in Le Krewe d'Etat, the Krewe of Thoth, the Krewe of Bacchus, the Krewe of Rex, among others. The band was formed in 1920 as a military band under the direction of Dr. Frederick Hard. Maynard J. Klein became director in 1936. John J. Morrissey became the director for 30 years beginning in 1938; the color guard was first introduced in 1938. The band was dissolved in the mid-1970s, shortly after the closure of Tulane Stadium; the band began its revival in 2004 with the help of the student-run pep band. In response to student and alumni interest, the university administration hired Barry Spanier in 2004; the current uniform design was adopted. As a result of Hurricane Katrina, the band's planned debut in the fall of 2005 was postponed; the band formally debuted in the Krewe of Alla Mardi Gras parade in 2006.
The TUMB Mardi Gras doubloon was introduced in 2007. Barry Spanier, Director Mendel Lee, Assistant Director Andrew Szypula, Percussion Instructor and Operations Manager Jakki Kalogridis, Color Guard Instructor Ashley Iserman, Shockwave Director/Choreographer Patricia McWhorter-Broussard, Program Coordinator Michael Seuylemezian & Sarah Nwia, 2018-19 Drum Majors The TUMB marches silver Yamaha brass instruments to maintain a consistent look and sound; the drumline uses Yamaha battery and front ensemble equipment and proudly use Vic Firth Sticks, Zildjian Cymbals, Evans Drumheads. The guard debuted in 2006 with retro uniforms based on archived pictures. In 2009, it introduced a new design more in line with modern guard units, accordingly moving toward incorporation of ballet, jazz and contemporary modern dance, it performs predominately with flags and sabres in pregame and halftime shows, as well as Mardi Gras parades and a Spring stage production. Unlike many university guards, the Tulane guard accepts both female members.
The dance team became an official part of the TUMB in 2009. Aside from performing at home and away football games, the team performs at Tulane basketball and baseball games, as well as Mardi Gras parades with the TUMB and various community events. Shockwave is coached by Ashley Iserman. Members of the TUMB receive credit both semesters - in the fall for football season and in the spring for Mardi Gras parades. Incoming freshmen who audition have the opportunity to be awarded scholarships that renew as long as they are members in good standing. Upperclassmen are eligible for an award each semester after they have received four credits in any TUMB-related course. After its field time in Yulman, the TUMB warms up behind Newcomb Hall, near the band's offices on Audubon Street; the band begins the gameday parade from Newcomb Hall, through the two main tailgating quads on Tulane's Uptown campus, down McAlister Drive to the stadium. The parade is led by Tulane's cheerleaders throwing beads from a float created by the Kerns of Mardi Gras World, fans follow the cheerleaders and band to Yulman Stadium to being each game.
Following a video introduction on Yulman's video board, the TUMB runs onto the field to a drum cadence. The band starts its performance with a fanfare based on "Do You Know What It Means to Miss New Orleans" plays "When the Saints Go Marching In" before beginning "Roll On, Tulane." The TUMB, cheer squad lead fans in "The Hullabaloo" before the band plays the fights song while forming a traditional serif "T." Finally, the TUMB plays an arrangement of The Star Spangled Banner and marches toward the endzone to await the playing of the fight song once more for the entrance of the football team onto the field. The TUMB performs a halftime show at every home game and at any away games at which the full band is present; the band performs 2-3 shows a season, depending on scheduling, themes can vary widely. The Tulane University Marching Band Alumni Association was formed in 2009 through the efforts of recent graduates. In 2014 it became an official Shared Interest Group of the Tulane Alumni Association.
Its main focus is keeping alumni informed and organized, networking both inside and outside the association, providing support to the TUMB. It organizes the annual alumni band that joins the TUMB in the stands and at halftime during each homecoming game; the Friends of the Band is administered under the direction of Jeff Bush. It provides many forms including an annual jambalaya dinner during band camp; the SounndWave pep band plays at some volleyball games in Devlin Fieldhouse. Established in 1992 as a student organization, it became the impetus for the revival of the TUMB in 2005, performing at various athletic events and parades, it has since returned to its original form as a pep band and continues to function as a student organization separate from the TUMB. SoundWave's alumni are organized as the SoundWave Alumni & Booster Organization and provide additional support to the organization; the Green Wave Brass Band formed in 2009, was directed by Mark Lighthiser. Under the direction of Mendel Lee, the GWBB is the TUMB's own take on the traditional New Orleans brass band.
The band's style emulates the raw street funk of such local groups as Rebirth Brass Band. It is a small-scale brass ensemble composed of 1-2 trumpets, 1-2 saxophones, 1-2 trombones, a tuba, a drummer, though these positions rotate from a pool of members who come from the TUMB; the band performs in the premium areas of Yulman Stadium during the 3
Melvin Jamon Frazier Jr. is an American professional basketball player for the Orlando Magic of the National Basketball Association. He played college basketball for Tulane. Frazier attended L. W. Higgins High School, he played AAU basketball for Team NOLA and Wings Elite, where he was a defensive force but secondary scorer to Marlain Veal. Frazier was ranked the fourth best prospect in Louisiana by The Times-Picayune as a senior, he chose Tulane over offers from Arkansas and Oklahoma State. Frazier was coach Ed Conroy's highest-rated recruit but had a quiet freshman season, averaging 5.2 points per game. When Mike Dunleavy Sr. arrived as coach in his sophomore season, he worked to improve Frazier's shooting mechanics and dribbling skills. Frazier averaged 11.5 points per game as a sophomore. He was named AAC player of the week for the first time on November 20, 2017; as a junior, Frazier had 10 games where he scored at least 20 points, including a career-high 28 points against Memphis. He missed a game.
Frazier was named to the Second Team All-AAC as well as the Most Improved Player. He averaged 15.9 points, 5.5 rebounds, 2.1 steals per game as a junior, while shooting 55.8 percent from the floor and 39 percent from behind the arc. After the season he declared for the 2018 NBA draft but did not hire an agent, he was considered to be a borderline first round prospect. In May, Frazier signed with Thad Foucher of Wasserman Media Group, thus ending his collegiate eligibility. On June 21, 2018, Frazier was drafted by the Orlando Magic with the 35th overall selection in the 2018 NBA draft. On July 6, 2018, the Magic announced. Tulane Green Wave bio NBADraft.net profile
The Cleveland Cavaliers referred to as the Cavs, are an American professional basketball team based in Cleveland, Ohio. The Cavs compete in the National Basketball Association as a member of the league's Eastern Conference Central Division; the team began play as an expansion team in 1970, along with the Portland Trail Blazers and Buffalo Braves. Home games were first held at Cleveland Arena from 1970 to 1974, followed by the Richfield Coliseum from 1974 to 1994. Since 1994, the Cavs have played home games at Rocket Mortgage FieldHouse in downtown Cleveland, shared with the Cleveland Gladiators of the Arena Football League and the Cleveland Monsters of the American Hockey League. Dan Gilbert has owned the team since March 2005; the Cavaliers opened their inaugural season losing their first 15 games and struggled in their early years, placing no better than sixth in the Eastern Conference during their first five seasons. The team won their first Central Division title in 1976, which marked the first winning season and playoff appearance in franchise history, where they advanced to the Eastern Conference Finals.
The franchise was purchased by Ted Stepien in 1980. Stepien's tenure as owner was marked by six coaching changes, questionable trades and draft decisions, poor attendance, leading to $15 million in financial losses; the Cavs went 66–180 in that time and endured a 24-game losing streak spanning the 1981–82 and 1982–83 seasons. George and Gordon Gund purchased the franchise in 1983. During the latter half of the 1980s and through much of the 1990s, the Cavs were a regular playoff contender, led by players such as Mark Price and Brad Daugherty, advanced to the Eastern Conference Finals in 1992. After the team's playoff appearance in 1998, the Cavs had six consecutive losing seasons with no playoff action. Cleveland was awarded with the top overall pick in the 2003 draft, they selected LeBron James. Behind James and Zydrunas Ilgauskas, the Cavaliers again became a regular playoff contender by 2005, they made their first appearance in the NBA Finals in 2007 after winning the first Eastern Conference championship in franchise history.
After failing to return to the NBA Finals in the ensuing three seasons, James joined the Miami Heat in 2010. As a result, the Cavaliers finished the 2010–11 season last in the conference, enduring a 26-game losing streak that, as of 2017, ranks as the longest in NBA history for a single season and second overall. Between 2010 and 2014, the team won the top pick in the NBA draft lottery three times, first in 2011 where they selected Kyrie Irving, again in 2013 and 2014. LeBron James led the team to four straight NBA Finals appearances. In 2016, the Cavaliers won their first NBA Championship, marking Cleveland's first major sports title since 1964; the 2016 NBA Finals victory over the Golden State Warriors marked the first time in Finals history a team had come back to win the series after trailing three games to one. The Cavaliers have made 22 playoff appearances, won seven Central Division titles, five Eastern Conference titles, one NBA title; the Cavaliers began play in the 1970–71 NBA season as an expansion team.
They set losing records in each of their first five seasons before winning their first division title in 1976. That team was led by Austin Carr, Bobby "Bingo" Smith, Jim Chones, Dick Snyder, Nate Thurmond, head coach Bill Fitch, was remembered most for the "Miracle at Richfield", in which the Cavaliers defeated the Washington Bullets 4–3 in the Eastern Conference Semifinals, they won Game 87 -- 85, on a shot by Snyder with four seconds to go. The Cavaliers moved on to the Eastern Conference Finals for the first time, but were without Chones after he broke his foot in a practice right before the series opener; as a result, the Cavaliers went on to lose 4–2 to the Boston Celtics. They made playoff appearances in the following two seasons before going on a six-year playoff hiatus; the early 1980s were marked by Ted Stepien's ownership, who had a disastrous run as owner and de facto general manager between 1980 and 1983. During Stepien's reign, the Cavaliers made a practice of trading future draft picks for marginal veteran players.
His most notable deal sent a 1982 first-round pick to the Los Angeles Lakers in exchange for Dan Ford and the 22nd overall pick in 1980. As a result of Stepien's dealings, the NBA introduced the "Stepien Rule", which prohibits teams from trading first-round draft picks in successive seasons; the Cavaliers went 66–180, dropped to the bottom of the league in attendance and lost $15 million during Stepien's three years as the owner. The Cavs went through six coaches including four during the 1981 -- 82 season; the team finished 15–67, between March and November 1982, the team had a 24-game losing streak, which at the time, was the NBA's longest losing streak. George and Gordon Gund purchased the Cavaliers from Stepien in 1983; the Cavaliers made the playoffs ten times between 1984–85 and 1997–98. In 1988–89, the Cavaliers had their best season to date, finishing the regular season with 57–25 record behind the likes of Brad Daugherty, Mark Price, Ron Harper and Larry Nance, head coach Lenny Wilkens.
They reached the Eastern Conference Finals that year. However, between 1998–99 and 2004–05, the Cavaliers failed to make a playoff appearance; the 2002–03 season saw the Cavaliers finish 17–65, tied for the worst record in the NBA. The Cavaliers' luck changed; the team selected heralded forward and future NBA MVP LeBron James, a native of nearby Akron who had risen to national stardom at St. Vincent-St. Mary High School. In 2005, the team would be sold to businessman Dan Gilbert; that year, the
White Men Can't Jump
White Men Can't Jump is a 1992 American sports comedy film written and directed by Ron Shelton. It stars Wesley Snipes and Woody Harrelson as streetball hustlers; the film was released in the United States on March 1992 by 20th Century Fox. Billy Hoyle is a former Tulane basketball player who makes his living by hustling streetballers who assume he cannot play well because he is white. Billy never degrades his race; such a player is Sidney Deane, a talented but cocky player, beaten twice by Billy, once in a half court team game and in a one-on-one shootout for money. Billy and his Puerto Rican girlfriend, Gloria Clemente, are on the run from mobsters because of a gambling debt. A voracious reader, making note of obscure facts, Gloria's goal in life is to be a contestant on the television show Jeopardy! and make a fortune. Sidney wants to buy a house for his family outside the rough Baldwin Village neighborhood, he proposes a business partnership with Billy and they hustle other players by deliberately setting them up to pick Billy as Sidney's teammate.
At first their system is successful, but when they unexpectedly lose a game, it turns out that Sidney had double-crossed Billy by deliberately playing badly to avenge his earlier loss to him, making Billy lose $1,700 to a group of Sidney's friends. Gloria, who wants Billy to find a stable job, is incensed at Billy for blowing his money again, but realizes he got hustled after Billy tells her how it happened, they go to Sidney's apartment and appeal to his wife Rhonda for fairness, the women agree to share the money provided Sidney and Billy team up for a major two-on-two outdoor tournament. Despite their constant bickering and Billy win the tournament and the grand prize of $5,000 due to Billy's ability to disrupt his opponents' concentration. Billy's most notable claim is that he is "in the zone", a state of mind in which nothing can distract him. Sidney is pleased with the outcome, yet he cannot help mocking Billy about his inability to slam dunk. Billy insists that he can indeed dunk, after Sidney disagrees, Billy offers to bet his share of the $5,000 on his ability to dunk.
Sidney gives him three chances, telling him "white men can't jump," but Billy fails and squanders his share. When he tells Gloria, she leaves him. Desperate to get her back, Billy goes to Sidney for help. Sidney reveals that he has a friend who works as a security guard at the TV studio that produces Jeopardy! The friend, agrees to use his connections to get her on the show if Billy can sink a hook shot from beyond the half-court line, which he does. Gloria stumbles over sports questions, but makes a comeback with a pet topic, "Foods That Begin With the Letter Q", she wins $14,100 on her first episode. Billy wins her back; as Billy and Gloria discuss their new future, this time it is Sidney, desperate for Billy's help. Gloria is expecting Billy to get a steady job and settle down, but Sidney informs him that two hoops legends of the L. A. streetball scene, "The King" and "The Duck", are playing at the courts downtown. Sidney asks Billy to partner with him in playing against them and Billy enthusiastically agrees, offering to gamble his share of Gloria's take.
Gloria warns that if Billy gambles with her money, they are regardless of the outcome. Billy, feeling he must honor the obligation he owes Sidney for getting Gloria on Jeopardy! in the first place, sides with Sidney. They play a final game against Duck. In a tight game and Billy prevail, the winning point coming when Sidney lobs an "alley-oop" pass to Billy, who dunks it. Returning home happy for having doubled the share that Gloria gave him of her winnings, Billy discovers Gloria has kept her word and left him for good, is crushed; the mobsters who are after Billy track him down, he pays off his debts. Realizing that Gloria has left him for good, Billy asks Sidney to set him up with a real job. Sidney remarks that Gloria may be better off without each other; the film ends as Billy and Sidney launch into yet another basketball argument and they return to the court where they first met to play a one-on-one game, but this time, as friends. Wesley Snipes as Sidney Deane Woody Harrelson as Billy Hoyle Rosie Perez as Gloria Clemente Tyra Ferrell as Rhonda Deane Cylk Cozart as Robert Kadeem Hardison as Junior Ernest Harden, Jr. as George Nigel Miguel as Dwight'The Flight' McGhee Freeman Williams as Duck Johnson Louis Price as Eddie "The King" Faroo Marques Johnson as Raymond Alex Trebek as Himself Allan Malamud as Rocket Scientist Duane Martin as Willie Lewis Caleb Baudry as Adam Sandler Bree Bonin as Kaiden's "wife" Bob Lanier, Detroit Pistons and Milwaukee Bucks legend and Hall of Famer, was hired as basketball coach for the film.
He was impressed with Harrelson and Snipes, suggesting that both reached Division III college basketball skill level. He noted that between the two of them, Harrelson was the better player; the original music soundtrack and song "If I Lose" were composed by saxophonist and composer Bennie Wallace, who scored Ron Shelton's film Blaze. The musical R&B quintet Riff recorded a song and accompanying music video called "White Men Can't Jump" for the movie; the music video featured Wesley Snipes and Rosie Perez. It can be seen on the DVD release with bonus features. Marques Johnson ha
College basketball today is governed by collegiate athletic bodies including the United States's National Collegiate Athletic Association, the National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics, the United States Collegiate Athletic Association, the National Junior College Athletic Association, the National Christian College Athletic Association. Governing bodies in Canada include the Canadian Collegiate Athletic Association; each of these various organizations are subdivided into from one to three divisions based on the number and level of scholarships that may be provided to the athletes. Each organization has different conferences to divide up the teams into groups. Teams are selected into these conferences depending on the location of the schools; these conferences are put in due to the regional play of the teams and to have a structural schedule for each to team to play for the upcoming year. During conference play the teams are ranked not only through the entire NCAA, but the conference as well in which they have tournament play leading into the NCAA tournament.
The history of basketball can be traced back to a YMCA International Training School, known today as Springfield College, located in Springfield, Massachusetts. The sport was created by a physical education teacher named James Naismith, who in the winter of 1891 was given the task of creating a game that would keep track athletes in shape and that would prevent them from getting hurt; the date of the first formal basketball game played at the Springfield YMCA Training School under Naismith's rules is given as December 21, 1891. Basketball began to be played at some college campuses by 1893; the first known college to field a basketball team against an outside opponent was Vanderbilt University, which played against the local YMCA in Nashville, Tennessee, on February 7, 1893. The second recorded instance of an organized college basketball game was Geneva College's game against the New Brighton YMCA on April 8, 1893, in Beaver Falls, which Geneva won 3–0; the first recorded game between two college teams occurred on February 9, 1895, when Hamline University faced Minnesota A&M. Minnesota A&M won the game, played under rules allowing nine players per side, 9–3.
The first intercollegiate match using the modern rule of five players per side is credited as a game between the University of Chicago and the University of Iowa, in Iowa City, Iowa, on January 18, 1896. The Chicago team won the game 15-12, under the coaching of Amos Alonzo Stagg, who had learned the game from James Naismith at the Springfield YMCA. However, some sources state the first "true" five-on-five intercollegiate match was a game in 1897 between Yale and Penn, because although the Iowa team that played Chicago in 1896 was composed of University of Iowa students, it did not represent the university, rather it was organized through a YMCA. By 1900, the game of basketball had spread to colleges across the country; the Amateur Athletic Union's annual U. S. national championship tournament featured collegiate teams playing against non-college teams. Four colleges won the AAU tournament championship: NYU, Butler and Washburn. College teams were runners-up in 1915, 1917, 1920, 1921, 1932 and 1934.
The first known tournament featuring college teams was the 1904 Summer Olympics, where basketball was a demonstration sport, a collegiate championship tournament was held. The Olympic title was won by Hiram College. In March 1908, a two-game "championship series" was organized between the University of Chicago and Penn, with games played in Philadelphia and Bartlett, Illinois. Chicago swept both games to win the series. In March 1922, the 1922 National Intercollegiate Basketball Tournament was held in Indianapolis – the first stand-alone post-season tournament for college teams; the champions of six major conferences participated: Pacific Coast Conference, Southern Intercollegiate Athletic Association, Western Pennsylvania League, Illinois Intercollegiate Athletic Conference, Michigan Intercollegiate Athletic Association and Indiana Intercollegiate Athletic Association. The Western Conference and Eastern Intercollegiate League declined invitations to participate. Wabash College won the 1922 tournament.
The first organization to tout a occurring national collegiate championship was the NAIA in 1937, although it was surpassed in prestige by the National Invitation Tournament, or NIT, which brought six teams to New York's Madison Square Garden in the spring of 1938. Temple defeated Colorado in the first NIT tournament championship game, 60–36. In 1939, another national tournament was implemented by the National Collegiate Athletic Association; the location of the NCAA Tournament varied from year to year, it soon used multiple locations each year, so more fans could see games without traveling to New York. Although the NIT was created earlier and was more prestigious than the NCAA for many years, it lost popularity and status to the NCAA Tournament. In 1950, following a double win by the 1949–50 CCNY Beavers men's basketball team, the NCAA ruled that no team could compete in both tournaments, indicated that a team eligible for the NCAA tournament should play in it. Not long afterward, assisted by the 1951 scandals based in New York City, the NCAA tournament had become more prestigious than before, with conference champions and the majority of top-ranked teams competing there.
The NCAA tournament overtook the NIT by 1960. Through the 1960s and 1970s, with UCLA leading the way as winner