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Tule Lake

Tule Lake is an intermittent lake covering an area of 13,000 acres, 8.0 km long and 4.8 km across, in northeastern Siskiyou County and northwestern Modoc County in California, along the border with Oregon. Tule Lake is fed by the Lost River; the elevation of the lake is 4,035 ft. Tule Lake is located 2.4 km, southwest of the town of Tulelake in Northern California. The lake is part of the Klamath Project. Canby's Cross is located about three miles south of the lake. During World War II, the United States federal government forced the evacuation of Japanese nationals and Japanese Americans, including citizens born in the United States, to numerous camps built in the interior of California and inland states, they were forced to sell their businesses and homes, suffered enormous economic and psychological losses by being treated as potential enemies. The Tule Lake War Relocation Center, a Japanese American internment camp, is located east of the lake, in Modoc County. Following World War II, the federal government awarded 86 farm sites on land reclaimed by the drainage of Tule Lake to returning veterans using a Land Lottery.

A lottery was used because the number of applicants was greater than the number of homesteads available. Klamath Basin List of lakes in California

One guilder coin (Netherlands)

The One guilder coin was a coin struck in the Kingdom of the Netherlands between 1818 and 2001. It remained in circulation until 2002. No guilder coins were minted in the German occupation of the Netherlands in World War II. All of them featured the reigning monarch on the obverse, until Queen Beatrix in 1982, the national Coat of Arms on the reverse. At the time of its demonetisation, the guilder was the third-highest denomination coin in the Netherlands; the first guilder coin was struck from 1818 to 1837 as a 0.893 silver coin. It weighed 10.766 g. The coins of the first year of mintage have a wider diameter of 30.5mm. The obverse featured a portrait of King William I of the Netherlands facing right, with the inscription WILLEM KONING on his left and DER NED. G. H. V. L. on the right (meaning'William King of the Netherlands, Grand Duke of Luxembourg'. The reverse featured the Dutch coat of arms with'1' and'G' either side of the coat of arms and'100C' below; the date was split at the top and the inscription read MUNT VAN HET KONINGRYK DER NEDERLANDEN.

From 1840 to 1849, the obverse portrait was that of King William II of the Netherlands facing left, the silver was upgraded to 0.945. The weight decreased to the diameter to 28 mm; the edge was inscribed GOD * ZY * MET ONS. The third guilder coin featured King William III of the Netherlands facing right. All other aspects were identical to the coin under the reign of William II. From 1892 to 1897 a portrait of the young new Queen Wilhelmina of the Netherlands featured on the obverse, with the inscription WILHELMINA KONINGIN DER NEDERLANDEN as the duchy of Luxembourg had been passed to Adolphe I. Otherwise, the coin retained the same design specifications. From 1898 to 1909 a different portrait featured, underneath. A third portrait featured from 1910 to 1917; the coins bearing the fourth portrait of Wilhelmina, from 1922 to 1945, were downgraded to 0.720 silver, which lowered their weight to 9.9g. Three different privy marks were issued: a seahorse from 1922 to 1931, grapes from 1938 to 1940 and an acorn from 1941 to 1945.

During the Nazi German occupation of the Netherlands, no guilder coins were issued of the zinc coins circulated by the Nazis, but Dutch guilder coins were struck in the United States. In 1943 they were struck at the Denver Mint in Colorado and in 1944 at the Philadelphia Mint in Pennsylvania and the San Francisco Mint in California. In 1945, 25,375,000 were issued in Philadelphia. In 1954 production of the guilder coin resumed; the diameter was reduced to 25 mm and the weight to 6.5 g. The reverse was simplified to the coat of arms with the date and denomination split on each side, with the name NEDERLAND on the bottom. A portrait of Queen Juliana of the Netherlands featured on the obverse. In 1967 a version of the coin in nickel was tested, which became the sole guilder from 1968 to 1980; the weight was brought down to 6g. Different privy marks were used: a fish in 1967 to 1969 and a cock from 1969 to 1980; the final issue in 1980 had the highest mintage, 118,300,000, with a privy mark of a cock and a star.

In 1980, 30.5 million commemorative guilder coins were issued, for the investiture of Queen Beatrix of the Netherlands. She featured on the obverse in front with the date 30 April 1980 above; the denomination on the reverse was written in full at the bottom next to the country name. The final circulation issue of the guilder was from 1982 to 2001, in the same specifications as the previous coin. Queen Beatrix featured on the obverse, facing down, the reverse removed the coat of arms. Different privy marks were used: from 1982 to 1988 an anvil, from 1989 to 1999 a bow, in 2000 a bow and a star, in 2001 grapes. In 2001, the final year of the guilder, a commemorative was issued in the same specifications with 16,045,000 in circulation and 32,000 in proof; the obverse had a different portrait of Queen Beatrix with her title spiralling around her, the reverse, designed by Tim van Melis, featured a simplified version of the lion on the Dutch coat of arms. Dutch guilder

Military settlement

Military settlements represented a special organization of the Russian military forces in 1810–1857, which allowed the combination of military service and agricultural employment. The Emperor Alexander I of Russia introduced military settlements in order to set up an inexpensive reserve of trained military forces. Count Alexei Arakcheyev, who had held senior military and political appointments, established the first military settlement in the Klimovichskiy Uyezd of the Mogilev Governorate; the organization of military settlements got under way on a large scale from 1816. In 1817 Count Arakcheyev became the head of all the military settlements in Russia; the quartered military forces were being formed from among married soldiers, who had served in the army for no less than six years, local men between 18 and 45 years of age. Both of these categories were called master settlers; the rest of the locals of the same age, fit for military service, but had not been chosen, were being enlisted as assistants to their masters and were a part of reserve military subdivisions.

The children of the military settlers and the indigenous peasant population within the military settlement were enlisted in the cantonists, with military schooling starting at the age of 7. Upon reaching the age of 18, they were transferred to the military units; the settlers would retire at the age of 45 and continue to serve in hospitals and other establishments. Each military settlement consisted of 60 interconnected houses with a regiment of 228 men; each such house had four masters with indivisible household economy. The life in a military settlement was controlled. In fact military settlers did not live in these rather comfortable specially built interconnected houses, because they were built only to be shown to higher military officials as a proof that the Emperor’s wish had been accomplished. Military settlers found shelter in small side houses; the internal regulations enforced by Arakcheyev prohibited any residents to be inside of these houses. If someone had been seen inside a living apartment of the house, he was subject to immediate severe corporal punishment.

It was restricted to use or touch pots and similar household things inside living parts of the houses. The Arakcheyev’s instructions prescribed that each pot must be placed on the specified place inside the house. If a pot was removed from its place, military resident of the respective house was punished; the peasants had to undergo military training, which caused tardiness and unseasonableness in agricultural activities. Corporal punishment was common. Military settlements were being created on fiscal lands, which would provoke riots among the state-owned peasants, like the ones in Kholynskaya and Vysotskaya volosts of the Novgorod guberniya in 1817 and among the Bug Cossacks in 1817–1818. Alexander I, stood his ground and announced that "military settlements will be created if we have to pave the road from Saint Petersburg to Chudov with dead bodies". By 1825, Russia had built military settlements in Petersburg, Mogilev, Sloboda Ukraine, Kherson and other guberniyas, they made up for one fourth of the Russian army and accumulated some 32 million rubles worth of savings, but still were not able to satisfy the army’s recruiting needs.

Organization of rural and agriculture activities was bad. All the activities of military settlers were specified by Arakcheyev’s instructions; these instructions paid little attention to season character of certain works or distance between military settlement and fields to be plowed. For example, sometimes it may be prescribed to make hay 7–10 miles away from the military settlement. Settlers had to spend a lot of time to get to their job and back, so the work could not be done in time. If an instruction was not complied with, all the settlers had been punished no matter what reason they had for not to do the job in time. Sometimes the instruction specified a certain day for a certain job, if it was rainy at such day, the job could not be done. Since the instruction was not complied again, settlers got severe punishment. State officials including Arakcheyev knew little about agriculture. In Saint Petersburg area peasants had been practicing hunting, small artisan production, trade activities for a long time, because northern soil did not fit for agriculture.

When military settlements had been implemented near Saint Petersburg, all the settlers had been prescribed to grow wheat and other activities out of law, this led to impoverishment of local population and malnourishment. Due to such circumstances the military performance of settlers was low. Overall, they were not effective as soldiers or agriculture workers. Military settlements never became an anti-resistance tool in the hands of the government, on the contrary, they turned into resistance hotbeds themselves. In June 1819, the Chuguyev regiment uprising took place amidst the Sloboda Ukraine military settlement, which would spread over to the Taganrog regiment okrug a month later; the rebels were demanding from the government to let them be what they had been before the reform, capturing their confiscated lands and ousting their superiors. Count Arakcheyev was put in charge of the punitive expedition, which would result in the arrest of more than 2,000 men. 313 peop