RMS Mauretania (1906)
RMS Mauretania was an ocean liner designed by Leonard Peskett and built by Swan, Hunter & Wigham Richardson for the British Cunard Line, and launched on the afternoon of 20 September 1906. She was the worlds largest ship until the completion of RMS Olympic in 1911 as well as the fastest until Bremens maiden voyage in 1929, Mauretania became a favourite among her passengers. After capturing the Eastbound Blue Riband on her return voyage in December 1907. Mauretania would hold both speed records for twenty years, the ships name was taken from Mauretania, an ancient Roman province on the northwest African coast, not the modern Mauritania which is now to the south. Mauretania remained in service until 1934 when Cunard White Star retired the ship, in 1897 the German liner SS Kaiser Wilhelm der Grosse became the largest and fastest ship in the world. With a speed of 22 knots, she captured the Blue Riband from Cunard Lines Campania and Lucania. Germany came to dominate the Atlantic, and by 1906 they had five four-funnel superliners in service, four of them owned by North German Lloyd and part of the so-called Kaiser class.
In the face of threats the Cunard Line was determined to regain the prestige of dominance in ocean travel not only for the company. By 1902, Cunard Line and the British government reached an agreement to build two superliners and Mauretania, with a service speed of no less than 24 knots. Further funding was acquired when the Admiralty arranged for Cunard to be paid an additional £150,000 per year to their mail subsidy, pesketts original configuration for the ships in 1902 was a three-funnel design, when reciprocating engines were destined to be the powerplant. Construction of the vessel began with the laying of the keel in 1904. In 1906, Mauretania was launched by the Duchess of Roxburghe, at the time of her launch, she was the largest moving structure ever built, and slightly larger in gross tonnage than Lusitania. The main visual differences between Mauretania and Lusitania were that Mauretania was five feet longer and had different vents, Mauretania had two extra stages of turbine blades in her forward turbines, making her slightly faster than Lusitania.
Mauretania and Lusitania were the ships with direct-drive steam turbines to hold the Blue Riband, in ships. Mauretanias usage of the turbine was the largest application yet of the then-new technology. Mauretania was designed to suit Edwardian tastes, the multi-level first-class dining saloon of straw oak was decorated in Francis I style and topped by a large dome skylight. A series of elevators, a new feature for liners. In September 1909, Mauretania captured the Blue Riband for the fastest westbound crossing — a record that was to stand for more than two decades
Wallsend, historically Wallsend on Tyne, is a large town in North Tyneside and Wear, North East of England. Historically part of Northumberland, Wallsend derives its name as the location of the end of Hadrians Wall and it has a population of 42,842 and lies 3 1⁄2 miles east of Newcastle City Centre. The population of the Wallsend ward of the North Tyneside Borough was at the 2011 census 10,304, in Roman times, Wallsend hosted the fort Segedunum. This fort protected the eastern end of Hadrians Wall, which terminated at the wall of the fort. Ida the Saxon laid waste to the whole of the north in 547 and it was not until the golden age of Northumberland under Edwin, and the subsequent introduction of the Christian faith by King Oswald and Aidan that Wallsend enjoyed a time of peace and progress. This time of peace came to an end in 794 when the Danes swarmed up the Tyne in great number. The years preceding the coming of William of Normandy were a struggle between Danes and Saxons striving for mastery, several urban sanitary districts were formed in the parish in the late 19th century, Willington Quay and Wallsend itself.
Wallsend became incorporated as a borough in 1901, and in 1910 took over Willington Quay and Willington. This express liner held the Blue Riband, for the fastest crossing of the Atlantic, the story is retold in the movie The Red Tent, starring Sean Connery and Peter Finch. He features in a BBC film called The Inventor of the Twentieth Century, russian novelist Yevgeny Zamyatin worked at Swan Hunter in 1916–17, and used it as background for his great anti-utopian work We which was a major influence on George Orwells Nineteen Eighty-Four. WWII ships built here include HMS Sheffield and HMS Victorious which took part in the sinking of the Bismarck, other ships built there include the new HMS Ark Royal in the 1980s. The musical The Last Ship by Sting is set in the shipyard, much of Wallsends early industry was driven by coal mining. The Wallsend Colliery consisted of 7 pits which were active between 1778 and 1935, in the 1820s the pits became incorporated as Russells Colliery, which became The Wallsend and Hebburn Coal Company Ltd.
By 1924 the colliery employed 2,183 people and its most prominent manager was mining and railway engineer John Buddle who helped develop the Davy Lamp. Between 1767 and 1925 there were 11 major incidents recorded at the resulting in over 209 deaths. On 18 June 1835 a gas explosion in one of the tunnels killed 102 miners, the youngest of which was aged 8, many of the dead were found with their cloth caps in their mouth. This is believed to have been an attempt to prevent inhalation of the gas which eventually killed them, the bodies were extracted and buried in St Peters churchyard at the top of the bank overlooking the Wallsend Burn. A plaque has been erected within the churchyard to commemorate this tragedy, the town has expanded greatly in terms of housing since the end of World War II, and since the 1960s
HMS Viper (1899)
HMS Viper was a Viper-class torpedo boat destroyer built for the British Royal Navy in 1899 by Hawthorn Leslie and Company at Hebburn on the River Tyne. She was notable for being the first warship to use turbine propulsion and was manufactured by Parsons Marine. There were four shafts, with two propellers on each, one inboard and one outboard of the shaft A-bracket, since the Royal Navy has not used snake names for destroyers. Parsons subcontracted the hull to Hawthorn Leslie and Company of Tyneside. The turbines, supplied by Parsons, drove four shafts, with two propellers per shaft, the outer shafts were driven by high-pressure turbines and the inner shafts by low-pressure turbines, while the inner pair was fitted with separate turbines for running astern. Four Yarrow boilers fed the turbines, the uptakes from which were routed to three funnels, the ship had a contract speed of 31 knots, although Parsons expected the ship to reach speeds of at least 34 knots. Viper was launched on 6 September 1899, reports indicate that Viper may have reached even higher speeds during trials, variously reported as 35.5 knots or even 36.858 knots.
This made Viper of limited use to the Fleet, only being capable of patrolling off Alderney from her base at Portland for 24 hours before being forced to return to base due to lack of fuel. On 3 August 1901 Viper sailed from Portland to take part in a search as part of the fleet exercises. Arriving off Alderneys Casquet Rocks in mid-afternoon, she spent some time searching the area, visibility was generally good, although there were patches of mist, and she was able to sight a vessel playing the enemy in the exercise. By early evening the mist had become fog and she slowed to 10 knots, at 17,23 hrs breakers were spotted on the starboard bow and she turned to port, but found rocks all around and soon grounded. The destroyer fought clear, but soon grounded again and lost her propellors, by 18,45, with the engine room flooded and Viper heeling over, she was abandoned. A local pilots launch arrived to offer assistance and towed the boats ashore with the crew, daylight on the following day showed her on Renonquet Rocks and beyond recovery.
The damage increased until her back was broken and the bow section sheered around perpendicular to the keel, the subsequent enquiry found that the commanding officer, Lieutenant William Speke, had failed to exercise proper precautions while steaming in fog. In particular, he had not ensured that a record of the courses steered was maintained. The navigating officer, Sub-Lieutenant Kenneth Mackenzie Grieve, was informed that he had incurred their Lordships displeasure, in December 1901 the wreck of the Viper was sold to Messrs. Agnes and Co. of Southampton, for £100 Friedman, British Destroyers, From Earliest Days to the First World War. British Warship Losses in the Ironclad Era 1860-1919 Chatham Publishing, photo of Viper after having run aground
Alfred John West
Alfred John West was a British award-winning marine photographer in the Gosport firm of G. West and Sons from 1881 and from 1897 at the age of 40, a pioneer cinematographer. West tells us in his unpublished autobiography Sea Salts and Celluloid that he, kept the negatives but the bulk of the film stock cannot now be traced. A few tantalising clips remain as does a full descriptive catalogue in the British Library of all the film he created under the Our Navy brand. The stock of AJ Wests negative plates is professionally conserved and currently held as an archive for the production. Wests plates are numbered from 500 to 10250 in the Beken archive, Alfred West died in 1937 and is buried at Highland Road Cemetery Portsmouth in Hampshire. He became a nationally and internationally famous marine photographer, winning national and international medals for his studies of yachts in full sail. His portrait of the Mohawk racing at the Royal Southampton Yacht Club Regatta in 1884 was awarded the medal at the St.
Louis Convention USA for which 9 other countries competed. In 1902 he formally registered the name Our Navy under Limited Company number 72532, Alfred Wests cinematographic activity from 1897 was in exhibiting films related to Naval, and Military and Yachting subjects under the general title of Our Navy. The shows were presented in halls and in purpose-built cinemas across the UK, the London home of Our Navy was the Regent Street Polytechnic, which still houses one of Londons first purpose-built cinema halls, the Regent Street Cinema. The Lumiere Brothers gave the first ever public film show of moving pictures in the United Kingdom on 21 February 1896 in the hall and our Navy exhibited at The Crystal Palace and the Peoples Palace in the Mile End Road. Alfred J West invented his own shutter and stabilising devices and mounted his heavy dry plate camera in the well of a sailing yawl and this was manoeuvred by his boatman under the lee of large racing yachts to obtain the best shots of these heavily-canvassed vessels at full speed.
In 1897, Alfred J West obtained photographs of the Turbinia steam yacht travelling at speed at the Royal Fleet Review. He was subsequently invited by Charles Algernon Parsons to film and photograph the vessel in the Tyne, sir Charles Parsons is believed to the person standing in the Conning Tower in this picture. Whilst she was at anchor in Portsmouth Harbour, I went aboard, no one has succeeded yet, although many have tried, replied Mr. Parsons. I should like to have a shot at her, I persisted and he said with a smile, I will make another run through the fleet tomorrow, look out for me between lines A. and B. at noon. That should give you an opportunity, ill be there, opposite the Flagship, I told him. Punctually at l2 oclock there appeared between the leaders of the lines a smother of foam – it was the Turbinia, as she raced past the Flagship, I was waiting in my launch and took a flying shot of her. Showing the effects of foam etc, in 1898, Alfred J West embarked with his staff member Chief Petty Office McGregor as ships photographer and cinematographer on the three-month cruise of HMS Crescent, commanded by The Duke of York
Parsons Marine Steam Turbine Company
Parsons Marine Steam Turbine Company was a British engineering company based in Wallsend, North England, on the River Tyne. The company was founded by Charles Algernon Parsons in 1897 with £500,000 of capital, although both these vessels came to grief, the new engines were not to blame, and the Admiralty was convinced. His son became a director in the company and was replaced during the First World War by his daughter Rachel Parsons, USS Arizona used four direct-drive Parsons turbines. The turbines were designed to produce a total of 34,000 shaft horsepower, but only achieved 33,376 shp during Arizonas sea trials, the Royal Navy, along with the Royal Canadian Navy, and Royal Australian Navy, used Parsons turbines on their Tribal-class destroyers. The Invincible-class battlecruisers all used propulsion systems manufactured by the company, the last ship to use a Parsons propulsion system was HMS Glamorgan launched in 1964. The company was absorbed into C. A. Parsons and Company and survives in the Heaton area of Newcastle as part of Siemens, C. A.
Parsons and Company Johnston, Buxton, Ian. The Battleship Builders - Constructing and Arming British Capital Ships
Tyne & Wear Archives & Museums
Tyne & Wear Archives & Museums is a regional group of United Kingdom national museums and the county archives service located across the Tyne and Wear area of north-east England. They have been administered by a joint board of local authorities since the abolition of the Tyne and they receive financial support from the five local authorities they operate within and since 2012, Arts Council England. The service is one of those specified in the Designation Scheme administered by Arts Council England, in the past, the service received additional financial support from the Department for Culture and Sport. Tyne & Wear Archives & Museums are responsible for managing the 10 museums and galleries below and they share use of the Regional Museums Store at Beamish Museum. Tyne and Wear Archives are based within the Discovery Museum, partnership between the museums and galleries both inside and outside of TWAM has been a significant matter. One example is The Late Shows which has run every May since 2007, another large scale project has been A History of the North East in 100 Objects that launched in June 2013.
Official website Tyne & Wear Archives & Museums at Google Cultural Institute Tyne & Wear Archives, public domain photos at Flickr Tyne & Wear Archives & Museums 3 June Wikipedia training
Earl of Pembroke (tall ship)
Earl of Pembroke is a wooden, three masted barque, currently used for maritime festivals, charity fund raising, corporate entertaining and film work. The current rig has been designed and built to resemble the famous HMS Endeavour on board of which Captain Cook discovered Australia and it is known that the Endeavour used to be called Earl of Pembroke in the days when she worked as a coal trader in the West Country. Earl of Pembroke as we know her today has been built with festivals and her three masted rig and the interrupted decks create a beautiful and unforgettable silhouette of a classic sailing ship. There is no superstructure or wheelhouse to interrupt the lines, what goes with it she only needs minimal work to get a perfect, period correct aerial or side shot. With a little bit more effort she can be made to look like an old Spanish Galleon or steam-sailing ship from the age of the Arctic expeditions. She is a truly magnificent vessel built as a real, working wooden sailing boat and maintained in that way to preserve her natural character and she was built in Pukavik, Sweden as Orion in 1945.
The ship was used to haul timber in the Baltic Sea until 1974 and she was brought over to the UK in 1980 and the full restoration began in 1985. As part of the restoration, the rig was changed from the original Schooner to her current Barque type, as soon as the work to bring her back from the dead was completed and the new rig was up Earl of Pembroke quickly become producers favourite vessel. Both small and big screen movie makers proved very interested in the versatility and it is not surprising that she proved very popular amongst the organisers of many maritime festivals around the UK and Europe. In, Ships and Shipyards and Fishermen, Introduction to Maritime Ethnology by Olof Hasslöf, Henning Henningsen and Arne Emil Christensen Jr. Copenhagen,1972
The River Tyne /ˈtaɪn/ is a river in North East England and its length is 73 miles. It is formed by the confluence of two rivers, the North Tyne and the South Tyne and these two rivers converge at Warden Rock near Hexham in Northumberland at a place dubbed The Meeting of the Waters. The North Tyne rises on the Scottish border, north of Kielder Water and it flows through Kielder Forest, and passes through the village of Bellingham before reaching Hexham. The South Tyne rises on Alston Moor and flows through the towns of Haltwhistle and Haydon Bridge, hadrians Wall lies to the north of the Tyne Gap. Coincidentally the source of the South Tyne is very close to the sources of the two great rivers of the industrial north east namely the Tees and the Wear. The South Tyne Valley falls within the North Pennines Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty - the second largest of the 40 AONBs in England, to the east of Gateshead and Newcastle, the Tyne divides Hebburn and Jarrow on the south bank from Walker and Wallsend on the north bank.
Jarrow and Wallsend are linked underneath the river by the Tyne Tunnel, finally it flows between South Shields and Tynemouth into the North Sea. The Tyne Rivers Trust measure the whole Tyne catchment as 2,936 square kilometres, the River Tyne is believed to be around 30 million years old. The largest coal staithes were located at Dunston in Gateshead and Tyne Dock, the dramatic wooden staithes at Dunston, built in 1890, have been preserved, although they were partially destroyed by fire in 2006. And to this day in 2016 Tyne Dock, South Shields is still involved with coal, the tidal river is now managed by the Port of Tyne Authority. Nothing definite is known of the origin of the designation Tyne, nor is the known by that name until the Saxon period. There is a theory that Tīn was a word that meant river in the local Celtic language or in a language spoken in England before the Celts came, there is a river Tyne that rises in Midlothian in Scotland and flows through East Lothian into the North Sea.
The River Vedra on the Roman map of Britain may be the Tyne, the late Thomas John Taylor supposed that the main course of the river anciently flowed through what is now Team Valley, its outlet into the tidal river being by a waterfall at Bill Point. His theory is not far from the truth, as there is evidence that prior to the last Ice Age, Ice diverted the course of the Wear to its current location, flowing east the course of the Tyne) and joining the North Sea at Sunderland. Sculpted by David Wynne, the bronze figure incorporates flowing water into its design. The Environment Agency is currently working with architects and cultural consultancy xsite, in collaboration with Commissions North, the Tyne Salmon Trail will serve as a celebration of the river, its heritage and its increasingly diverse ecosystem. FINS, REFLECTION and JOURNEY were the first 3 cubes to be launched in December 2007 from a family of 10, each cube is inspired by the textures, changing colours and journey of the salmon.
With each offering a modern day keepsake to take away, in the form of a designed Bluetooth message, for three days, between 18–20 July 2008, a temporary bamboo artwork was installed over the Tyne close to the Gateshead Millennium Bridge
A museum ship, called a memorial ship, is a ship that has been preserved and converted into a museum open to the public for educational or memorial purposes. Some are used for training and recruitment purposes, mostly for the number of museum ships that are still operational. Many, if not most, museum ships are associated with a maritime museum, only a few survive, sometimes because of historical significance, but more often due to luck and circumstance. The restoration and maintenance of museum ships presents problems for historians who are asked for advice, for instance, the rigging of sailing ships has almost never survived, and so the rigging plan must be reconstructed from various sources. Studying the ships allows historians to analyze how life on and operation of the ships took place, numerous scientific papers have been written on ship restoration and maintenance, and international conferences are held discussing the latest developments. Another consideration is the distinction between a museum ship, and a ship replica.
As repairs accumulate over time and less of the ship is of the materials. Visitors without historical background are often unable to distinguish between a historical museum ship and a ship replica, which may serve solely as a tourist attraction. Typically the visitor enters via gangplank, wanders around on the deck, goes below, usually using the original stairways, giving a sense of how the crew got around. The interior features restored but inactivated equipment, enhanced with mementos including old photographs, explanatory displays, pages from the logs, menus. Some add recorded sound effects, audio tours or video displays to enhance the experience, in some cases, the ships radio room has been brought back into use, with volunteers operating amateur radio equipment. Often, the callsign assigned is a variation on the identification of the ship. For example, the submarine USS Cobia, which had the call NBQV, is now on the air as NB9QV. The World War II submarine USS Pampanito, berthed at the San Francisco Maritime National Historical Park, had the wartime call NJVT and is now on the air as NJ6VT, in other cases, such as the USS Missouri, a distinctive call is used.
This radio work not only helps restore part of the vessel, a number of the larger museum ships have begun to offer hosting for weddings, other events, and sleepovers, and on a few ships still seaworthy, cruises. In the United States, this includes the USS Constitutions annual turnaround, a place on the deck is by invitation or lottery only, and highly prized. Many consider the appeal of an interesting old vessel on the city waterfront strong enough that any port city should showcase one or more museum ships. This may even include building a ship at great expense
Edith May is a wooden Thames sailing barge, built in Harwich, Essex in 1906. She was used to carry various cargoes until 1952, when an engine was fitted and she was used in various Thames Sailing Barge matches. She was a ship for a time, and was restored in 2010 to offer charter trips on the River Medway. The Thames sailing barge Edith May was built for her owners, William Barrett of 153 Mornington Road, Essex. She was sold to Alfred Sully, who managed the barge from just after the First World War and they owned many Thames sailing barges at that time, with Edith May the smallest barge. The barge continued in the ownership of Sully’s throughout her life, carrying cereal products, wheat. Her largest cargo was 133 tons of wheat, but more typically she would carry around 120 tons, in 1952 an auxiliary engine was fitted. In 1953, she won the Thames Barge Sailing match under the skippership of Chubb Horlock and it was believed to be the Coronation Match of that year. In September 1957, she was converted into a barge at Colchester.
Then Vernon Harvey bought the barge from trade and she was re-rigged with the gear from the famous racing barge, Veronica when her career ended in 1963. Regarded as a day racing Queen, the Edith May dominated the Sailing Barge Matches of the 1960s, 1970s and early 1980s. After 1961, she was re-rigged by Jack Spitty for the owner, in January 1961, she operated as a motor barge, skippered by Bob Childs, a local bargeman. Bob in his retirement, wrote the book Rochester Barges, in 1966, Jack Spitty became the Skipper in several matches. Anglia Television produced a programme about Jack Spitty and his barge Edith May as part of the Bygones series, in 1971, Jack Spitty won the Blackwater Sailing barge race. She was sold and moved to Liverpool during the 1980s before returning to Maldon in 1987. Sea Breezes Publications August 2011, to operate as a charter barge. She sat in St Katharine Docks, for years and was not maintained very well. Then on 7 October 1999 she was bought by Geoff Gransden who moved her to Lower Halstow on the River Medway, in September 2009, a sail maker began measuring up for new sails.
On 21 November 2009, she was open to the public for an exhibition of local artists and she opened to the public every weekend after that date
A steamship, often referred to as a steamer, is a vessel, typically ocean-faring and seaworthy, that is propelled by one or more steam engines that typically drive propellers or paddlewheels. The first steamships came into usage during the early 1800s, however. Steamships usually use the designations of PS for paddle steamer or SS for screw steamer. As paddle steamers became less common, SS is assumed by many to stand for steam ship, Ships powered by internal combustion engines use a prefix such as MV for motor vessel, so it is not correct to use SS for most modern vessels. The steamship was preceded by smaller vessels designed for insular transportation, once the technology of steam was mastered at this level, steam engines were mounted on larger, and eventually, ocean-going vessels. Becoming reliable, and propelled by screw rather than paddlewheels, the changed the design of ships for faster. Paddlewheels as the main motive source became standard on these early vessels and it was an effective means of propulsion under ideal conditions but otherwise had serious drawbacks.
Within a few decades of the development of the river and canal steamboat, the first sea-going steamboat was Richard Wrights first steamboat Experiment, an ex-French lugger, she steamed from Leeds to Yarmouth in July 1813. She carried passengers and freight to Paris in 1822 at an speed of 8 knots. The American ship SS Savannah first crossed the Atlantic Ocean, another claimant is the Canadian ship SS Royal William in 1833. The SS Archimedes, built in Britain in 1839 by Francis Pettit Smith, was the worlds first steamship to be driven by a screw propeller. It had considerable influence on development, encouraging the adoption of screw propulsion by the Royal Navy. The key innovation that made ocean-going steamers viable was the change from the paddle-wheel to the screw-propeller as the mechanism of propulsion and these steamships quickly became more popular, because the propellers efficiency was consistent regardless of the depth at which it operated. Being smaller in size and mass and being submerged, it was far less prone to damage.
The development of screw propulsion relied on the technological innovations. Steam engines had to be designed with the power delivered at the bottom of the machinery, a paddle steamers engines drive a shaft that is positioned above the waterline, with the cylinders positioned below the shaft. SS Great Britain used chain drive to power from a paddlers engine to the propeller shaft - the result of a late design change to propeller propulsion. An effective stern tube and associated bearings were required, the stern tube contains the propeller shaft where it passes through the hull structure
The new Admiralty Board meets only twice a year, and the day-to-day running of the Royal Navy is controlled by a Navy Board. It is common for the authorities now in charge of the Royal Navy to be referred to as simply The Admiralty. The title of Lord High Admiral of the United Kingdom was vested in the monarch from 1964 to 2011, the title was awarded to Philip, Duke of Edinburgh by Queen Elizabeth II on his 90th birthday. There continues to be a Vice-Admiral of the United Kingdom, the office of Admiral of England was created around 1400 although there had already been Admirals of the Northern and Western Seas. In 1546, King Henry VIII established the Council of the Marine, to become the Navy Board, operational control of the Royal Navy remained the responsibility of the Lord High Admiral, who was one of the nine Great Officers of State. In 1628, Charles I put the office of Lord High Admiral into commission, the office of Lord High Admiral passed a number of times in and out of commission until 1709 after which the office was almost permanently in commission.
In 1831, the first Navy Board was abolished as a separate entity, in 1964, the Admiralty along with the War Office and the Air Ministry as separate departments of state were abolished, and re-emerged under one single new Ministry of Defence. Within the expanded Ministry of Defence are the new Admiralty Board which has a separate Navy Board responsible for the running of the Royal Navy. The Army Board and the Air Force Board, each headed by the Secretary of State for Defence, the Board of Admiralty consisted of a number of Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty. The Lords Commissioners were always a mixture of admirals, known as Naval Lords or Sea Lords and Civil Lords, the quorum of the Board was two commissioners and a secretary. The president of the Board was known as the First Lord of the Admiralty, after 1806, the First Lord of the Admiralty was always a civilian while the professional head of the navy came to be known as the First Sea Lord. The first real concerted effort to organise the Admiralty was started by Henry VIII.
Between 1860 and 1908 there was no study of strategy and of staff work conducted within the naval service. All the navys talent flowed to the great technical universitys and it was perceived by officials within the Admiralty at this time that the running of war was quite a simple matter for any flag officer who required no formal training. The new War Staff had hardly found its feet and it struggled with the opposition to its existence by senior officers they were categorically opposed to a staff. The deficiencies of the system within this department of state could be seen in the conduct of the Dardanelles campaign, there was no mechanisms in place to answer the big strategic questions in 1914 a Trade Division was created. In 1916, Sir John Jellicoe came to the Admiralty, he organized the staff as following, Chief of War Staff, Intelligence, Signal Section, Trade. This for the first time gave the naval staff direct representation on the Board, the would direct all operations and movements of the fleet, while the would be responsible for mercantile movements and anti-submarine operations