Kelantan is a state of Malaysia. The capital and royal seat is Kota Bharu; the honorific of the state is Darul Naim. Kelantan is positioned in the north-east of Peninsular Malaysia, it is bordered by Narathiwat Province of Thailand to the north, Terengganu to the south-east, Perak to the west and Pahang to the south. To the north-east of Kelantan is the South China Sea. Kelantan is located in the north-eastern corner of the peninsula. Kelantan, said to translate as the "Land of Lightning", is an agrarian state with green paddy fields, rustic fishing villages and casuarina-lined beaches. Kelantan is home to some of the most ancient archaeological discoveries in Malaysia, including several prehistoric aboriginal settlements. Due to Kelantan's relative isolation and rural lifestyle, Kelantanese culture differs somewhat from Malay culture in the rest of the peninsula. There are a number of suggestions for the origin of the name Kelantan. One theory proposes that the word Kelantan comes from a modified version of the word gelam hutam, i.e. the Malay word for the cajuput, or swamp tea tree.
Other theories claim that the name comes from the Malay word kilatan,'shiny/glittery' or kolam tanah,'clay pool'. Kelantan was called Kalantan by the Siamese. Another quoted suggestion is that'Kelantan' derived from the Indian'Kolaan Thana' or'Kolaam Thana', which meant'Land of Kolaan' or'Land of Kolaam', the term'kolaan' or'kolaam' referring to the floor paintings/diagrams in the numerous Hindu temples which dotted the land in the ancient days.'Kolaan Thana' or'Kolaam Thana' became'Kelantan' to fit in better with the speaking dialect of the local people. Kelantan's early history is not clear, but archaeological findings show Kelantan's evidence as a human settlement in prehistoric times. Early Kelantan had links to the Funan Kingdom, the Khmer Empire, Sri Vijaya and Siam. Around 1411, Raja Kumar, the ruler of Kelantan, became independent of Siam, Kelantan became an important centre of trade by the end of the 15th century. In 1499, Kelantan became a vassal state of the Malacca Sultanate. With the fall of Malacca in 1511, Kelantan was divided up and ruled by petty chieftains, paying tribute to Patani the supreme Malay Kingdom of the eastern peninsula.
By the early 17th century, most of these Kelantan chiefs became subject to Patani. The legendary Cik Siti Wan Kembang was said to have reigned over Kelantan sometime between the 16th and 17th centuries. Around 1760, Long Yunus, an aristocratic warlord of Patani origin succeeded in unifying the territory of present-day Kelantan and enthroned by his father-in-law Ku Tanang Wangsa, Regent of Terengganu as Yang di-Pertuan Muda or Deputy Ruler of Kelantan. Long Yunus was succeeded in 1795 by his son-in-law Tengku Muhammad Sultan Mansur of Terengganu; the enthronement of Tengku Muhammad by Terengganu was opposed by Long Yunus' sons, thus triggering a war against Terengganu by Long Muhammad, the eldest son of Long Yunus. The pro-Terengganu faction was defeated in 1800 and Long Muhammad ruled Kelantan with the new title of Sultan as Sultan Muhammad I; the death of childless Long Muhammad triggered another civil war among claimants to the throne. His nephew and son of Long Tan, Long Senik Mulut Merah, triumphed over his uncles and cousins and assumed the throne in 1835 as Sultan Muhammad II.
Sultan Muhammad II leveraged on his loose alliance with Siam to form the modern Kelantan state, centered in his new fort on the eastern bank of the Kelantan river, which became Kota Bharu in 1844. Under the terms of the Anglo-Siamese Treaty of 1909, the Thais relinquished their claims over Kelantan, Terengganu and Perlis to Great Britain, Kelantan thus became one of the Unfederated Malay States with a British Adviser. Kelantan was where the Japanese first landed during their invasion of Malaya, on 8 December 1941. In 1943, Kelantan became a province of Thailand. Kelantan reverted to British protection upon the end of World War 2 in August 1945. Kelantan became part of the Malayan Union in 1946 and the Federation of Malaya on 1 February 1948, together with other Malayan states attained independence on 31 August 1957. On 16 September 1963, Kelantan became one of the states of Malaysia. Rising high on the slopes of Gunung Korbu, the second highest peak in Peninsular Malaysia, the Nengiri River flows east to merge first with the Galas, with the Lebir — the latter born in the wilds of Taman Negara National Park — before turning decisively northwards and emptying into the shallow waters of the South China Sea.
From Kuala Krai the conjoined streams become the Kelantan River, a broad, mud-coloured stream which dominates the fertile coastal plains and defines the geography of the region. The Kelantan River valley is a fertile rice-bowl, rich in hardwoods and rubber and lush with tropical fruits. For centuries, Kelantan was all but separated from the rest of the country by the Titiwangsa Mountains, a mountain range running from north to south through the peninsula. Weeks of hard travel were required to reach Kelantan; the "easy way" to Kelantan was to sail around the peninsula, braving pirates. For this reason Kelantan's history involves the sea, boats. Today, many of its people are much tied to the sea. A discussion with many coastal residents will confirm that their ancestors, as far back a
Malaysian Malays are Malaysians of Malay ethnicity whose ancestry originates wholly or in the Malay world. In 2015 population estimate, Malaysian Malays form 50.8% of the total population of Malaysia or 15.7 million people. They can be broadly classified into two main categories; the Malays proper consist of those individuals who adhere to the Malay culture native to the coastal areas of Malay peninsula and Borneo. Among notable groups include the Bruneians, Kelantanese, Pahang and Terengganuans. On the other hand, the foreign Malays consist of descendants of immigrants from other part of Malay archipelago who became the citizens of the Malay sultanates and were absorbed and assimilated into Malay culture at different times, aided by similarity in lifestyle and common religion. A large number of foreign Malays or anak dagang have Acehnese, Bugis, Javanese and Minangkabau ancestries. There are a minority of Malays who are descended from more recent immigrants from many other countries who have assimilated into Malay Muslim culture.
The identification of Malay with Islam traces its origin to the 15th century when vigorous ethos of Malay identity were developed and transmitted during the time of Melaka Sultanate. Common definitive markers of a Malayness are thought to have been promulgated during this era, resulting in the ethnogenesis of the Malay as a major ethnoreligious group in the region. In literature, culinary traditions, traditional dress, performing arts, martial arts, royal court traditions, Melaka set a standard that Malay sultanates emulated. Today, the most accepted elements of Malayness; as a still functioning Malay sultanate, Brunei proclaimed Malay Islamic Monarchy as its national philosophy. In Malaysia, where the supremacy of individual Malay sultanates and the position of Islam are preserved, a Malay identity is defined in Article 160 of the Constitution of Malaysia. Article 160 defines a Malay as someone born to a Malaysian citizen who professes to be a Muslim, habitually speaks the Malay language, adheres to Malay customs and is domiciled in Malaysia, Singapore or Brunei.
This definition is perceived by some writers as loose enough to include people of a variety of ethnic backgrounds which can be defined as "Malaysian Muslims" and therefore differs from the anthropological understanding of what constitutes an ethnic Malay. However, there exist Muslim communities in Malaysia with distinctive cultures and spoken languages, that cannot be categorised constitutionally as Malay; this include Muslim communities that have not embraced the Malayness like Tamil Muslims and Chinese Muslims. This constitutional definition had established the historical Malay ethnoreligious identity in Malaysian legal system, where it has been suggested that a Malay cannot convert out of Islam as illustrated in the Federal Court decision in the case of Lina Joy; as of 2010 census, Malays made up 50.1% of the population of Malaysia. The Malay World, home of the various Malayic Austronesian tribes since the last Ice age, exhibits fascinating ethnic,linguistic and cultural variations; the indigenous Animistic belief system, which employed the concept of semangat in every natural objects, was predominant among the ancient Malayic tribes before the arrival of Dharmic religions.
Deep in the estuary of the Merbok River, lies an abundance of historical relics that have unmasked several ceremonial and religious architectures devoted for the sun and mountain worshiping. At its zenith, the massive settlement sprawled across a thousand kilometers wide, dominated in the northern plains of Malay Peninsular. On contemporary account, the area is known as the lost city of Sungai Batu. Founded in 535 BC, it is the oldest testament of civilisation in Southeast Asia and a potential progenitor of the Kedah Tua kingdom. In addition to Sungai Batu, the coastal areas of Malay peninsular witnessed the development of other subsequent ancient urban settlements and regional polities, driven by a predominantly cosmopolitan agrarian society, thriving skilled craftsmanship, multinational merchants and foreign expatriates. Chinese records noted the names of Akola, P’an P’an, Tun-Sun, Chieh-ch'a, Ch'ih-tu, Lang-ya-xiu among few. Upon the fifth century AD, these settlements had morphed into a sovereign city-states, collectively fashioned by an active participation in the international trade network and hosting diplomatic embassies from China and India.
Between the 7th and 13th centuries, many of these small, prosperous peninsula maritime trading states, became part of the mandala of Srivijaya, The Islamic faith arrived on the shores of Malay peninsula from around the 12th century. The earliest archaeological evidence of Islam is the Terengganu Inscription Stone dating from the 14th century. By the 15th century, the Melaka Sultanate, whose hegemony reached over much of the western Malay Archipelago, had become the centre of Islamisation in the east. Islamisation developed an ethnoreligious identity in Melaka with the term'Melayu' begins to appear as interchangeable with Melakans in describing the cultural preferences of the Melakans as against the foreigners, it is believed that Malayisation intensified within Strait of Malacca region following the territorial and commercial expansion of the sultanate in the mid 15th century. In 1511, the Melakan capital fell into the hands of Portuguese
Wakaf Bharu is a small town in Tumpat district, northern Kelantan, Malaysia. Beside the mosque and several surau, there is a church in Wakaf Bharu. Examples of housing estates in Wakaf Bharu area are Kawasan Perumahan SBJ, Taman Sri Palas and Taman Sri Delima, 16250 Wakaf Bharu Kelantan. More than 90 percent at this area are Malays and Muslims. Wakaf Bharu becomes crowded on Friday because there is a well-known market called "Friday Market" near "Pasar Besar Wakaf Bharu" or Wakaf Bharu Big Market. Two primary schools called "Sekolah Kebangsaan Wakaf Bharu" and "Sekolah Sri Wakaf Bharu" and a secondary school called "Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Wakaf Bharu" are located here; the town is served by Wakaf Bharu railway station of Keretapi Tanah Melayu. Wakaf Bharu station is in fact the major disembarkation station for passengers headed towards Kota Bharu, as Kota Bharu itself has no rail service
Vehicle registration plates of Malaysia
Malaysian registration plates are displayed at the front and rear of all private and commercial motorised vehicles in Malaysia, as required by law. The issuing of the number plates is regulated and administered by the Malaysian Road Transport Department or JPJ. Latest number plate being issued can be checked; the following are examples of the formats used. Number plates are issued and are formatted for any motorised vehicle that runs on rubber tyres, including most road-legal private and industrial vehicles, emergency vehicles, selected heavy equipment. With the exception of those issued for taxis, vehicle dealers and diplomats, all vehicle number plates in Malaysia have white characters on black background for both front and rear plates, regardless of the vehicle type. Standards for number plate designs have been defined by the Road Transport Department but are only practiced to an extent. Character size and colour use are more enforced for accurate identification and optimum visibility. However, the dimensions of the plates displaying the license number are more loosely enforced.
While many vehicles display plates in regulation dimensions or are housed in dealer plate frames with standardised dimensions, some license plates are outlined to fit into vastly larger recessed spaces holding the rear license plates, or appear with reduced or custom dimensions where no proper alcoves exist, as practiced on the front fenders and fairings of most motorcycles and the front of sports cars. A compact version of Arial Bold is the typeface preferred by the Road Transport Department and is thus the most used, but other easy-to-read typefaces are acceptable. Common alternative choices include Charles Wright, used on Singaporean, Hong Kongese, British plates, FE-Schrift, used on German plates and is thus popular among Malaysian owners of cars with European marques German brands and models. More obscure custom typefaces have been known to be used on grey import vehicles and aftermarket licence plates. Early Malaysian number plates were made of pressed metal, but were superseded by plastic plates since the 1970s, with characters either printed on or molded in plastic pieces.
Reason for usage of plastics plates are cost metal theft are rampant in Malaysia. However, the biggest disadvantage of using plastic plates are fragile, easy to reproduce which giving advantages to criminals such as car cloning syndicates, missing letters due to adhesive no longer able to stick on the background plate which causing the vehicle unable to identified by law enforcers. Standardised number plates are being discussed by JPJ from 2016 to include RFID chip and made from pressed metal. With the exception of Kuala Lumpur and Langkawi plates, taxis, vehicle dealers and diplomats, all Peninsular Malaysian number plates for private and commercial type motor vehicles with the exceptions of those used by taxis, vehicle dealers and diplomats follow a Sxx #### algorithm. S - The state or territory prefix. X - The alphabetical sequences. # - The number sequence. The exceptions in the algorithm are as follows: There can be no leading zeroes in the number sequence; the letters I and O are omitted from the alphabetical sequences due to their similarities with the numbers 1 and 0.
The letters Z is reserved for use on Malaysian military vehicles. The algorithm started with a state prefix and a number sequence which ranged from 1 to 9999. For example, P 1 would be the first registration plate of Penang. Once P 9999 was achieved, an alphabetical sequence was added to the right of the state prefix; when PA 9999 was reached, the number sequence was reset and the alphabetical sequence progressed. After PY 9999 was achieved, a second alphabetical sequence was added to the right of the first alphabetical sequence; when PAY 9999 was reached, the second alphabetical sequence was reset and the first alphabetical sequence progressed. As the most registered number plate series in the country, the W series' traditional 7-character format became the first in Peninsular Malaysia to be exhausted when WYY 9999 was reached on 26 September 2013. To allow further W plates, the algorithm was altered to feature an alphabetical suffix behind the number sequence, resetting at W 1 A; when W 9999 Y was achieved, the second alphabetical sequence emerged between the state prefix and number sequence, leading to WA 1 A.
When WA 9999 Y is met, the first alphabetical sequence will reset and the second alphabetical sequence will advance, giving WB 1 A. When WY 9999 Y is reached, a third new alphabetical sequence will be spliced into the algorithm, between the second alphabetical sequence and number sequence, resulting in WAA 1 A; the series will end. The new format would theoretically allow a vastly larger number of registered plates, better addressing the risk of exhaustion of numbers, but is subject of conflicts with a certain series of Singaporean number plates On 18 May 2016, less than three years into the implementation of the extended W series, the Transport Ministry, on the request of
Kelantan State Legislative Assembly
The Kelantan State Legislative Assembly is the unicameral state legislature of the Malaysian state of Kelantan. It consists of 45 members representing single-member constituencies throughout the state. Elections are held no more than five years apart; the State Legislative Assembly convenes at the Kota Darul Naim in Kota Bharu. The Kelantan State Legislative Assembly enacts legislation concerning matters in the State List and Joint List defined in the Federal Constitution; the Speaker presides over debates in the Assembly. The leader of the majority party or coalition in the Assembly is appointed Menteri Besar by the Sultan of Kelantan; the person who assumes the role of Menteri Besar appoints the state's executive council, or EXCO, drawing from members of the Assembly. The Assembly contains two administrative committees, namely: Public Accounts Committee Select Committee The 14th General Election witnessed 37 governmental seats and 8 non-governmental seats filled the Kelantan State Legislative Assembly.
The government side has 6 safe seats and 5 safe seats. However, none of the non-government side has safe and safe seat. List of State Seats Representatives in Malaysia State legislative assemblies of Malaysia Kelantan State Government official website
The Malaysian Chinese consist of people of Chinese—particularly Han Chinese—ancestry who were born in or immigrated to Malaysia. The great majority of this group of people are descendants of those who arrived between the early 19th century and the mid-20th century, they are traditionally dominant in the business sector of the Malaysian economy. Malaysian Chinese form the second largest community of Overseas Chinese in the world, after Thailand. Within Malaysia, they represent the second largest ethnic group after the ethnic Malay majority, they are simply referred to as "Chinese" in Malaysia, Orang Cina in Malay, Sinar in Tamil, Huaren or Huaqiao by Chinese themselves. Most of the Chinese in Malaysia are of Min, Yue and Teochew speaking ancestry, different towns and cities in Malaysia may be dominated by different Chinese dialects among Chinese speakers, for example Cantonese in Kuala Lumpur and Hokkien in Penang. Culturally, most Malaysian Chinese have maintained their Chinese heritage, including their various dialects, although the descendants of the earliest Chinese migrants who arrived from the 15th to 17th centuries have assimilated aspects of the Malay culture, they form a distinct subethnic group known as the Peranakan, or Baba-Nyonya.
The Chinese population in Malaysia has been declining percentage-wise since Malayan independence, from 37.6% in 1957 to 24.6% in 2010 and 21.4% in 2015. This is due to a lower birthrate as well as a high level of emigration in recent decades. According to a report by the World Bank, the Malaysian diaspora around the world in 2010 numbered at around a million, with most of them ethnic Chinese, the main reasons for emigrating are better economic and career prospects abroad as well as a sense of social injustice within Malaysia; the large number of emigrants, many of whom are young and educated, resulted in a significant problem of "brain drain" in Malaysia. The first wave of Han Chinese settlers came during the Malacca Empire in the early 15th century; the friendly diplomatic relations between China and Malacca culminated during the reign of Sultan Mansur Syah, who married the Chinese princess Hang Li Po. A senior minister of state and five hundred youths and maids of noble birth accompanied the princess to Malacca.
Admiral Zheng He had brought along 100 bachelors to Malacca. The descendants of this wave, many of whom are of Hokkien ancestry, adapted to the customs of local Malays while retaining parts of their ancestral culture, they are called Baba for their menfolk and Nyonya for the females. They speak a creole termed Baba Malay, a colloquial form of Malay mixed with Hokkien words. Chinese immigrants from the controlled ports of Fujian and Guangdong provinces, were attracted by the prospect of work in the tin mines and rubber plantations as well as the possibility of opening up new farmlands at the beginning of the 19th century until the 1930s in British Malaya. Chinese immigration to British Malaya and Straits Settlements was encouraged by the British and the Malay sultans to work in the mines and plantations; this group was responsible for establishing the many Chinese-medium schools in Malaya and are Chinese-educated. Some such as Koh Lay Huan escaped from China due to rebellious activities against the Qing dynasty.
Some Nationalist refugees fled to Singapore, North Borneo and Malaya after the Nationalists Kuomintang lost the civil war to avoid persecution or execution by the Communist party of China. This period of immigration however ceased by the 1940s, by 1947, most of the Chinese in peninsular Malaya were born locally. A much smaller wave came after the 1990s and they were Mandarin speaking Chinese from northern China; these were foreign spouses married to Malaysian Chinese. Some national sports coaches such as badminton coach Han Jiang could only obtain permanent residency after repeated rejections of their citizenship applications. However, diving coach Huang Qiang managed to obtain his Malaysian citizenship. China is the largest participant in Malaysia's foreign residency scheme called'Malaysia My Second Home'. According to department of statistics Malaysia July 2003, the composition of each dialect are as follows; the largest dialect group are the Min Nan people with a total of about 2.748 million.
The Min Nan dialect group consists of the following subgroups. The Hoklo people from Quanzhou and Zhangzhou is the largest Chinese language group in Malaysia; the first wave of Hoklo chinese settled in Malacca where they are concentrated, with some in Penang. These early settlers are called Peranakan; the second wave of Hoklo Chinese settled in Malaya from the 19th century onwards and dominated the rubber plantation and financial sectors of the Malayan economy and formed the largest language group in many states. The Zhangzhou Hokkien migrated to the northern part of the peninsula including Penang, Perak, Kedah and Terengganu whereas the Quanzhou Hokkien migrated to the southern part of the peninsula, including Selangor and Johor; the Quanzhou Hokkien migrated to larger towns in Sarawak such as Kuching and Sibu. Teochew immigrants from the Chaoshan region of Guangdong in China began to settle in Malaya in large numbers from the 18th century onwards in Province Wellesley part of Penang state as well as in a part of Kedah state found in the Kuala Muda district.
These immigrants were chiefly responsible for setting up pepper plantations in Malaya. More Teochew immigrated to Johor at the encouragement of Temenggong Ibrahim in the 19th century, many new towns were esta
Keretapi Tanah Melayu
Keretapi Tanah Melayu Berhad or Malayan Railways Limited is the main rail operator in Peninsular Malaysia. The railway system dates back to the British colonial era. Known as the Federated Malay States Railways and the Malayan Railway Administration, Keretapi Tanah Melayu acquired its current name in 1962; the organisation remains wholly owned by the Malaysian government. The 1,000 mm gauge railway network in Peninsular Malaysia, controlled by KTMB consists of two main lines and several branch lines. Most of the lines are made out of ballasted system and locally made concrete sleepers, which had replaced wooden sleepers as early as 1982 for the Kerdau-Jerantut and Sungai Yu-Tumpat lines; the West Coast Line runs from Padang Besar railway station close to the Malaysia-Thailand Border in Perlis to Woodlands Train Checkpoint in Singapore. It is called the West Coast line; the train runs through most of the major stations in the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia, such as KL Sentral in Kuala Lumpur and Butterworth railway station in Butterworth, Penang.
The East Coast Line runs between Gemas railway station, in Negeri Sembilan and Tumpat railway station, in Kelantan. Gemas is the rail junction between the West Coast line and the line itself. Like the West Coast Line, it is called the East Coast Line because it serves two of Peninsular Malaysia's East Coast states, namely Pahang and Kelantan. In fact, it does not run along the coast at all and only meets the South China Sea when it terminates at Tumpat railway station, it runs through the interior through deep jungle, thus earning the nickname Jungle Railway. Terengganu is the only state in Peninsular Malaysia not served by the KTM railway network, though it will be so in the upcoming ECRL project. There are several branch lines running from the two main lines. Bukit Mertajam - Butterworth Port Klang - Kuala Lumpur - Batu Caves Padang Besar - Butterworth Padang Rengas-Bukit Mertajam Butterworth-Gurun Port Klang - Pulau Indah Kempas - Tanjung Pelepas Kempas - Pasir Gudang Butterworth - North Butterworth Container Terminal Pasir Mas - Rantau Panjang - Hat Yai Seremban - Port Dickson Falim - Tronoh Kuang - Batu Arang - Batang Berjuntai Tampin - Melaka Town Taiping - Port Weld Bukit Kuda - Jeram - Kuala Selangor Bahau - Kuala Pilah Tapah Road - Teluk Intan - Teluk Intan Wharf Salak Selatan - Ampang Junction - Sultan Street Ampang Junction - Ampang Singapore, Woodlands Train Checkpoint - Bukit Timah - Tanjong Pagar The total length of the network was 1,699 km, however due to the closure and subsequent removal of the section of tracks between Tanjong Pagar railway station and Woodlands Train Checkpoint, the new total length of the network is 1,677 km.
The West Coast main line is double tracked and electrified to 25 kV AC between Padang Besar railway station on the Malaysian-Thai border and Butterworth railway station, south-wards to the Gemas railway station. The branch lines between Batu Junction and Batu Caves Komuter station, between Port Klang Junction and the Port Klang Komuter station are double-tracked and electrified; the remainder of the West Coast main line from Gemas railway station to Woodlands Train Checkpoint in Singapore, as well as the entire East Coast Line from Gemas railway station to Tumpat railway station, is on single track and not electrified. Following the consolidation of all state railway entities in Malaya, Malayan Railway inherited a fleet of British-made steam locomotives, a variation of locomotives introduced to Malaya since its first railway line went into operation. Dieselisation in Malaya began after MR's formation with the launch of its first diesel engine, a Class 15 shunter, in 1948. Efforts by MR to convert to diesel power between the 1950s and 1970s drove steam locomotives out of service - with whatever left of the fleet massively retired in 1972.
KTM drew its diesel rolling stock from a multitude of locomotive companies from England, Japan and more India and China. The company had ventured in the use of DMUs. Electric trains were only introduced in 1995 with the launch of the KTM Komuter commuter service. Consisting of three models of 3-car EMUs, the Komuter EMUs, were for a long time the only electric trains in Malaysia. In 2010, introduction of the KTM ETS services from Kuala Lumpur to Ipoh brought electric traction to long distance travel; as of present, most of the West Coast Main Line are run by ETS and on some sections, Komuter services except for the Gemas to Johor Bahru section, where double tracking works are still in the process. The following is a list of locomotives in the KTM fleet - some have since been retired: Diesel locomotives 20 Class 15 diesel-electric shunters, manufactured by English Electric's Vulcan Foundry in Lancashire, United Kingdom. Brought in 1948 15 Class 17 diesel-hydraulic shunters, manufactured by K