2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol
Eek is a city in Bethel Census Area, United States. At the 2010 census the population was 296. Eek is derived from an Eskimo word meaning "two eyes", it has been noted on lists of unusual place names. Eek is located at 60°13′7″N 162°1′33″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 1.0-square-mile, of which 0.9-square-mile is land and 0.1-square-mile is water. Eek is serviced by due southwest of the village. A second airport east of the village is the current site of a cellular transmission tower, but the runway remains in marginally usable condition and is used by private aircraft. A town dock provides access to the Eek River, which feeds into the Kuskokwim providing access to most surrounding villages by boat. During winter months many residents utilize travel by snow machine and trails are laid out between the villages in the area. Trails from Eek run to Quinhagak to the south, Tuntutuliak to the west and the Bethel area to the north. Lower Kuskokwim School District operates a bilingual PreK-12 school.
As of 2018 it has 120 students. Eek Village was located on the Apokak River and moved to its present location in the late 1920s, after flooding and erosion caused the people to relocate. In 1900 Census, the village had 118 residents. By 1910, the number of residents declined to 68. Eek appeared on the 1920 U. S. Census as an unincorporated village. In the 1930 Census, the village was enumerated in the Alaska Territory Fourth Judicial District, Bethel District, 0015. With 100 Residents in 18 households, it was formally incorporated in 1970. As of the census of 2000, there were 280 people, 76 households, 57 families residing in the city; the population density was 307.2 people per square mile. There were 83 housing units at an average density of 91.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 3.21% White, 95.71% Alaska Native/Yupik, 1.07% from two or more races. 0.36% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 76 households out of which 43.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.0% were married couples living together, 19.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 25.0% were non-families.
25.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 5.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.68 and the average family size was 4.54. In the city, the age distribution of the population shows 41.1% under the age of 18, 10.4% from 18 to 24, 27.9% from 25 to 44, 14.3% from 45 to 64, 6.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 24 years. For every 100 females, there were 120.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 117.1 males. The median income for a household in the city was $17,500, the median income for a family was $27,500; the per capita income for the city was $8,957. About 32.7% of families and 28.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 30.5% of those under the age of 18 and 10.0% of those 65 or over. A development has occurred. Community access points, in conjunction with the USDA Telecommunications Grant to provider UUI, are in place in 11 villages across the Yukon Kuskokwim Delta
Napaskiak is a city in Bethel Census Area, United States. At the 2010 census the population was 405, up from 390 in 2000. Napaskiak is located at 60°42′25″N 161°45′39″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 3.8 square miles, of which, 3.5 square miles of it is land and 0.3 square miles of it is water. Napaskiak first appeared on the 1880 U. S. Census as the unincorporated Inuit village of "Napaskiagamute." All 196 residents were Inuit. In 1890, it returned as "Napaskeagamiut." All residents that year were native. It did not appear on the census again under the present spelling of Napaskiak. In 1950 and 1960, it was returned under the spelling of "Napaiskak." The spelling was reverted to the prior Napaskiak in 1970. It was formally incorporated the following year; as of the census of 2000, there were 390 people, 82 households, 70 families residing in the city. The population density was 112.3 people per square mile. There were 95 housing units at an average density of 27.4 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the city was 1.54% White, 97.44% Native American, 0.26% Asian, 0.77% from two or more races. 0.26% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 82 households out of which 56.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.8% were married couples living together, 18.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 14.6% were non-families. 13.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 4.76 and the average family size was 5.24. In the city, the age distribution of the population shows 43.6% under the age of 18, 10.3% from 18 to 24, 27.7% from 25 to 44, 11.8% from 45 to 64, 6.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 22 years. For every 100 females, there were 104.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.4 males. The median income for a household in the city was $31,806, the median income for a family was $32,083.
Males had a median income of $25,469 versus $25,000 for females. The per capita income for the city was $8,162. About 16.9% of families and 20.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 20.1% of those under age 18 and 20.0% of those age 65 or over. Lower Kuskokwim School District operates the Zacharias John Williams Memorial School, PreK-12; as of 2018 it has 155 students, with 90% classified as learners of English as a second language, 85% are on free or reduced lunch programs, the majority are of Central Yupik Eskimo origins. That year the school had 34 employees, with four of them being native Alaskans; the current building opened in October 2016, the original building opened in 1982
Platinum is a city in Bethel Census Area, United States. The population was 61 at the 2010 census, up from 41 in 2000. Platinum is located at 59°00′47″N 161°48′59″W, it is located on Goodnews Bay adjacent to the mouth of the Small River and eleven miles southwest of Goodnews and the Kilbuck Mountains. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 44.7 square miles, of which, 44.6 square miles of it is land and 0.1 square miles of it is water. Platinum was named in the 1930s due to the platinum ore found in the area; the site was a mining boomtown by 1937 boasting a roadhouse, two trading posts and a population of fifty. A post office had been established in 1935. An earlier Eskimo village called; the town was incorporated as a city in 1975. Ray Petersen Flying Service was awarded the exclusive contract in 1937 to fly for the Goodnews Bay platinum and iridium mine, hauling miners and company supplies out of his base at Bethel, Alaska. During World War II, the Alaska Territorial Guard served to safeguard it against Japanese attack as it was the only source of the strategic metal platinum in the Western Hemisphere.
Platinum first appeared on the 1940 U. S. Census as an unincorporated village, it formally incorporated in 1975. As of the census of 2000, there were 41 people, 17 households, 9 families residing in the city; the population density was 0.9 people per square mile. There were 26 housing units at an average density of 0.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 7.32% White, 90.24% Native American, 2.44% from two or more races. There were 17 households out of which 47.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 29.4% were married couples living together, 11.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 41.2% were non-families. 41.2% of all households were made up of individuals and none had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.41 and the average family size was 2.90. In the city, the age distribution of the population shows 26.8% under the age of 18, 2.4% from 18 to 24, 43.9% from 25 to 44, 17.1% from 45 to 64, 9.8% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 32 years. For every 100 females, there were 105.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 130.8 males. The median income for a household in the city was $21,250, the median income for a family was $22,500; the per capita income for the city was $7,632. There are 33.3% of families living below the poverty line and 22.0% of the population, including 33.3% of under eighteens and none of those over 64 Lower Kuskokwim School District operates the Arvik School, K-12. Due to a decline in student enrollment it closed in Spring 2001, but it reopened in October 2007; as of 2018 the school had 20 students. In 1926, Walter Smith, an Eskimo, discovered what he thought was "white gold" at the mouth of Fox Gulch, a tributary of Platinum Creek. Samples sent to the United States Bureau of Mines in Fairbanks determined it was platinum. In 1928, Charles Thorsen discovered platinum in Clara Creek, while Edward St. Clair discovered platinum in Squirrel Creek. Consolidation of the subsequent mining claims resulted in Goodnews Bay Mining Co. and Clara Creek Mining Co. becoming the major operators mining these placer deposits containing 60 per cent platinum and 22 percent iridium.
The largest nugget weighed 1.5 ounces. These placers are found in the drainage east of Red Mountain, composed of dunite. However, platinum has not been found on the mountain. Goodnews Bay Mining Co. started operating a dragline excavator on Squirrel Creek on 11 Aug. 1934, on Platinum Creek and Fox Gulch in 1937. The company started operations with a dredge in Nov. 1937. The Clara Creek Mining Co. started mining operations on Clara Creek in 1936. A total of 3000 ounces of platinum metals were recovered from all mining operations between 1927 and 1934, 18,000 ounces between 1934 and 1937
A ZIP Code is a postal code used by the United States Postal Service in a system it introduced in 1963. The term ZIP is an acronym for Zone Improvement Plan; the basic format consists of five digits. An extended ZIP+4 code was introduced in 1983 which includes the five digits of the ZIP Code, followed by a hyphen and four additional digits that reference a more specific location; the term ZIP Code was registered as a servicemark by the U. S. Postal Service, but its registration has since expired; the early history and context of postal codes began with postal district/zone numbers. The United States Post Office Department implemented postal zones for numerous large cities in 1943. For example: The "16" was the number of the postal zone in the specific city. By the early 1960s, a more organized system was needed, non-mandatory five-digit ZIP Codes were introduced nationwide on July 1, 1963; the USPOD issued its Publication 59: Abbreviations for Use with ZIP Code on October 1, 1963, with the list of two-letter state abbreviations which are written with both letters capitalized.
An earlier list in June had proposed capitalized abbreviations ranging from two to five letters. According to Publication 59, the two-letter standard was "based on a maximum 23-position line, because this has been found to be the most universally acceptable line capacity basis for major addressing systems", which would be exceeded by a long city name combined with a multi-letter state abbreviation, such as "Sacramento, Calif." along with the ZIP Code. The abbreviations have remained unchanged, with the exception of Nebraska, changed from NB to NE in 1969 at the request of the Canadian postal administration, to avoid confusion with the Canadian province of New Brunswick. Robert Moon is considered the father of the ZIP Code; the post office only credits Moon with the first three digits of the ZIP Code, which describe the sectional center facility or "sec center." An SCF is a central mail processing facility with those three digits. The fourth and fifth digits, which give a more precise locale within the SCF, were proposed by Henry Bentley Hahn Sr.
The SCF sorts mail to all post offices with those first three digits in their ZIP Codes. The mail is sorted according to the final two digits of the ZIP Code and sent to the corresponding post offices in the early morning. Sectional centers do not deliver mail and are not open to the public, most of their employees work the night shift. Mail picked up at post offices is sent to their own SCF in the afternoon, where the mail is sorted overnight. In the case of large cities, the last two digits coincide with the older postal zone number thus: In 1967, these became mandatory for second- and third-class bulk mailers, the system was soon adopted generally; the United States Post Office used a cartoon character, which it called Mr. ZIP, to promote the use of the ZIP Code, he was depicted with a legend such as "USE ZIP CODE" in the selvage of panes of postage stamps or on the covers of booklet panes of stamps. In 1971 Elmira Star-Gazette reporter Dick Baumbach found out the White House was not using a ZIP Code on its envelopes.
Herb Klein, special assistant to President Nixon, responded by saying the next printing of envelopes would include the ZIP Code. In 1983, the U. S. Postal Service introduced an expanded ZIP Code system that it called ZIP+4 called "plus-four codes", "add-on codes", or "add-ons". A ZIP+4 Code uses the basic five-digit code plus four additional digits to identify a geographic segment within the five-digit delivery area, such as a city block, a group of apartments, an individual high-volume receiver of mail, a post office box, or any other unit that could use an extra identifier to aid in efficient mail sorting and delivery. However, initial attempts to promote universal use of the new format met with public resistance and today the plus-four code is not required. In general, mail is read by a multiline optical character reader that instantly determines the correct ZIP+4 Code from the address—along with the more specific delivery point—and sprays an Intelligent Mail barcode on the face of the mail piece that corresponds to 11 digits—nine for the ZIP+4 Code and two for the delivery point.
For Post Office Boxes, the general rule is. The add-on code is one of the following: the last four digits of the box number, zero plus the last three digits of the box number, or, if the box number consists of fewer than four digits, enough zeros are attached to the front of the box number to produce a four-digit number. However, there is no uniform rule, so the ZIP+4 Code must be looked up individually for each box; the ZIP Code is translated into an Intelligent Mail barcode, printed on the mailpiece to make it easier for automated machines to sort. A barcode can be printed by the sender, it is better to let the post office put one on. In general, the post office uses OCR technology, though in some cases a human might have to read and enter the address. Customers who send bulk mail can get a discount on postage if they have printed the barcode themselves and have presorted the mai
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy; the Census Bureau is part of the U. S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States; the Census Bureau's primary mission is conducting the U. S. Census every ten years, which allocates the seats of the U. S. House of Representatives to the states based on their population; the Bureau's various censuses and surveys help allocate over $400 billion in federal funds every year and it helps states, local communities, businesses make informed decisions. The information provided by the census informs decisions on where to build and maintain schools, transportation infrastructure, police and fire departments. In addition to the decennial census, the Census Bureau continually conducts dozens of other censuses and surveys, including the American Community Survey, the U. S. Economic Census, the Current Population Survey.
Furthermore and foreign trade indicators released by the federal government contain data produced by the Census Bureau. Article One of the United States Constitution directs the population be enumerated at least once every ten years and the resulting counts used to set the number of members from each state in the House of Representatives and, by extension, in the Electoral College; the Census Bureau now conducts a full population count every 10 years in years ending with a zero and uses the term "decennial" to describe the operation. Between censuses, the Census Bureau makes population projections. In addition, Census data directly affects how more than $400 billion per year in federal and state funding is allocated to communities for neighborhood improvements, public health, education and more; the Census Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations: the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, economy. The Census Bureau's legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States Code.
The Census Bureau conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, health, consumer expenditures, housing. Within the bureau, these are known as "demographic surveys" and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial population counts; the Census Bureau conducts economic surveys of manufacturing, retail and other establishments and of domestic governments. Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts; the Census Act of 1840 established a central office. Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses at the 10-year intervals. In 1902, the temporary Census Office was moved under the Department of Interior, in 1903 it was renamed the Census Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor; the department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their subordinate role in the department. An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every two years and agriculture censuses every 10 years.
In 1929, a bill was passed mandating the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census. In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the US Code. By law, the Census Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U. S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year; the United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. The Census Bureau regions are "widely used...for data collection and analysis". The Census Bureau definition is pervasive. Regional divisions used by the United States Census Bureau: Region 1: Northeast Division 1: New England Division 2: Mid-Atlantic Region 2: Midwest Division 3: East North Central Division 4: West North Central Region 3: South Division 5: South Atlantic Division 6: East South Central Division 7: West South Central Region 4: West Division 8: Mountain Division 9: Pacific Many federal, state and tribal governments use census data to: Decide the location of new housing and public facilities, Examine the demographic characteristics of communities and the US, Plan transportation systems and roadways, Determine quotas and creation of police and fire precincts, Create localized areas for elections, utilities, etc.
Gathers population information every 10 years The United States Census Bureau is committed to confidentiality, guarantees non-disclosure of any addresses or personal information related to individuals or establishments. Title 13 of the U. S. Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information. All Census employees must sign an affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment; the Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone including United States or foreign government
Portland is the largest and most populous city in the U. S. state of Oregon and the seat of Multnomah County. It is a major port in the Willamette Valley region of the Pacific Northwest, at the confluence of the Willamette and Columbia rivers; as of 2017, Portland had an estimated population of 647,805, making it the 26th-largest city in the United States, the second-most populous in the Pacific Northwest. 2.4 million people live in the Portland metropolitan statistical area, making it the 25th most populous MSA in the United States. Its Combined Statistical Area ranks 18th-largest with a population of around 3.2 million. 60% of Oregon's population resides within the Portland metropolitan area. Named after Portland, the Oregon settlement began to be populated in the 1830s near the end of the Oregon Trail, its water access provided convenient transportation of goods, the timber industry was a major force in the city's early economy. At the turn of the 20th century, the city had a reputation as one of the most dangerous port cities in the world, a hub for organized crime and racketeering.
After the city's economy experienced an industrial boom during World War II, its hard-edged reputation began to dissipate. Beginning in the 1960s, Portland became noted for its growing progressive political values, earning it a reputation as a bastion of counterculture; the city operates with a commission-based government guided by a mayor and four commissioners as well as Metro, the only directly elected metropolitan planning organization in the United States. The city government is notable for its land-use investment in public transportation. Portland is recognized as one of the world's most environmentally conscious cities because of its high walkability, large community of bicyclists, farm-to-table dining, expansive network of public transportation options, over 10,000 acres of public parks, its climate is marked by cool, rainy winters. This climate is ideal for growing roses, Portland has been called the "City of Roses" for over a century. During the prehistoric period, the land that would become Portland was flooded after the collapse of glacial dams from Lake Missoula, in what would become Montana.
These massive floods occurred during the last ice age and filled the Willamette Valley with 300 to 400 feet of water. Before American pioneers began arriving in the 1800s, the land was inhabited for many centuries by two bands of indigenous Chinook people—the Multnomah and the Clackamas; the Chinook people occupying the land were first documented in 1805 by Meriwether Lewis and William Clark. Before its European settlement, the Portland Basin of the lower Columbia River and Willamette River valleys had been one of the most densely populated regions on the Pacific Coast. Large numbers of pioneer settlers began arriving in the Willamette Valley in the 1830s via the Oregon Trail, though life was centered in nearby Oregon City. In the early 1840s a new settlement emerged ten miles from the mouth of the Willamette River halfway between Oregon City and Fort Vancouver; this community was referred to as "Stumptown" and "The Clearing" because of the many trees cut down to allow for its growth. In 1843 William Overton saw potential in the new settlement but lacked the funds to file an official land claim.
For 25 cents, Overton agreed to share half of the 640-acre site with Asa Lovejoy of Boston. In 1845 Overton sold his remaining half of the claim to Francis W. Pettygrove of Maine. Both Pettygrove and Lovejoy wished to rename "The Clearing" after their respective hometowns; this controversy was settled with a coin toss that Pettygrove won in a series of two out of three tosses, thereby providing Portland with its namesake. The coin used for this decision, now known as the Portland Penny, is on display in the headquarters of the Oregon Historical Society. At the time of its incorporation on February 8, 1851, Portland had over 800 inhabitants, a steam sawmill, a log cabin hotel, a newspaper, the Weekly Oregonian. A major fire swept through downtown in August 1873, destroying twenty blocks on the west side of the Willamette along Yamhill and Morrison Streets, causing $1.3 million in damage. By 1879, the population had grown to 17,500 and by 1890 it had grown to 46,385. In 1888, the city built the first steel bridge built on the West Coast.
Portland's access to the Pacific Ocean via the Willamette and Columbia rivers, as well as its easy access to the agricultural Tualatin Valley via the "Great Plank Road", provided the pioneer city with an advantage over other nearby ports, it grew quickly. Portland remained the major port in the Pacific Northwest for much of the 19th century, until the 1890s, when Seattle's deepwater harbor was connected to the rest of the mainland by rail, affording an inland route without the treacherous navigation of the Columbia River; the city had its own Japantown, for one, the lumber industry became a prominent economic presence, due to the area's large population of Douglas Firs, Western Hemlocks, Red Cedars, Big Leaf Maple trees. Portland developed a reputation early in its history as a gritty port town; some historians have described the city's early establishment as being a "scion of New England. In 1889, The Oregonian called Portland "the most filthy city in the Northern States", due to the unsanitary sewers and gutters, and, at the turn of the 20th century, it was considered one of the most dangerous port cities in the world.
The city housed a large number of saloons