click links in text for more info

Tulsa, Oklahoma

Tulsa is the second-largest city in the state of Oklahoma and 45th-most populous city in the United States. As of July 2018, the population was an increase of 11,129 since the 2010 Census, it is the principal municipality of the Tulsa Metropolitan Area, a region with 991,005 residents in the MSA and 1,251,172 in the CSA. The city serves as the county seat of Tulsa County, the most densely populated county in Oklahoma, with urban development extending into Osage and Wagoner counties. Tulsa was settled between 1836 by the Lochapoka Band of Creek Native American tribe. For most of the 20th century, the city held the nickname "Oil Capital of the World" and played a major role as one of the most important hubs for the American oil industry. A robust energy sector fueled Tulsa's economy. Two institutions of higher education within the city have sports teams at the NCAA Division I level, Oral Roberts University and the University of Tulsa, it is situated on the Arkansas River between the Osage Hills and the foothills of the Ozark Mountains in northeast Oklahoma, a region of the state known as "Green Country".

Considered the cultural and arts center of Oklahoma, Tulsa houses two art museums, full-time professional opera and ballet companies, one of the nation's largest concentrations of art deco architecture. The city has been called one of America's most livable large cities by Partners for Livable Communities and Relocate America. FDi Magazine in 2009 ranked the city no. 8 in the U. S. for cities of the future. In 2012, Tulsa was ranked among the top 50 best cities in the United States by BusinessWeek. People from Tulsa are called "Tulsans"; the area where Tulsa now exists was considered Indian Territory when it was first formally settled by the Lochapoka and Creek tribes in 1836. They established a small settlement under the Creek Council Oak Tree at the present-day intersection of Cheyenne Avenue and 18th Street; this area and this tree reminded Chief Tukabahchi and his small group of the Trail of Tears survivors of the bend in the river and their previous Creek Council Oak Tree back in the Talisi, Alabama area.

They named their new settlement Tallasi, meaning "old town" in the Creek language, which became "Tulsa". The area around Tulsa was settled by members of the other so-called "Five Civilized Tribes", relocated to Oklahoma from the Southern United States. Most of modern Tulsa is located in the Creek Nation, with parts located in the Cherokee and Osage Nations. Although Oklahoma was not yet a state during the Civil War, the Tulsa area saw its share of fighting; the Battle of Chusto-Talasah took place on the north side of Tulsa and a number of battles and skirmishes took place in nearby counties. After the War, the tribes signed Reconstruction treaties with the federal government that in some cases required substantial land concessions. In the years after the Civil War and around the turn of the century, the area along the Arkansas River, now Tulsa was periodically home to or visited by a series of colorful outlaws, including the legendary Wild Bunch, the Dalton Gang, Little Britches. On January 18, 1898, Tulsa was incorporated and elected Edward Calkins as the city's first mayor.

Tulsa was still a small town near the banks of the Arkansas River in 1901 when its first oil well, named Sue Bland No. 1, was established. Much of the oil was discovered on land whose mineral rights were owned by members of the Osage Nation under a system of headrights. By 1905, the discovery of the large Glenn Pool Oil Reserve prompted a rush of entrepreneurs to the area's growing number of oil fields. Unlike the early settlers of Northeastern Oklahoma, who most migrated from the South and Texas, many of these new oil-driven settlers came to Tulsa from the commercial centers of the East Coast and lower Midwest; this migration distinguished the city's demographics from neighboring communities and is reflected in the designs of early Tulsa's upscale neighborhoods. Known as the "Oil Capital of the World" for most of the 20th century, the city's success in the energy industry prompted construction booms in the popular Art Deco style of the time. Profits from the oil industry continued through the Great Depression, helping the city's economy fare better than most in the United States during the 1930s.

In the early 20th century, Tulsa was home to the "Black Wall Street", one of the most prosperous black communities in the United States at the time. Located in the Greenwood neighborhood, it was the site of the Tulsa Race Riot, one of the nation's worst acts of racial violence and civil disorder, with whites attacking blacks. Sixteen hours of rioting on May 31 and June 1, 1921, was ended only when National Guardsmen were brought in by the Governor. An official report claimed that 23 black and 16 white citizens were killed, but other estimates suggest as many as 300 people died, most of them black. Over 800 people were admitted to local hospitals with injuries, an estimated 10,000 black people were left homeless as 35 city blocks, composed of 1,256 residences, were destroyed by fire. Property damage was estimated at $1.8 million. Efforts to obtain reparations for survivors of the violence have been unsuccessful, but the events were re-examined by the city and state in the early 21st century, acknowledging the terrible actions that had taken place.

In 1925, Tulsa businessman Cyrus Avery, known as the "Father of Route 66," began

St Aloysius' College (Malta)

St Aloysius College is a Catholic college run by the Jesuits in Birkirkara, Malta. It was founded in 1907 to complement the seminaries and tertiary institutions in existence on the island. Today it is a boys' secondary school with a coeducational sixth form; the College compound houses a parish church, used by the school and opened to the public. On 8 October 1907 the Jesuits, at the request of Pope Pius X, founded the school with 139 boys; the College served as a hospital for Allied soldiers during the Second World War. The primary school was Stella Maris School, a separate school founded by the Franciscan Missionaries of Mary, has been incorporated into the College: boys can now attend the school from kindergarten through to sixth form; the secondary school of St Aloysius College is a boys-only college located in Old Railway Road, Birkirkara. It is three storeys high with another storey underground, incorporates a small inner ground and a large hall which serves as a theatre for cultural events held at the College.

Such events include the Soirée, the Secondary School Concert, the celebration of the Eucharist on feast days in the Jesuit calendar. The building was last renovated in the summer of 2006; the college celebrated its centenary in the scholastic year 2007/2008. The school is known for its emphasis on discipline; each form has its own prefect, to maintain discipline. He is a member of the secondary school board; each class has a Form Teacher who acts as a mentor for the class and represents the students before school authorities such as the Rector, Prefect of Discipline, Prefect of Studies. Each class has a captain and a vice-captain for control during changing of periods, division captain and vice-division captain to assist them; the college is equipped with science laboratories for physics and biology as well as two computer labs and four chapels. The chapels are dedicated to St. Francis Xavier, one of the three most important Jesuit saints, La Storta Chapel, a unique chapel in itself; the college sports complex includes a gymnasium, a pavilion that serves as a basketball and handball court, courts for volleyball and indoor 5-a-side football, a full-sized UEFA-compliant turf football pitch, a 400m athletics track, two tennis courts.

A swimming pool requires more funds. In scholastic year 2009/2010 a new system for classes was introduced. Instead of letters each class has been named for a Jesuit; the Secondary School has a Students' Council with members elected annually and all students eligible. It has two from each form, its president spans fourth/fifth form. The Council is responsible for most school events, including the organisation of casual days and the Form 5 School Leaving Party, or "Social". St Aloysius College Sixth Form has been in existence for the best part of 30 years, it offers four major courses – science, maths and arts – each requiring about two years. There are two classes in three for arts; the college annually accepts around 220 new students. Facilities include biology, chemistry and computer laboratories, a media room and assembly hall. Among the many annual events hosted by the Sixth Form, its Cultural Soiree in early February is most popular, with ticket sales for 2009 around 1,700, it includes dancing, acting and music and concludes with a 45-minute musical directed and choreographed by the students themselves.

Each year the stage crew presents a small act dubbed the "crew item". The Sixth Form has its own Students' Council, with elections in late October and all students eligible. Since 2012 the Council includes four students from each of Lower and Upper Sixth Form, with the president from Upper; the Council is responsible for most school events including the organisation of "Unplugged" and "Christmas Dinner", has an important say in the Soirée. From its inception in 1907, St Aloysius College never held classes on Wednesday but instead on Saturday morning, making it the only school in Malta to do so. On October 13, 2006, a decision was made by Maltese Jesuit Provincial Fr. Paul Chetcuti and College Rector Fr. Patrick Magro to replace Saturdays with Wednesdays to conform to the practice of other schools. In the view of some, this deprived St. Aloysius' College of its uniqueness; the change took effect in September 2007, with St Aloysius' Sixth Form conforming to the practice of fellow Sixth Forms: De La Salle College, Junior College, Giovanni Curmi Higher Secondary School, the new St. Martin's College Sixth Form which opened in September 2007.

All students are encouraged to participate in extracurricular activities, which include: The college has its own Scout group, one of the oldest established on the island, having formed in 1916. Robert Arrigo - Member of Parliament and Nationalist Party deputy leader for party affairs David J. Attard - Professor of International Law, Chancellor of the University of Malta Tonio Borg - former Deputy Prime Minister, former Minister for Foreign Affairs, former European Commissioner Guido de Marco - President Emeritus of Malta Mario de Marco - former Minister for Tourism, member of Parliament in opposition Edward Fenech Adami - former Prime Minister and President Emeritus of Malta Tonio Fenech - former Minister of Finance Ira Losco - singer Saviour Pirotta - children's books author Ugo Mifsud Bonnici - President Emeritus of Malta Carmelo Mifsud Bonnici - former Minister for Justice and Home Affairs, Member of Parliament in opposition Joseph Musca

Edu Coimbra

Eduardo Antunes Coimbra, better known as Edu, is a former Brazilian footballer who played as an attacking midfielder and went on to become a manager. He was one of the most talented dribblers of the 1970s and is considered one of the best players in América Football Club's history, he scored 212 goals for América—which makes him the second highest scorer for the club—and played for Vasco da Gama and Flamengo. Edu came in the suburbs of Quintino, Rio de Janeiro, his father was a goalkeeper and three of his brothers were professional footballers as well. However the most famous was Zico, they played together in 1976 in Flamengo. He was a member of Zico's veteran team in Turkey during the coaching period of his brother Zico at Fenerbahce; the team has Brazilian members as Roberto Carlos's father Oscar Silva, Edu's brother and Fenerbahçe manager Zico, Fenerbahçe conditioner Moraci Vasconcelos Sant'anna, Marco Aurélio's uncle Sebastião and Edu Dracena's brother whom were all playing or coaching for Fenerbahçe at that time.

He was the assistant manager of Russia club CSKA Moscow, the team managed by his brother and Brazil football legend Zico. He is the assistant manager of Iraq national football team. Copa Rio Branco 1967 – Brazil Taça Guanabara: 1974 Bahia State Championship: 1975 Taça Rio 1982 Tournament of the Champions: 1982 Paraná State Championship: 1989 Rio State Championship: 1990 Turkcell Super League: 2007 Torneio Roberto Gomes Pedrosa's top scorer: 1969 Edu Coimbra at Edu Coimbra at J. League Fenerbahçe SK official website Profil on

Torbay and Brixham Railway

The Torbay and Brixham Railway was a 7 ft broad gauge railway in England which linked the Dartmouth and Torbay Railway at Churston railway station, Devon with the important fishing port of Brixham. It was a little over two miles long. Never more than a local branch line, it closed in 1963. In the middle of the nineteenth century Brixham was an important fishing port, but as railways were constructed they were slow to reach the town; the South Devon Railway opened its line to Newton Abbot—the station was called Newton at first—on 31 December 1846, to a Torquay station—now renamed Torre—on 18 December 1848. It was some time before the line was extended, it fell to a nominally independent company, the Dartmouth and Torbay Railway to build from Torre to Brixham Road station renamed Churston, opening to there on 1 April 1861; the station at Brixham was high above the town and two miles distant, the D&TR was focused on reaching Dartmouth. Seeing that the railway connection at "Brixham Road" was close, but inconvenient, a local solicitor and proprietor of the fishing harbour, Richard Walter Wolston, set about obtaining support for a line connecting Brixham itself.

By his efforts, the Torbay and Brixham Railway Company was incorporated by Act of Parliament on 25 July 1864 or 26 July 1864. The Company's share capital was £18,000 and Wolston himself subscribed £17,700; the contractor defaulted during construction, but due to Wolston's personal and financial resources, it was completed, opened on 28 February 1868 to passengers, goods traffic being handled from 1 May 1868. The line was 2m 6c in length. Wolston obtained the small locomotive Queen second hand, but the line was worked by the South Devon Railway at first; as well as passenger traffic, there was a dominant trade in fish. However Wolston was in dispute with that Company over the setting of commission for connecting traffic. Though that issue was corrected, the T&BR taking over the operation itself for a time, the line ran at a financial loss; the SDR had amalgamated with the GWR and the Bristol and Exeter Railway in 1876—the combined company maintained the name Great Western Railway. At this time the T&BR took over the operation of its line independently, evidently the GWR was supportive in this, lending them a relief locomotive when Queen was out of service.

In January 1877 the GWR sold another small engine, Raven, to the T&BR. It proved impossible to sustain the independent existence of the T&BR, a sale to the GWR was agreed on 19 May 1882. Now a remote branch of the GWR, the line continued in use. Soon the West of England lines of the GWR were to be converted from the original broad gauge of 7 ft to what was now standard gauge, 4 ft 8 1⁄2 in, the Brixham branch was part of the process, it was carried out between 20 May 1892 and 23 May 1892. The rise of road transport focussed the uneconomic nature of the branch, it was closed to all traffic in 1963; the railway station had a single platform and a goods shed opposite. An engine shed and another small goods yard were situated at the Churston end of the station, it was constructed on the hill above the town in order that the gradients between Brixham and Churston were not too steep. Brixham station became'Roxham station' for The System, a 1964 film. An scene early in the film sees most of the main characters at the station, either arriving on a train hauled by a British Rail Class 22 locomotive or waiting there to see, arriving in the town for a holiday.

Queen was built in 1852 by E. B. Wilson and Company and was used for several years at the Isle of Portland in the construction of a breakwater for the harbour there. Although the railway was worked by the South Devon Railway, the Torbay and Brixham Railway purchased this little locomotive to haul the trains; the South Devon Railway were to pay £3 per day for the facility, but the railway soon had to mortgage Queen to the South Devon for £350 to cover its debt to that company. In 1883 it passed to the Great Western Railway, which withdrew it from service. A second locomotive was ordered by the Torbay and Brixham Railway for the South Devon Railway, but in fact the latter company paid for it and it worked in its fleet. See South Devon Railway 2-4-0 locomotives for further information. Raven had been built for the South Devon Railway as part of their Raven class for shunting dockside lines at Plymouth. In 1877, now carrying their number 2175, it was sold by the Great Western Railway to the Torbay and Brixham to assist Queen.

After 1883 the Great Western Railway provided various small locomotives from its fleet to operate the Brixham branch. Up until 1892 broad gauge locomotives employed were the ex-South Devon Railway 2-4-0 Prince and members of the GWR Hawthorn Class 2-4-0T type. After the line was converted to standard gauge on 23 May 1892 a number of small tank locomotives, including the unique 4-4-0ST no. 13 were used on the line. In years standard GWR 1400 Class 0-4-2Ts worked the autotrain; the final trains were worked by British Rail Class 122 single-car DMUs. The Association of Train Operating Companies in 2009 indicated that Brixham would benefit from a passenger railway service; the First Great Western service to Paignton would be extended to Churston station on the Paignton and Dartmouth Steam Railway, a heritage railway. Churston would serve as a railhead for Brixham, serve housing developments in the area since the opening of the steam railway; however the study (Connecting

Religious persecution during the Soviet occupation of Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina

During the Soviet occupation, the religious life in Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina underwent a persecution similar to the one in Russia between the two World Wars. In the first days of occupation, certain population groups welcomed the Soviet power and some of them joined the newly established Soviet nomenklatura, including NKVD, the Soviet political police; the latter has used these locals to arrest numerous priests. Other priests were arrested and interrogated by the Soviet NKVD itself deported to the interior of the USSR, killed. Research on this subject is still at an early stage; as of 2007, the Christian Orthodox church has granted the martyrdom to circa 50 clergymen who died in the first year of Soviet occupation. In 1940–1941, some churches were sacked, transformed into public or utility buildings, or closed. Taxes were set, which the believers were obliged to pay if they wanted to pray and be allowed to hold the mass; when Romanian authorities returned after June 1941, churches and monasteries were rebuilt and opened again, but persecution resumed in 1944, when Soviet forces reconquered the territory.

The list below contains clergymen of any denomination. Like the majority of the population of the region, most of the people named below were Romanian Christian Orthodox. A person is listed below only if the church has used the term martyr in reference to the individual. In doing so, Christian churches have to follow a three-step rule: martyrium materialiter, martyrium formaliter ex parte tyranni, martyrium formaliter ex parte victimae. Alexandru Baltagă, founder of Bessarabian religious press in Romanian language, member of the Sfatul Țării Alexandru Motescu, a Bessarabian Romanian Orthodox priest in the city of Tighina. According to the deposition of several witnesses in face of the Comisia de triere in Buzău in 1941, at the onset of the Soviet occupation of Bessarabia, he was caught by a group of Communist supporters and violently mocked, his tongue and ears were cut he was taken to the altar, where he was set on fire, died in horrible pain. Artemie Munteanu, abbot of the Noul Neamţ Monastery Gheorghe Munteanu, a Bessarabian Romanian Orthodox priest.

In 1931, he graduated from the Faculty of Theology of the University of Iaşi, was ordained a priest in December 1931, being assigned to the Neruşai parish, Ismail County. On July 1, 1935, he became parish priest of the Regina Maria Church in a suburb of the city of Ismail, he was arrested in the summer of 1940 his hair was cut and his beard was shaved amidst demands that he renounce his faith. When he refused, his NKVD tormentors smashed his head on the steps of the Cathedral in Ismail; the people of the city buried him secretly. Religion in the Soviet Union Soviet anti-religious legislation Persecution of Christians in Warsaw Pact countries Persecution of Christians in the Soviet Union Persecutions of the Catholic Church and Pius XII USSR anti-religious campaign USSR anti-religious campaign USSR anti-religious campaign USSR anti-religious campaign USSR anti-religious campaign Eastern Catholic victims of Soviet persecutions Persecution of Muslims in the former USSR Persecution of Jehovah's Witnesses in the Soviet Union Red Terror

Hurricane Nate

Hurricane Nate was the costliest natural disaster in Costa Rican history. An unusually fast-moving tropical cyclone, it caused severe flooding in Central America, leading to widespread destruction and casualties, during early October 2017, before making landfall on the US Gulf Coast; the fourteenth named storm and ninth hurricane of the hyperactive 2017 Atlantic hurricane season, Nate originated from a broad area of low pressure over the southwestern Caribbean on October 3. The disturbance moved northwest, organizing into a tropical depression the next day and attaining tropical storm intensity early on October 5; the storm moved ashore the coastline of Nicaragua thereafter. Little change in strength occurred as the system continued into Honduras, Nate began steady intensification over the warm waters of the northwestern Caribbean Sea shortly thereafter, it attained hurricane strength while moving through the Yucatán Channel early on October 7, attaining peak winds of 90 mph in the central Gulf of Mexico that day.

Early on the next day, Nate made landfall near the mouth of the Mississippi River in Louisiana. After crossing the marshland of the Mississippi Delta, it made its second U. S. landfall near Biloxi, Mississippi early on October 8, causing a storm surge to flood the ground floor of coastal casinos and buildings, as well as causing rip currents, hurricane-force winds, beach erosion. Moving northwestward at 29 mph, Nate was the fastest-moving tropical system recorded in the Gulf of Mexico, it is the fourth Atlantic hurricane of 2017 to have made landfall in the United States or one of its territories. In addition, Nate was the first tropical cyclone to move ashore in the state of Mississippi since Hurricane Katrina. A total of 48 deaths were attributed to Nate: 16 deaths were counted in Nicaragua, 14 in Costa Rica, 5 in Guatemala, 7 in Panama, 3 in Honduras, 1 in El Salvador, 2 in the United States. An elongated surface trough of low pressure began interacting with an upper-level low across the northwestern Caribbean at the start of October, resulting in widespread cloudiness and scattered showers across the region.

Despite unusually low surface pressures, strong upper-level winds were forecast to prevent significant organization. During the afternoon hours of October 3, satellite imagery and surface observations indicated that a broad area of low pressure had formed over the extreme southwestern Caribbean; the disturbance began to show signs of strengthening immediately. The newly formed cyclone traveled on a northwest course during its incipience, steered by a ridge over the southwestern Atlantic. On October 4, the inner core convection blossomed, with a well-defined convective band on the eastern semicircle; the presence of a partial eyewall on the San Andres radar, coupled with surface observations from Nicaragua, incentivized the NHC to upgrade the depression to Tropical Storm Nate at 06:00 UTC on October 5. 6 hours the system had moved ashore just south of Puerto Cabezas. Combined with moderate southwesterly wind shear aloft, the storm's passage over the rugged terrains of Nicaragua and Honduras caused the cloud pattern to deteriorate, although its winds remained near tropical storm force.

This lapse in structure was temporary, however, as Nate redeveloped deep convection before re-emerging over water. Embedded within a larger cyclonic gyre across Central America, Nate maintained a northwesterly course across land, bringing the storm into the Gulf of Honduras during the early hours of October 6. Once over the warm waters of the northwestern Caribbean Sea, Nate began to strengthen despite its broad surface center and the disjointment of the maximum winds east from the center. A developing subtropical ridge over the western Atlantic turned the storm on a more north-northwest trajectory. NOAA and Air Force reserve reconnaissance aircraft sampling the system throughout the evening of October 6 confirmed continued intensification. Continued flow between the ridge over the western Atlantic and the Central American gyre propelled Nate into the Yucatán Channel and the Gulf of Mexico on October 7. Favorable environmental conditions allowed the strengthening to continue: Nate developed a symmetrical central dense overcast, featuring cloud tops cooler than −114 °F and a sizable eye underneath, attaining peak winds of 90 mph at 12:00 UTC.

The hurricane reached a minimum barometric pressure of 981 mbar 6 hours later. Impinging vertical wind shear caused Nate's convection to warm and lose structure, despite the storm's attempts to form a more distinct eye. Around 00:00 UTC on October 8, Nate made its first landfall near the mouth of the Mississippi River with winds of 85 mph. Deep convection migrated to the north and east of the center, a curve toward the north brought the storm ashore near Biloxi, Mississippi at 05:30 UTC with winds of 75 mph. Inland, Nate became embedded within the fast mid-latitude westerlies, causing the storm to accelerate north-northeast while weakening to a tropical storm 30 minutes later. Surface observations indicate