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Tunisia

Tunisia the Republic of Tunisia, is a country in the Maghreb region of North Africa, covering 163,610 square kilometres. Its northernmost point, Cape Angela, is the northernmost point on the African continent. Tunisia is bordered by Algeria to the west and southwest, Libya to the southeast, the Mediterranean Sea to the north and east. Tunisia's population was 11.5 million in 2017. Tunisia's name is derived from its capital city, located on its northeast coast. Geographically, Tunisia contains the eastern end of the Atlas Mountains, the northern reaches of the Sahara desert. Much of the rest of the country's land is fertile soil, its 1,300 kilometres of coastline include the African conjunction of the western and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Basin and, by means of the Sicilian Strait and Sardinian Channel, feature the African mainland's second and third nearest points to Europe after Gibraltar. Tunisia is a unitary semi-presidential representative democratic republic, it is considered to be the only democratic sovereign state in the Arab world.

It has a high human development index. It has an association agreement with the European Union. In addition, Tunisia is a member state of the United Nations and a state party to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. Close relations with Europe, in particular with France and with Italy, have been forged through economic cooperation and industrial modernization. In ancient times, Tunisia was inhabited by Berbers. Phoenician immigration began in the 12th century BC. A major mercantile power and a military rival of the Roman Republic, Carthage was defeated by the Romans in 146 BC; the Romans occupied Tunisia for most of the next 800 years, introduced Christianity and left architectural legacies like the El Djem amphitheater. After several attempts starting in 647, Muslims conquered the whole of Tunisia by 697 and introduced Islam. After a series of campaigns beginning in 1534 to conquer and colonize the region, the Ottoman Empire established control in 1574 and held sway for over 300 years afterwards.

French colonization of Tunisia occurred in 1881. Tunisia gained independence with Habib Bourguiba and declared the Tunisian Republic in 1957. In 2011, the Tunisian Revolution resulted in the overthrow of President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, followed by parliamentary elections; the country voted for parliament again on 26 October 2014, for President on 23 November 2014. As a result, Tunisia is the only country in North Africa classified as "Free" by the Freedom House organization and is considered by The Economist Magazine's Democracy Index as the only democracy in the Arab World; the word Tunisia is derived from Tunis. The present form of the name, with its Latinate suffix -ia, evolved from French Tunisie, in turn associated with the Berber root ⵜⵏⵙ, transcribed tns, which means "to lay down" or "encampment", it is sometimes associated with the Punic goddess Tanith, ancient city of Tynes. The French derivative Tunisie was adopted in some European languages with slight modifications, introducing a distinctive name to designate the country.

Other languages remained untouched, such as Spanish Túnez. In this case, the same name is used for both country and city, as with the Arabic تونس‎, only by context can one tell the difference. Before Tunisia, the territory's name was Ifriqiya or Africa, which gave the present-day name of the continent Africa. Farming methods reached the Nile Valley from the Fertile Crescent region about 5000 BC, spread to the Maghreb by about 4000 BC. Agricultural communities in the humid coastal plains of central Tunisia were ancestors of today's Berber tribes, it was believed in ancient times that Africa was populated by Gaetulians and Libyans, both nomadic peoples. According to the Roman historian Sallust, the demigod Hercules died in Spain and his polyglot eastern army was left to settle the land, with some migrating to Africa. Persians became the Numidians; the Medes settled and were known as Mauri Moors. The Numidians and Moors belonged to the race from; the translated meaning of Numidian is Nomad and indeed the people were semi-nomadic until the reign of Masinissa of the Massyli tribe.

At the beginning of recorded history, Tunisia was inhabited by Berber tribes. Its coast was settled by Phoenicians starting as early as the 12th century BC; the city of Carthage was founded in the 9th century BC by Phoenicians. Legend says that Dido from Tyre, now in modern-day Lebanon, founded the city in 814 BC, as retold by the Greek writer Timaeus of Tauromenium; the settlers of Carthage brought their culture and religion from Phoenicia, now present-day Lebanon and adjacent areas. After the series of wars with Greek city-states of Sicily in the 5th century BC, Carthage rose to power and became the dominant civilization in the Western Mediterranean; the people of Carthage worshipped a pantheon of Middle Eastern gods including Tanit. Tanit's symbol, a simple female figure with extended arms and long dress, is a popular icon found in ancient sites; the founders of Carthage established a Tophet, alt

Vargas Era

The Vargas Era is the period in the history of Brazil between 1930 and 1945, when the country was under the dictatorship of Getúlio Vargas. The Brazilian Revolution of 1930 marked the end of the Old Republic. President Washington Luís was deposed. Federal intervention in state governments increased and the political landscape was altered by suppressing the traditional oligarchies of São Paulo and Minas Gerais states; the Vargas Era comprises three successive phases: the period of the Provisional Government, when Vargas governed by decree as Head of the Provisional Government instituted by the Revolution, pending the adoption of a new Constitution. The period of the Constitution of 1934, when a new Constitution was drafted and approved by the Constituent Assembly of 1933–1934 and Vargas, elected by the Constituent Assembly under the transitional provisions of the Constitution, governed as President alongside a democratically elected legislature; the Estado Novo period, instituted when, in order to perpetuate his rule, Vargas imposed a new, quasi-totalitarian Constitution in a coup d'état and shut down the Legislature, ruling Brazil as a dictator.

The period from 1930 to 1937 is known as the Second Brazilian Republic, the other part of Vargas Era, from 1937 till 1946 is known as the Third Brazilian Republic. The deposition of Getúlio Vargas and his Estado Novo regime in 1945 and the subsequent re-democratization of Brazil with the adoption of a new Constitution in 1946 mark the end of the Vargas Era and the beginning of the period known as the Fourth Brazilian Republic; the tenente rebellion did not mark the revolutionary breakthrough for Brazil's bourgeois social reformers, but the ruling paulista coffee oligarchy could not withstand the economic meltdown of 1929. Brazil's vulnerability to the Great Depression had its roots in the economy's heavy dependence on foreign markets and loans. Despite limited industrial development in São Paulo, the export of coffee and other agricultural products was still the mainstay of the economy. Days after the U. S. stock market crash on October 29, 1929, coffee quotations fell 30% to 60%. And continued to fall.

Between 1929 and 1931, coffee prices fell from 22.5 cents per pound to 8 cents per pound. As world trade contracted, the coffee exporters suffered a vast drop in foreign exchange earnings; the Great Depression had a more dramatic effect on Brazil than on the United States. The collapse of Brazil's valorization program, a safety net in times of economic crisis, was intertwined with the collapse of the central government, whose base of support resided in the landed oligarchy; the coffee planters had grown dangerously dependent on government valorization. For example, in the aftermath of the recession following World War I, the government was not short of the cash needed to bail out the coffee industry, but between 1929–30, world demand for Brazil's primary products had fallen far too drastically to maintain government revenues. By the end of 1930, Brazil's gold reserves had been depleted, pushing the exchange rate down to a new low; the program for warehoused coffee collapsed altogether. The government of President Washington Luís faced a deepening balance-of-payments crisis and the coffee growers were stuck with an unsaleable harvest.

Since power rested on a patronage system, wide-scale defections in the delicate balance of regional interests left the regime of Washington Luís vulnerable. Government policies designed to favor foreign interests further exacerbated the crisis, leaving the regime alienated from every segment of society. Following the Wall Street panic, the government attempted to please foreign creditors by maintaining convertibility according to the money principles preached by the foreign bankers and economists who set the terms for Brazil's relations with the world economy, despite lacking any support from a single major sector in Brazilian society. Despite capital flight, Washington Luís clung to a hard-money policy, guaranteeing the convertibility of the Brazilian currency into gold or British sterling. Once the gold and sterling reserves were exhausted amid the collapse of the valorization program, the government was forced to suspend convertibility of the currency. Foreign credit had now evaporated. A populist governor of Brazil's southernmost Rio Grande do Sul state, Vargas was a cattle rancher with a doctorate in law and the 1930 presidential candidate of the Liberal Alliance.

Vargas was a member of the gaucho-landed oligarchy and had risen through the system of patronage and clientelism, but had a fresh vision of how Brazilian politics could be shaped to support national development. He came from a region with a positivist and populist tradition, was an economic nationalist who favored industrial development and liberal reforms. Vargas built up political networks, was attuned to the interests of the rising urban classes. In his early years Vargas relied on the support of the tenentes of the 1922 rebellion. Vargas understood that with the breakdown of direct relations between workers and owners in the growing factories of Brazil, workers could become the basis for a new form of political power – populism. Using such insights, he established such mastery over the Brazilian political world that, upon achieving power, he stayed in power for 15 years. During this time, as the stranglehold of the agricultural elites eased, new urban industrial leaders acquired more infl

Charles Meysey-Thompson

Revd. Charles Maude Meysey-Thompson was an English clergyman who, as an amateur footballer, won the FA Cup in 1873 with the Wanderers, he played in the 1876 FA Cup Final for the Old Etonians and for the Scottish XI in the last representative match against England in 1872. Born in York as Charles Maude Thompson, he was the son of Sir Harry Meysey-Thompson, 1st Baronet and Elizabeth Anne Croft, his brothers included Henry and Ernest. Thompson was educated at Eton College before going up to Trinity College, Cambridge where he matriculated in 1868, he graduated in 1872 with a Bachelor of Arts degree, was awarded his Master's degree in 1876. In 1872, he was unplaced in throwing the hammer. Thompson played football at Cambridge University. Whilst at the University, he was selected as a late replacement for Henry Primrose to represent Scotland in a match against England on 24 February 1872, it would appear that his only connection with Scotland was that the family owned property "north of the border". His brother Albert represented England.

Thompson followed his brother Albert and joined the Wanderers, for whom he made his first appearance on 14 February 1872 in a 6–1 victory over the Civil Service. Despite having only played one other match for them, he was selected for the Wanderers in their defence of the FA Cup in the 1873 FA Cup Final played at Lillie Bridge on 29 March 1873. In the final, the Wanderers defeated Oxford University 2–0, with goals from Arthur Kinnaird and Charles Wollaston. Thompson played a further four games for the Wanderers at the start of the 1873–74 season and played seven matches for them in total, he played for the Old Etonians and in 1876 he was selected to play alongside his brother in the Cup Final match against his former club, the Wanderers. By now, the family had adopted the name "Meysey-Thompson", although Albert played under the name "Thompson" and Charles under the name "Meysey". Two other pairs of brothers played in this match; this is the only occasion. The match was replayed a week later. Thompson was ordained as a Church of England priest and became curate at Whitby in 1873.

In 1875, he became curate at St. Pancras in London for a year before becoming rector at Middle Claydon in Buckinghamshire in 1876. In 1881, he was visiting Utah in the United States in the hope of improving his declining health, but he died at Peoa on 11 September aged 31. In 1874, he married daughter of Sir James Walker, 1st Baronet, of Sand Hutton. Wanderers FA Cup winners: 1873Old Etonians FA Cup finalists: 1876