Tumacácori National Historical Park
Tumacácori National Historical Park is located in the upper Santa Cruz River Valley in Santa Cruz County, southern Arizona. The park consists of 360 acres in three separate units; the park protects the ruins of three Spanish mission communities, two of which are National Historic Landmark sites. It contains the landmark 1937 Tumacácori Museum building a National Historic Landmark; the first Spanish Colonial Jesuit missions in the locale were established in 1691, Mission San Cayetano de Tumacácori and Mission Los Santos Ángeles de Guevavi, are the two oldest missions in southern Arizona. The Franciscan church of Mission San José de Tumacácori, across the river from and replacing Mission San Cayetano de Tumacácori, was built in the 1750s; the third mission was established in Mission San Cayetano de Calabazas. The Mission San José de Tumacácori complex is open to the public. Nearby are the park's visitor center and the Tumacácori Museum in a historic Mission Revival style building; the Guevavi and Calabazas missions are not open to the general public, but can be visited on reserved tours led by park staff.
The Tumacácori missions complex was protected as Tumacácori National Monument, in 1908 by President Theodore Roosevelt. It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places on October 15, 1966. In 1990 the national monument was redesignated a National Historical Park; the Guevavi and Calabazas mission units were added to the Tumacácori missions complex unit, within the new Tumacácori National Historical Park. The site was on the route of the 1775-1776 Juan Bautista de Anza Expedition from New Spain to Alta California, the first Spanish overland expedition to claimed but un-colonized upper Las Californias territory. A 4.5 miles segment of the Juan Bautista de Anza National Historic Trail lies along the Santa Cruz River between Tumacácori National Historical Park and Tubac Presidio State Historic Park. Mission San José de Tumacácori was established in 1691 by Jesuit padre Eusebio Kino in a different nearby location, it was established one day before Mission Los Santos Ángeles de Guevavi, making it the oldest Jesuit mission site in southern Arizona.
The first mission was named Mission San Cayetano de Tumacácori, established at an existing native O'odham or Sobaipuri settlement on the east side of the Santa Cruz River. After the Pima rebellion of 1751, the mission was moved to the present site on the west side of the Santa Cruz River and renamed San José de Tumacácori. By 1848, the mission began falling into severe disrepair. In 1854 it became a part of the U. S. Arizona Territory, after the Gadsden Purchase. Restoration and stabilization efforts began in 1908 when the site was declared Tumacácori National Monument by President Theodore Roosevelt. In 1990 it became part of the new Tumacácori National Historical Park. Tumacácori Museum was built in 1937 within what was Tumacácori National Monument and is now Tumacácori National Historical Park. Designed by Scofield Delong, it contains interpretative displays relating to three historic missions preserved within the park, includes artwork created by artist Herbert A. Collins; the museum building, a fine example of Mission Revival style architecture, with Spanish Colonial Revival details, was declared a National Historic Landmark in 1987.
Movies with scenes filmed in the park include: Duel in the Sun directed by King Vidor Young Guns II directed by Geoff Murphy Boy's on the Side directed by Herbert Ross Spanish missions in Arizona Spanish missions in the Sonoran Desert Hispanic Heritage Site "Tumacácori National Historical Park". National Park Service. "San Antonio de Oquitoa Mission". Mission Churches of the Sonoran Desert. University of Arizona. Historic American Buildings Survey No. AZ-3, "San Jose de Tumacacori, Santa Cruz County, AZ", 15 photos, 45 measured drawings, 6 data pages "Juan Bautista de Anza National Historic Trail". National Park Service
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy; the Census Bureau is part of the U. S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States; the Census Bureau's primary mission is conducting the U. S. Census every ten years, which allocates the seats of the U. S. House of Representatives to the states based on their population; the Bureau's various censuses and surveys help allocate over $400 billion in federal funds every year and it helps states, local communities, businesses make informed decisions. The information provided by the census informs decisions on where to build and maintain schools, transportation infrastructure, police and fire departments. In addition to the decennial census, the Census Bureau continually conducts dozens of other censuses and surveys, including the American Community Survey, the U. S. Economic Census, the Current Population Survey.
Furthermore and foreign trade indicators released by the federal government contain data produced by the Census Bureau. Article One of the United States Constitution directs the population be enumerated at least once every ten years and the resulting counts used to set the number of members from each state in the House of Representatives and, by extension, in the Electoral College; the Census Bureau now conducts a full population count every 10 years in years ending with a zero and uses the term "decennial" to describe the operation. Between censuses, the Census Bureau makes population projections. In addition, Census data directly affects how more than $400 billion per year in federal and state funding is allocated to communities for neighborhood improvements, public health, education and more; the Census Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations: the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, economy. The Census Bureau's legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States Code.
The Census Bureau conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, health, consumer expenditures, housing. Within the bureau, these are known as "demographic surveys" and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial population counts; the Census Bureau conducts economic surveys of manufacturing, retail and other establishments and of domestic governments. Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts; the Census Act of 1840 established a central office. Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses at the 10-year intervals. In 1902, the temporary Census Office was moved under the Department of Interior, in 1903 it was renamed the Census Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor; the department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their subordinate role in the department. An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every two years and agriculture censuses every 10 years.
In 1929, a bill was passed mandating the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census. In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the US Code. By law, the Census Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U. S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year; the United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. The Census Bureau regions are "widely used...for data collection and analysis". The Census Bureau definition is pervasive. Regional divisions used by the United States Census Bureau: Region 1: Northeast Division 1: New England Division 2: Mid-Atlantic Region 2: Midwest Division 3: East North Central Division 4: West North Central Region 3: South Division 5: South Atlantic Division 6: East South Central Division 7: West South Central Region 4: West Division 8: Mountain Division 9: Pacific Many federal, state and tribal governments use census data to: Decide the location of new housing and public facilities, Examine the demographic characteristics of communities and the US, Plan transportation systems and roadways, Determine quotas and creation of police and fire precincts, Create localized areas for elections, utilities, etc.
Gathers population information every 10 years The United States Census Bureau is committed to confidentiality, guarantees non-disclosure of any addresses or personal information related to individuals or establishments. Title 13 of the U. S. Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information. All Census employees must sign an affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment; the Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone including United States or foreign government
Mission San José de Tumacácori
Mission San José de Tumacácori is a historic Spanish mission preserved in its present form by Franciscans in 1828. Mission San Cayetano del Tumacácori was established by Jesuits in 1691 in a location near a Sobaipuri settlement on the east side of the Santa Cruz River. Services were held in a small adobe structure built by the inhabitants of the village. After the O'odham rebellion of 1751 the mission was abandoned for a time. In 1752, the village was reestablished and in 1753 the church of the Mission San José de Tumacácori began construction at the present site on the west side of the Santa Cruz River; this first church structure was erected for use by the mission in 1757. The architectural style of the church is Spanish Colonial. Rumors spread within the Spanish kingdom that the Jesuit priests had amassed a fortune on the peninsula and were becoming powerful. On February 3, 1768 King Carlos III ordered the Jesuits forcibly expelled from the Viceroyalty of New Spain and returned to Spain; the mission is now part of Tumacácori National Historical Park, which contains three separate sections.
This mission site is included in the Tumacácori National Historical Park that extends for 360 acres, is open to the public daily. Spanish missions in Arizona Spanish Missions in the Sonoran Desert Presidio San Ignacio de Tubac Di Peso, Charles C. 1956. The Amerind Foundation, Inc. Dragoon, Arizona. Dobyns, Henry F. 1959. Prepared for the Arizona State Parks Board 15 March 1959, Reformatted by Tubac Presidio State Historical Park August 1995 and revised. Available on line at: http://parentseyes.arizona.edu/tubac/index.html Doyel, D. E. 1977 Excavations in the Middle Santa Cruz River Valley, Southeastern Arizona. Contribution to Highway Salvage Archaeology in Arizona, Number 44. Arizona State Museum, University of Arizona, Tucson. Fratt, Lee, 1981. Publications in Anthropology 16. Tucson, AZ: Western Archaeological and Conservation Center, National Park Service. Seymour, Deni J. 1993. Report submitted to Arizona State Parks in fulfillment of survey and planning grant contract requirements. Seymour, Deni J. 2007a.
New Mexico Historical Review, Volume 82, no. 4. Seymour, Deni J. 2008. New Mexico Historical Review, Volume 83, no. 2. Seymour, Deni J. 2007b. International Journal of Historical Archaeology, Vol. 11:269-296. Http://www.springerlink.com/content/w43p168015123202/fulltext.html NPS—Tumacácori National Historical Park: Mission San José de Tumacácori NPS—Kino Missions: Mission San José de Tumacácori Mission San José de Tumacácori Photographs and architectural drawings of Tumacacori Mission from Historic American Buildings Survey
The Apache are a group of culturally related Native American tribes in the Southwestern United States, which include the Chiricahua, Lipan, Salinero and Western Apache. Distant cousins of the Apache are the Navajo, with which they share the Southern Athabaskan languages. There are Apache communities in Oklahoma and reservations in Arizona and New Mexico. Apache people have moved throughout the United States and elsewhere, including urban centers; the Apache Nations are politically autonomous, speak several different languages and have distinct cultures. The Apache homelands have consisted of high mountains and watered valleys, deep canyons and the southern Great Plains, including areas in what is now Eastern Arizona, Northern Mexico (Sonora and New Mexico, West Texas, Southern Colorado; these areas are collectively known as Apacheria. The Apache tribes fought the invading Mexican peoples for centuries; the first Apache raids on Sonora appear to have taken place during the late 17th century. In 19th-century confrontations during the American-Indian wars, the U.
S. Army found the Apache to be skillful strategists; the following Apache tribes are federally recognized: Apache Tribe of Oklahoma Fort Sill Apache Tribe of Oklahoma Jicarilla Apache Nation, New Mexico Mescalero Apache Tribe of the Mescalero Reservation, New Mexico San Carlos Apache Tribe of the San Carlos Reservation, Arizona Tonto Apache Tribe of Arizona White Mountain Apache Tribe of the Fort Apache Reservation, Arizona Yavapai-Apache Nation of the Camp Verde Indian Reservation, ArizonaThe Jicarilla are headquartered in Dulce, New Mexico, while the Mescalero are headquartered in Mescalero, New Mexico. The Western Apache, located in Arizona, is divided into several reservations, which crosscut cultural divisions; the Western Apache reservations include the Fort Apache Indian Reservation, San Carlos Apache Indian Reservation, Yavapai-Apache Nation and Tonto-Apache Reservation. The Chiricahua were divided into two groups; the majority moved to the Mescalero Reservation and form, with the larger Mescalero political group, the Mescalero Apache Tribe of the Mescalero Apache Reservation, along with the Lipan Apache.
The other Chiricahua are enrolled in the Fort Sill Apache Tribe of Oklahoma, headquartered in Apache, Oklahoma. The Plains Apache are located in Oklahoma, headquartered around Anadarko, are federally recognized as the Apache Tribe of Oklahoma; the people who are known today as Apache were first encountered by the Conquistadors of the Spanish Crown, thus the term Apache has its roots in the Spanish language. The Spanish first used the term "Apachu de Nabajo" in the 1620s, referring to people in the Chama region east of the San Juan River. By the 1640s, they applied the term to southern Athabaskan peoples from the Chama on the east to the San Juan on the west; the ultimate origin is uncertain and lost to Spanish history. Modern Apache people today, the US government, maintain use of the Spanish term to describe themselves and tribal functions. Indigenous lineages who speak the language, handed down to them would refer to themselves and their people in that language's term Inde meaning "person" and/or "People".
Distant cousins and a subgroup of the Apache are the Navajo Peoples who in their own language refer to themselves as the Diné. The first known written record in Spanish is by Juan de Oñate in 1598; the most accepted origin theory suggests Apache was borrowed and transliterated from the Zuni word ʔa·paču meaning "Navajos". Another theory suggests the term comes from Yavapai ʔpačə meaning "enemy"; the Zuni and Yavapai sources are less certain because Oñate used the term before he had encountered any Zuni or Yavapai. A less origin may be from Spanish mapache, meaning "raccoon"; the fame of the tribes' tenacity and fighting skills bolstered by dime novels, was known among Europeans. In early 20th century Parisian society, the word Apache was adopted into French meaning an outlaw; the term Apachean includes the related Navajo people. Many of the historical names of Apache groups that were recorded by non-Apache are difficult to match to modern-day tribes or their subgroups. Over the centuries, many Spanish and English-speaking authors did not differentiate between Apache and other semi-nomadic non-Apache peoples who might pass through the same area.
Most Europeans learned to identify the tribes by translating their exonym, what another group whom the Europeans encountered first called the Apache peoples. Europeans did not learn what the peoples called themselves, their autonyms. While anthropologists agree on some traditional major subgrouping of Apaches, they have used different criteria to name finer divisions, these do not always match modern Apache groupings; some scholars do not consider groups residing in. In addition, an Apache individual has different ways of identification with a group, such as a band or clan, as well as the larger tribe or language grouping, which can add to the difficulties in an outsider comprehending the distinctions. In 1900, the U. S. government classified the members of the Apache tribe in the United States as Pinal Coyotero, Mescalero, San Carlos and White Mountain Apache. The different groups were located in Arizona, New Mexico, Oklahoma. In the 1930s, the anthropologist Grenville Goodwin classified the Western Apache into five groups: White Mountain, San Carlos, North Tonto, South Tonto.
Since other anthropologists (e.g. Albert Sc
Sonoita Creek is a stream in Santa Cruz County, Arizona. It originates near and takes its name from the abandoned Pima mission in the high valley near Sonoita, it flows for the first 15 miles of its westward course past Patagonia, its bird sanctuary and Patagonia Lake, but sinks beneath the sand seven to eight miles before joining the Santa Cruz River a few miles north of Nogales. This confluence provides water for Tumacácori and Tubac and collects in the marsh lands around San Xavier del Bac downstream, to the north; the Santa Rita Mountains lie to the north and the Canelo Hills, Red Mountain and the Patagonia Mountains lie to the south. Harshaw Creek is a southern tributary. Harshaw Creek drains the area between the Patagonia Mountains to the west and the high San Rafael Valley grasslands to the east; the ghost town of Harshaw lies within its watershed. Sonoita Creek contains black bullhead, red shiner, crayfish, American bullfrogs, largemouth bass, Gila topminnows, speckled dace, longfin dace, Sonora suckers, desert suckers.
The New Mexico and Arizona Railroad paralleled the Sonoita Creek for a portion of the railroad's route. The route ran from a connection with the Southern Pacific Railroad in Benson south to Fairbank west to Sonoita - Patagonia and Rio Rico south to Nogales; the railroad was constructed in 1881–82 and was abandoned in five phases between 1927 and 1962. Only 15.74 km of track remains in place today, from Rio Rico to Nogales, is operated by the Union Pacific Railroad. List of Arizona rivers Patagonia Lake State Park and Sonoita Creek State Natural Area Map of Santa Cruz County
Arizona is a state in the southwestern region of the United States. It is part of the Western and the Mountain states, it is the 14th most populous of the 50 states. Its capital and largest city is Phoenix. Arizona shares the Four Corners region with Utah and New Mexico. Arizona is the 48th state and last of the contiguous states to be admitted to the Union, achieving statehood on February 14, 1912, coinciding with Valentine's Day. Part of the territory of Alta California in New Spain, it became part of independent Mexico in 1821. After being defeated in the Mexican–American War, Mexico ceded much of this territory to the United States in 1848; the southernmost portion of the state was acquired in 1853 through the Gadsden Purchase. Southern Arizona is known for its desert climate, with hot summers and mild winters. Northern Arizona features forests of pine, Douglas fir, spruce trees. There are ski resorts in the areas of Flagstaff and Tucson. In addition to the Grand Canyon National Park, there are several national forests, national parks, national monuments.
About one-quarter of the state is made up of Indian reservations that serve as the home of 27 federally recognized Native American tribes, including the Navajo Nation, the largest in the state and the United States, with more than 300,000 citizens. Although federal law gave all Native Americans the right to vote in 1924, Arizona excluded those living on reservations in the state from voting until the state Supreme Court ruled in favor of Native American plaintiffs in Trujillo v. Garley; the state's name appears to originate from an earlier Spanish name, derived from the O'odham name alĭ ṣonak, meaning "small spring", which applied only to an area near the silver mining camp of Planchas de Plata, Sonora. To the European settlers, their pronunciation sounded like "Arissona"; the area is still known as alĭ ṣonak in the O'odham language. Another possible origin is the Basque phrase haritz ona, as there were numerous Basque sheepherders in the area. A native Mexican of Basque heritage established the ranchería of Arizona between 1734 and 1736 in the current Mexican state of Sonora, which became notable after a significant discovery of silver there, c.
1737. There is a misconception. For thousands of years before the modern era, Arizona was home to numerous Native American tribes. Hohokam and Ancestral Puebloan cultures were among the many that flourished throughout the state. Many of their pueblos, cliffside dwellings, rock paintings and other prehistoric treasures have survived, attracting thousands of tourists each year; the first European contact by native peoples was with Marcos de Niza, a Spanish Franciscan, in 1539. He explored parts of the present state and made contact with native inhabitants the Sobaipuri; the expedition of Spanish explorer Coronado entered the area in 1540–1542 during its search for Cíbola. Few Spanish settlers migrated to Arizona. One of the first settlers in Arizona was José Romo de Vivar. Father Kino was the next European in the region. A member of the Society of Jesus, he led the development of a chain of missions in the region, he converted many of the Indians to Christianity in the Pimería Alta in the 1690s and early 18th century.
Spain founded presidios at Tubac in 1752 and Tucson in 1775. When Mexico achieved its independence from the Kingdom of Spain and its Spanish Empire in 1821, what is now Arizona became part of its Territory of Nueva California known as Alta California. Descendants of ethnic Spanish and mestizo settlers from the colonial years still lived in the area at the time of the arrival of European-American migrants from the United States. During the Mexican–American War, the U. S. Army occupied the national capital of Mexico City and pursued its claim to much of northern Mexico, including what became Arizona Territory in 1863 and the State of Arizona in 1912; the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo specified that, in addition to language and cultural rights of the existing inhabitants of former Mexican citizens being considered as inviolable, the sum of US$15 million dollars in compensation be paid to the Republic of Mexico. In 1853, the U. S. acquired the land south below the Gila River from Mexico in the Gadsden Purchase along the southern border area as encompassing the best future southern route for a transcontinental railway.
What is now known as the state of Arizona was administered by the United States government as part of the Territory of New Mexico until the southern part of that region seceded from the Union to form the Territory of Arizona. This newly established territory was formally organized by the Confederate States government on Saturday, January 18, 1862, when President Jefferson Davis approved and signed An Act to Organize the Territory of Arizona, marking the first official use of the name "Territory of Arizona"; the Southern territory supplied the Confederate government with men and equipment. Formed in 1862, Arizona scout companies served with the Confederate States Army duri
George A. Grant
George Alexander Grant was an American photographer who served as the first Chief Photographer for the U. S. National Park Service. Grant was born in Milton, Pennsylvania, on March 4, 1891, grew up in Sunbury, Pennsylvania. After graduating high school, he had a series of manufacturing jobs before gaining employment in 1912 as a master craftsman and metalsmith at the Roycroft Community in East Aurora, New York. Roycroft was renowned for its craftsmanship of furnishings and other architectural pieces that were popular during the Arts and Crafts Movement in the early 20th century. Following America's entry in to World War I in 1917, Grant enlisted in the Army, he was sent to Fort D. A. Russell remained there until war's end. Following his discharge he returned to Pennsylvania to work at a series of construction and factory jobs, all the time yearning to return to the West. In early 1921, he wrote a letter to the chief ranger at Yellowstone National Park inquiring about a position, but nothing came from the correspondence.
Upon learning that the park had a new chief ranger in 1922, he wrote again. This time the ranger, Sam Woodring, passed the information on to park superintendent Horace Albright. Both men liked Grant's resume, notably his experience in Wyoming during the war, offered him a seasonal ranger position for the summer of 1922, it is unclear if Grant brought a camera with him to the park or located one after his arrival, but he began taking photographs and teaching himself how to process and print film. Superintendent Albright was impressed with his work and encouraged him to snap pictures when he was not involved in other duties. At summer's end, Grant was awarded a permanent ranger position. However, following a horseback accident, he realized that he was not suited to the strenuous demands of back country ranger work and there was not enough photographic work during the winter to justify his employment. In early 1923, George Grant took photography courses in New York City and accepted a position as a photographer for Pennsylvania State College.
He held the position for four years serving as an instructor in photography. During that time, he maintained a steady correspondence with Horace Albright seeking an opportunity to return to the National Park Service. In 1927, a position was approved for a Park Service photographer. Grant drove to southern California to begin work. However, no funding was allocated for the position in the 1928 budget. In early 1929, Albright succeeded Park Service Director Stephen Mather, gravely ill, Hall located outside funding to support a photography position for 18 months. With those two pieces in place, George Grant was hired as the Park Service's first staff photographer in April, 1929, was based at the NPS Educational Division headquarters at the University of California Berkeley. During his first field season, he traveled thousands of miles in a Park Service vehicle to produce photographs at more than a dozen national parks across the West and Southwest. In November 1929, he gave presentations on the value of photography in the parks to attendees of the first Park Naturalists Conference, held in Berkeley.
In 1931, Grant was promoted to Chief Photographer and transferred to Washington, D. C. Grant remained a lifelong bachelor, but spent many holidays and vacations visiting his parents in Pennsylvania, his younger brother who lived with his wife and three daughters in Snow Hill, Maryland. Following the inauguration of President Franklin D. Roosevelt in March of 1933, Grant's workload expanded. In June, Roosevelt signed an executive order nearly doubling the size of the Park Service with the addition of many national monuments, historic sites, national battlefields, he accompanied teams traveling to different regions to survey for planned or proposed national parks. Among these were trips to the Great Smoky Mountains, along the route of the planned Natchez Trace Parkway, to southern Arizona and Sonora, Mexico, to the Big Bend of Texas, to the North Cascades of Washington. Grant continued active work with the Park Service and the Department of the Interior until his retirement in 1954. Among his final projects was the documentation of historic sites and artifacts threatened by the rising waters of the Missouri River and its tributaries that were dammed as part of the Pick–Sloan Missouri Basin Program.
After his retirement, Grant was recognized with a Meritorious Service Award from the National Park Service. After his death in 1964, he was further recognized as an "Eminent Photographer" by the Park Service. George Grant produced between 40,000 images during his year career with the Park Service. Of those only10% were published, his photographs have been featured in exhibitions, magazines, park brochures, other documents. Because of their significance to NPS history, Grant's images have been included in the National Park Service Historic Photograph Collection. George A. Grant photographs for National Park Service This article incorporates text from the Eminent National Park Service Photographers website, a public domain document. Davis and Helen, Landscapes for the People: George Alexander Grant, First Chief Photographer of the National Park Service; the University of Georgia Press. U. S. government works in Wikipedia: Public domain NPS: "George A. Grant, a biogr