History of a Voyage to the Land of Brazil
History of a Voyage to the Land of Brazil, Also Called America, is an account published by the French Huguenot Jean de Léry in 1578 about his experiences living in a Calvinist colony in the Guanabara Bay in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. After the colony dissolved, De Léry spent two months living with the Tupinambá Indians. Brazil was the first area of the Americas explored by the French. At the time of Jean de Léry’s History of a Voyage to the Land of Brazil, Also Called America, the French and the Portuguese were in competition for control of the resources of Brazil. While reports of cannibalism among the indigenous people were widespread, interactions with the natives showed that they were friendly. At the time, it was common practice to use Europeans who had spent time with the indigenous peoples as interpreters to help the Europeans communicate with the natives. In the years preceding de Léry’s writing of History of a Voyage to the Land of Brazil, Also Called America, the Portuguese had begun their effort to colonize Brazil, so the influence of the French was fading, though pockets of French control and influence still existed in Brazil.
This fading influence coincided with the Portuguese's exploration of the Amazon river delta, though tade between the people of Brazil and the English and the Dutch was increasing. A product of the competition for control of the lands of Brazil between the French and the Portuguese in Brazil was the creation of tribal alliances, with the Tupinamba, the group referred to in History of a Voyage to the Land of Brazil, Also Called America, siding with the French against the Tupiniquim, who allied themselves with the Portuguese. In this era of first contacts, the understanding of the indigenous peoples were being informed by the accounts of early explorers like de Léry and the Portuguese explorers, so much of what was known to new arrivals about the indigenous peoples game from reports like de Léry's; these other accounts had some thematic similarities to de Léry’s, such as the usage of tribe names to describe the people or the frequent use of gender-indicating nouns like “man” or “woman”. Thus, de Léry was writing in a different historical context from those accounts emerging from Africa, which emphasized racial elements more than they emphasized gender or non-racial elements.
Jean de Léry was born to an upper-class family in 1534 in France. He was well-educated. Léry was alive during the Wars of Religion time-period in France between the Protestants and the Catholics, it was during this time that the Genevan church was recruiting Frenchmen to be trained as missionaries of the Reformed Gospel. Léry joined this group but instead of returning to France, in November 1556, he and a group of thirteen Calvinist ministers were sent to Brazil, they were to create the first Protestant mission in the New World. Upon his return to France in 1558, he got married, he became a Protestant minister near Lyon. He joined Protestant troops in the French religious wars where he used knowledge he gained from his expeditions in Brazil to help him and other soldiers to survive. In 1613, he died of the plague at the age of 79; the book has 22 chapters, with Chapter 1 discussing the motive behind the voyage to Brazil and Chapters 2-5 describing the sights and events that occurred during the voyage to Brazil.
Chapters 6-20 consist of Léry describing the land of Brazil, the physical description of the indigenous people, the behaviors and customs of the indigenous people. Lastly, Chapters 21 and 22 recount the departure from Brazil and the trip back to France; the book contains detailed descriptions of the plants and indigenous people in the new world for the French. Léry describes the physical characteristics of the Tupinamba people and details the modifications they make to their bodies, as well as their comfortability with being nude. Lery describes the constitution of the average Tupinamba person: Not taller, fatter, or smaller in stature than we Europeans are. In fact, they are more nimble, less subjected to disease; when describing the skin tone of the average Tupinamba person Lery states They are not dark, but of tawny shade, like the Spanish or provencals Léry discusses how the Tupinamba people are comfortable with being naked the women. We tried several times to give them dresses and shifts it has never been our power to make them wear clothes: to such a point were they resolved not to allow anything at all on their bodies Much of the chapter is dedicated to describing various body modifications Lery witnessed among men and women of the Tupinamba nation including, but not limited to, tattoos and piercings.
Lery states that men more modify their bodies than women do. Lery describes a tradition of piercing the lower lip in young boys and inserting a bone an inch wide and that can be removed at any time. On this page he describes how after birth, babies have their noses pushed in to make their noses seem
André Thevet was a French Franciscan priest, explorer and writer who travelled to Brazil in the 16th century. He described the country, its aboriginal inhabitants and the historical episodes involved in the France Antarctique, a French settlement in Rio de Janeiro, in his book The New Found World, or Antarctike. Thevet was born in Angoulême. At ten years of age, he entered the convent of Franciscans of Angoulême. Not much impressed by religion, he preferred to read books, he visited Italy at the same time as Guillaume Rondelet. In 1549, thanks to the support of John, Cardinal of Lorraine, he embarked in an extended exploration trip to Asia, Rhodes and Egypt, he accompanied the French ambassador Gabriel de Luetz to Istanbul. Upon his return to France in 1554, he published an account of this voyage under the title of Cosmography of the Levant. After this, he set sail again as the chaplain of the fleet of vice-admiral Nicolas Durand de Villegaignon to colonize Brazil. In the New World, he collected many specimens of animals and minerals, as well as aboriginal potteries and weapons.
Thevet died in Paris. Thevet relied on the accounts of the French sailors to write his most important work, the Singularities of France Antarctique, it had many coarse errors and extravagant accounts, but it described for the first time native plants used by the Indians, such as the manioc, pineapples and tobacco, as well as the macaw and tapir. Father Thevet was an able historiographer who published in 1584 eight volumes about the life of famous people, he became the chaplain of Catherine de' Medici and official historiographer and cosmographer of the king. Antarctic France Old Tupi Cantacuzene, J. M. Frère André Thevet. Miscellanea. Bogliolo Bruna, introduzione, traduzione e note delle Singolarità della Francia Antarctica di André Thevet, Reggio Emilia, Diabasis, 247 p. 1997 Lestringant, Frank. Sous la leçon des vents: le monde d'André Thevet, cosmographe de la Renaissance. Presses Paris Sorbonne. Trudel, Marcel. "Thevet, André". In Brown, George Williams. Dictionary of Canadian Biography. I. University of Toronto Press
The Tupi people were one of the most numerous peoples indigenous to Brazil, before colonisation. Scholars believe that while they first settled in the Amazon rainforest, from about 2,900 years ago the Tupi started to migrate southward and occupied the Atlantic coast of Southeast Brazil; the Tupi people inhabited all of Brazil's coast when the Portuguese first arrived there. In 1500, their population was estimated at 1 million people, nearly equal to the population of Portugal at the time, they were divided into each tribe numbering from 300 to 2,000 people. Some examples of these tribes are: Tupiniquim, Tupinambá, Tabajara, Caetés, Temiminó, Tamoios; the Tupi were adept agriculturalists. There was not a unified Tupi identity despite the fact. From the 16th century onward, the Tupi, like other natives from the region, were assimilated, enslaved, or killed by diseases such as smallpox or by Portuguese settlers and Bandeirantes, nearly leading to their complete annihilation, with the exception of a few isolated communities.
The remnants of these tribes are today confined to Indian reservations or acculturated to some degree into the dominant society. The Tupi were divided into several tribes which would engage in war with each other. In these wars the Tupi would try to capture their enemies to kill them in cannibalistic rituals; the warriors captured from other Tupi tribes were eaten as it was believed by the Indians that such act would lead to their strength being absorbed and digested, thus in fear of absorbing weakness, they chose only to sacrifice warriors perceived to be strong and brave. For the Tupi warriors when prisoners, it was a great honor to die valiantly during battle or to display courage during the festivities leading to his sacrifice; the Tupi have been documented to eat the remains of dead relatives as a form of honoring them. The practice of cannibalism among the Tupi was made famous in Europe by Hans Staden, a German soldier and mercenary, traveling to Brazil to steal riches, captured by the Tupi in 1552.
In his account published in 1557, he tells that the Tupi carried him to their village where it was claimed he was to be devoured at the next festivity. There, he won the friendship of a powerful chief, whom he cured of a disease, his life was spared. Cannibalistic rituals among Tupi and other tribes in Brazil decreased after European contact and religious intervention; when Cabeza de Vaca, a Spanish conquistador, arrived in Santa Catarina in 1541, for instance, he attempted to ban cannibalistic practices in the name of the King of Spain. Because our understanding of Tupi cannibalism relies on primary source accounts of European writers, the existence of cannibalism has been disputed by some in academic circles. William Arens seeks to discredit Staden's and other writers' accounts of cannibalism in his book The Man-Eating Myth: Anthropology & Anthropophagy, where he claims that when concerning the Tupinambá, "rather than dealing with an instance of serial documentation of cannibalism, we are more confronting only one source of dubious testimony, incorporated verbatim into the written reports of others claiming to be eyewitnesses".
Many indigenous peoples were important for the formation of the Brazilian people, but the main group was the Tupi. When the Portuguese explorers arrived in Brazil in the 16th century, the Tupi were the first Amerindian group to have contact with them. Soon, a process of miscegenation between Portuguese settlers and indigenous women started; the Portuguese colonists brought women, making the Indian women the "breeding matrix of the Brazilian people". When the first Europeans arrived, the phenomenon of "cunhadismo" began to spread by the colony. Cunhadismo was an old Indian tradition of incorporating strangers to their community; the Indians offered the Portuguese an Indian girl as wife. Once he agreed, he formed a bond of kinship with all the Indians of the tribe. Polygyny, a common practice among South American Indians, was adopted by European settlers; this way, a single European man could have dozens of Indian wives. Cunhadismo was used as recruitment of labour; the Portuguese could have many temericós and thus a huge number of Indian relatives who were induced to work for him to cut pau-brasil and take it to the ships on the coast.
In the process, a large mixed-race population was formed. Without the practice of cunhadismo, the Portuguese colonization was impractical; the number of Portuguese men in Brazil was small and Portuguese women were fewer in number. The proliferation of mixed-race people in the wombs of Indian women provided for the occupation of the territory and the consolidation of the Portuguese presence in the region. Although the Tupi population disappeared because of European diseases to which they had no resistance or because of slavery, a large population of maternal Tupi ancestry occupied much of Brazilian territory, taking the ancient traditions to several points of the country. Darcy Ribeiro wrote that the features of the first Brazilians were much more Tupi than Portuguese, the language that they spoke was a Tupi-based language, named Nheengatu or Língua Geral, a lingua franca in Brazil until the 18th century; the region of São Paulo was the biggest in the proliferation of Mamelucos, who in the 17th century under the name of Bandeirantes, spread throughout the Brazilian territory, from the Amazon rainforest to the extreme South.
They were responsible for t
The New Found World, or Antarctike
The New Found World, or Antarctike is an account published by the French Franciscan priest and explorer André Thevet detailing his experiences in France Antarctique, a French settlement in Rio de Janeiro. Thevet based his descriptions of Rio de Janeiro on his ten weeks spent living in Brazil, as well as drawing on the reports of other travelers; the first English translation of the book was published in 1568. Thevet describes the new experiences that he saw, he goes on to describe foods that they eat, the surrounding areas, their rituals. He goes into great detail discussing cannibalism and its common use among enemies. Throughout the book there is a major emphasis on clothing, in which Thevet makes clear that both men and women wear little, if any, they did wear jewelry as well as animal skins. Thevet goes into detail about the food and drink that they were consuming; the native people would make an alcoholic wine like substance out of roots and would drink this until they felt sick. He compares this to Europeans drinking wine.
While the natives do practice cannibalism it was done in a way, much more humane than most people thought. They did kill war prisoners but leading up to their death they were treated nicely and humanely. Thevet and his colleagues land on the Brazilian mainland on November 10, are welcomed and fed by a delegation of native people upon their arrival. At the welcoming feast, they are served an alcoholic beverage brewed from a combination of different roots. Hoping to venture inland or elsewhere along the coast, the expeditionary team members are informed that there is little freshwater for a significant distance away from the indigenous settlement but that they would be welcome to remain near their landing site for the time being. Venturing to a nearby inlet and company are impressed by an array of colorful birdsㅡtheir feathers making an attractive decoration for the sparse garments of native peopleㅡand a generous bounty of fish, upon which local residents may subsist. Thevet describes some of the local flora, including beautiful trees unseen in Europe and small vines utilized by the natives as accessories and for medicinal purposes.
The Catholic author acknowledges and laments the absence of organized religion in the lives of indigenous people. Although they do believe in "Toupan"ㅡsome sort of higher being reigning above them and governing the climateㅡthey make no clear effort to worship or honor it as a collective. Moreover, rather than believe in a great prophet similar to those venerated in Abrahamic faiths, the natives passively celebrate "Hetich," the figure responsible for teaching them to cultivate the roots that became an essential staple of their diet. Thevet digresses from this point, describing some alternative properties of the roots that emerge once separate varieties are subjected to certain external forces. Following this, the author momentarily touches upon how Christopher Columbus and his team were worshiped by local Amerindians, before losing this divine status once it was discovered that they behaved and functioned as ordinary men. Cannibalism is addressed at the end of this chapter, being attributed to certain indigenous groups who consume human flesh as one in European society might consume any other meat.
Thevet describes, in some detail, the rarity of clothing in the aboriginal society he and his companions observe. Without exception and women alike would live their entire lives naked. Deviations from this norm might occur at formal events, at which attendees might wear sashes or headdresses. Additionally, elderly people might cover their breasts and genitalia out of an apparent desire to hide their physical deterioration wrought by the aging process. However, it is notable that these indigenous villagers placed a great deal of value in the garments that they made or otherwise encountered. Rather than wear these articles of clothing, the natives would set them aside for fear of degrading their quality. In those instances when they did choose to wear attire, the Amerindians would always do so on a part of their body where it could be prevented from touching the ground at any time. Noting their ability to weave cotton for other purposes, Thevet deduces that the natives embrace nudity as a way for them to move and fight with agility.
Late in the narrative, Thevet describes a method of execution which he claims is practiced by the coastal community in which he resides. Condemned men war prisoners, are given comfortable lodging, plenty of food, a “wife” for the period of time leading from the beginning of their internment to their deaths; the experience of captured women differed in that they were afforded greater mobility, but were required to gather food and perform sexual favors for a predetermined man of the tribe. The unit of time throughout this period is the moon, rather than weeks, or months. On the final day before his or her execution, the prisoner is chained to a bed and is the subject of a ceremony in which community members gather and sing of their death; the condemned man or woman is brought to a public place, tied up, hacked to pieces, consumed by the local populace. Male children are told to bathe in the blood of the victim, while women are tasked with eating the internal organs. All children born to a condemned man’s “widow” as a result of their copulation are to be "nurtured" for a brief period, before being cannibalized in the same manner as their father.
The executioners, are ho
France Antarctique was a French colony south of the Equator, in Rio de Janeiro, which existed between 1555 and 1567, had control over the coast from Rio de Janeiro to Cabo Frio. The colony became a haven for the Huguenots, was destroyed by the Portuguese in 1567. Europeans first arrived in Brazil in April 1500, when a fleet commanded by Pedro Álvares Cabral on behalf of the Portuguese crown arrived in present-day Porto Seguro, Bahia. Except for Salvador and São Vicente, the territory still remained unexplored half a century later. Early expeditions of French Norman sailors to the New World have been suggested: Jean Cousin has been said to have discovered the New World in 1488, four years before Christopher Columbus, when he landed in Brazil around the mouth of the Amazon, but this remains unproven, his travels were succeeded by that of Binot Paulmier de Gonneville in 1504 onboard L'Espoir, properly recorded and brought back a Native American person named Essomericq. Gonneville affirmed that when he visited Brazil, French traders from Saint-Malo and Dieppe had been trading there for several years.
France continued to trade with Portugal loading Brazilwood, for its use as a red dyes for textiles. In 1550, in the royal entry for Henry II of France, at Rouen, about fifty men depicted naked Indians and a battle between the Tupinamba allies of the French, the Tabajaras Indians. On November 1, 1555, French vice-admiral Nicolas Durand de Villegaignon, a Catholic knight of the Order of Malta, who would help the Huguenots to find a refuge against persecution, led a small fleet of two ships and 600 soldiers and colonists, took possession of the small island of Serigipe in the Guanabara Bay, in front of present-day Rio de Janeiro, where they built a fort named Fort Coligny; the fort was named in honor of Gaspard de Coligny, an admiral who supported the expedition and would use the colony in order to protect his Reformed co-religionists. To the still undeveloped mainland village, Villegaignon gave the name of Henriville, in honour of Henry II, the King of France, who knew of and approved the expedition, had provided the fleet for the trip.
Villegaignon secured his position by making an alliance with the Tamoio and Tupinambá Indians of the region, who were fighting the Portuguese. Unchallenged by the Portuguese, who took little notice of his landing, Villegaignon endeavoured to expand the colony by calling for more colonists in 1556, he sent one of his ships, the Grande Roberge, to Honfleur, entrusted with letters to King Henry II, Gaspard de Coligny and according to some accounts, the Protestant leader John Calvin. After one ship was sent to France to ask for additional support, three ships were financed and prepared by the king of France and put under the command of Sieur De Bois le Comte, a nephew of Villegaignon, they were joined by 14 Calvinists from Geneva, led by Philippe de Corguilleray, including theologians Pierre Richier and Guillaume Chartrier. The new colonists, numbering around 300, included 5 young women to be wed, 10 boys to be trained as translators, as well as 14 Calvinists sent by Calvin, Jean de Léry, who would write an account of the colony.
They arrived in March 1557. The relief fleet was composed of: The Petite Roberge, with 80 soldiers and sailors was led by Vice Admiral Sieur De Bois le Comte; the Grande Roberge, with about 120 on board, captained by Sieur de Sainte-Marie dit l'Espine. The Rosée, with about 90 people, led by Captain Rosée. Doctrinal disputes arose between Villegaignon and the Calvinists in relation to the Eucharist, in October 1557 the Calvinists were banished from Coligny island as a result, they settled among the Tupinamba until January 1558, when some of them managed to return to France by ship together with Jean de Léry, five others chose to return to Coligny island where three of them were drowned by Villegaignon for refusing to recant. In 1560 Mem de Sá, the new Governor-General of Brazil, received from the Portuguese government the command to expel the French. With a fleet of 26 warships and 2,000 soldiers, on 15 March 1560, he attacked and destroyed Fort Coligny within three days, but was unable to drive off their inhabitants and defenders, because they escaped to the mainland with the help of the Native Brazilians, where they continued to live and to work.
Admiral Villegaignon had returned to France in 1558, disgusted with the religious tension that existed between French Protestants and Catholics, who had come with the second group. Urged by two influential Jesuit priests who had come to Brazil with Mem de Sá, named José de Anchieta and Manuel da Nóbrega, who had played a big role in pacifying the Tamoios, Mem de Sá ordered his nephew, Estácio de Sá to assemble a new attack force. Estácio de Sá founded the city of Rio de Janeiro on March 1, 1565, fought the Frenchmen for two more years. Helped by a military reinforcement sent by his uncle, on January 20, 1567, he imposed final defeat on the French forces and decisively expelled them from Brazil, but died a month from wounds inflicted in the battle. Coligny's and Villegaignon's dream had lasted a mere 12 years. In response to the two attempts of France to conquer territory in Brazil, between 1612 and 1615, the Portuguese crown decided to expand its colonization efforts in Brazil. Other projects were made for the occupation of parts of Brazil in 1579, following the death of Sebastia
Michel de Montaigne
Michel Eyquem de Montaigne, Lord of Montaigne was one of the most significant philosophers of the French Renaissance, known for popularizing the essay as a literary genre. His work is noted for its merging of casual anecdotes and autobiography with intellectual insight, his massive volume, contains some of the most influential essays written. Montaigne had a direct influence on Western writers, including Francis Bacon, René Descartes, Blaise Pascal, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Albert Hirschman, William Hazlitt, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Friedrich Nietzsche, Stefan Zweig, Eric Hoffer, Isaac Asimov, on the works of William Shakespeare. During his lifetime, Montaigne was admired more as a statesman than as an author; the tendency in his essays to digress into anecdotes and personal ruminations was seen as detrimental to proper style rather than as an innovation, his declaration that, "I am myself the matter of my book", was viewed by his contemporaries as self-indulgent. In time, Montaigne came to be recognized as embodying better than any other author of his time, the spirit of entertaining doubt that began to emerge at that time.
He is most famously known for his skeptical remark, "Que sçay-je?". Montaigne was born in the Aquitaine region of France, on the family estate Château de Montaigne, in a town now called, Saint-Michel-de-Montaigne, close to Bordeaux; the family was wealthy. His father, Pierre Eyquem, Seigneur of Montaigne, was a French Catholic soldier in Italy for a time and he had been the mayor of Bordeaux. Although there were several families bearing the patronym "Eyquem" in Guyenne, his father's family is thought to have had some degree of Marrano origins, while his mother, Antoinette López de Villanueva, was a convert to Protestantism, his maternal grandfather, Pedro Lopez, from Zaragoza, was from a wealthy Marrano family that had converted to Catholicism. His maternal grandmother, Honorette Dupuy, was from a Catholic family in France. During a great part of Montaigne's life his mother lived near him and survived him, but is mentioned only twice in his essays. Montaigne's relationship with his father, however, is reflected upon and discussed in his essays.
Montaigne's education began in early childhood and followed a pedagogical plan that his father had developed, refined by the advice of the latter's humanist friends. Soon after his birth, Montaigne was brought to a small cottage, where he lived the first three years of life in the sole company of a peasant family, in order to, according to the elder Montaigne, "draw the boy close to the people, to the life conditions of the people, who need our help". After these first spartan years, Montaigne was brought back to the château. Another objective was for Latin to become his first language; the intellectual education of Montaigne was assigned to a German tutor. His father hired only servants who could speak Latin, they were given strict orders always to speak to the boy in Latin; the same rule applied to his mother and servants, who were obliged to use only Latin words he employed, thus they acquired a knowledge of the language his tutor taught him. Montaigne's Latin education was accompanied by spiritual stimulation.
He was familiarized with Greek by a pedagogical method that employed games and exercises of solitary meditation, rather than the more traditional books. The atmosphere of the boy's upbringing, although designed by refined rules taken under advisement by his father, created in the boy's life the spirit of "liberty and delight" that he would describe as making him "relish... duty by an unforced will, of my own voluntary motion...without any severity or constraint". And so a musician woke him every morning, playing one instrument or another, an épinettier was the constant companion to Montaigne and his tutor, playing tunes to alleviate boredom and tiredness. Around the year 1539, Montaigne was sent to study at a highly-regarded boarding school in Bordeaux, the Collège de Guyenne under the direction of the greatest Latin scholar of the era, George Buchanan, where he mastered the whole curriculum by his thirteenth year, he began his study of law at the University of Toulouse in 1546 and entered a career in the local legal system.
He was a counselor of the Court des Aides of Périgueux and, in 1557, he was appointed counselor of the Parlement in Bordeaux, a high court. From 1561 to 1563 he was courtier at the court of Charles IX and he was present with the king at the siege of Rouen, he was awarded the highest honour of the French nobility, the collar of the Order of St. Michael, something to which he aspired from his youth. While serving at the Bordeaux Parlement, he became a close friend of the humanist poet Étienne de la Boétie, whose death in 1563 affected Montaigne, it has been suggested by Donald M. Frame, in his introduction to The Complete Essays of Montaigne that because of Montaigne's "imperious need to communicate", after losing Étienne he began the Essais as a new "means of communication" and that "the reader takes the place of the dead friend". Montaigne married Françoise de la Cassaigne in 1565 in an arranged marriage, she was the niece of wealthy merchants of Toulouse and Bordeaux. They