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The TurboGrafx-16, known in Japan and France as the PC Engine, is a cartridge-based home video game console manufactured and marketed by NEC Home Electronics, designed by Hudson Soft. It was released in Japan on October 30, 1987 and in the United States on August 29, 1989; the Japanese model was imported and distributed in France in 1989 and United Kingdom and Spain received a version based on the American model known as TurboGrafx. It was the first console released in the 16-bit era, although it used a modified 8-bit CPU. In Japan, the system was launched as a competitor to the Famicom but the delayed United States release meant that it ended up competing with the Sega Genesis and on the Super Nintendo Entertainment System; the TurboGrafx-16 has an 8-bit CPU, a 16-bit video color encoder, a 16-bit video display controller. The GPUs are capable of displaying 482 colors out of 512. With dimensions of just 14 cm × 14 cm × 3.8 cm, the Japanese PC Engine is the smallest major home game console made.

Games were released on HuCard cartridges or the CD-ROM optical format with the TurboGrafx-CD add-on. The TurboGrafx-16 failed to break into the North American market and sold poorly, blamed on the delayed release and inferior marketing. Despite the "16" in its name and the marketing of the console as a 16-bit platform, it used an 8-bit CPU, a marketing tactic, criticized by some as deceptive. Developer Doug Snook of ICOM Simulations said the team struggled with the relative low performance of the CPU. However, in Japan, the PC Engine, introduced into the market at a much earlier date, was successful, it gained strong third-party support and outsold the Famicom at its 1987 debut becoming the Super Famicom's main rival. At least 17 distinct models of the TurboGrafx-16 were made, including portable versions and those that integrated the CD-ROM add-on. An enhanced model, the PC Engine SuperGrafx, was rushed to market in 1989, it was intended to supersede the standard PC Engine. It failed to catch on - only six titles were released that took advantage of the added power and it was discontinued.

The entire series was discontinued in 1994. It was succeeded by the PC-FX, only released in Japan; the TurboGrafx-16 or PC Engine was a collaborative effort between Hudson Soft, who created video game software, NEC, a company, dominant in the Japanese personal computer market with their PC-88 and PC-98 platforms. NEC lacked the vital experience in the video gaming industry so approached numerous video game studios for support. By pure coincidence, NEC's interest in entering the lucrative video game market coincided with Hudson's failed attempt to sell designs for then-advanced graphics chips to Nintendo; the two companies joined together to develop the new system. The PC Engine made its debut in the Japanese market on October 30, 1987, it was a tremendous success; the PC Engine had an elegant, "eye-catching" design, it was small compared to its rivals. This, coupled with a strong software lineup and third-party support from high-profile developers such as Namco and Konami gave NEC a temporary lead in the Japanese market.

In 1988, it outsold the Famicom year-on-year, putting NEC and Hudson Soft not only ahead of Nintendo in the market but far ahead of Sega. In 1988, NEC decided to expand to the American market and directed its U. S. operations to develop the system for the new audience. NEC Technologies boss Keith Schaefer formed a team to test the system, they found was a lack of enthusiasm in its name'PC Engine' and felt its small size was not suitable to American consumers who would prefer a larger and "futuristic" design. They decided to call the system the'TurboGrafx-16', a name representing its graphical speed and strength, its 16-bit GPU, they completely redesigned the hardware into a large, black casing. This lengthy redesign process and NEC's questions about the system's viability in the United States delayed the TurboGrafx-16's debut; the TurboGrafx-16 was released in the New York City and Los Angeles test market in late August 1989. Disastrously for NEC, this was two weeks after Sega of America released the true 16-bit Genesis to test markets.

Unlike NEC, Sega didn't waste time redesigning the original Japanese Mega Drive system. The Genesis' launch was accompanied by an ad campaign mocking NEC's claim that the TurboGrafx-16 was the first 16-bit console. Despite the 16-bit competition, the TurboGrafx-16 was marketed as a direct competitor to the NES and early television ads touted the TG-16's superior graphics and sound. Sega eclipsed the TurboGrafx-16 after its American debut. NEC's decision to pack-in Keith Courage in Alpha Zones, a Hudson Soft game unknown to western gamers, proved costly as Sega packed-in a port of the hit arcade title Altered Beast with the Genesis. NEC's American operations in Chicago were overhyped about its potential and produced 750,000 units, far above actual demand; this was profitable for Hudson Soft as NEC paid Hudson Soft royalties for every console produced, whether sold or not. By 1990, it was clear that the system was performing poorly and edged out by Nintendo and Sega's marketing. After seeing the TurboGrafx-16 suffer in America, NEC decided to cancel their European releases.

Units for the European markets were produced, which were US models modified to run on PAL television sets, branded as TurboGrafx. NEC sold this stock to distributors - in the United Kingdom Telegames released the TurboGrafx in 1990 in limited quantities; this model was released in Spain and Portugal through selected retailers. Games were not retimed for PAL regions, in


A paddock is a small enclosure for horses. In the United Kingdom, this term applies to a field for a general automobile racing competition Formula 1. In Canada and the United States of America, a paddock is a small enclosure used to keep horses. In the United Kingdom, this term has a similar meaning, applies to a field for a general automobile racing competition Formula 1; the most common design provides an area for exercise and is situated near the stables. Larger paddocks may have grass maintained in them. In those cases drainage and a top layer of sand are used to keep a suitable surface in the paddock. In the American West, such an enclosure is called a corral, may be used to contain cattle or horses other livestock; the word paddock is used to describe other small, fenced areas that hold horses, such as a saddling paddock at a racetrack, the area where race horses are saddled before a horse race. Paddock is sometimes used for mating where one male animal is let loose in the paddock with several female animals

British folk rock

British folk rock is a form of folk rock which developed in the United Kingdom from the mid 1960s, was at its most significant in the 1970s. Though the merging of folk and rock music came from several sources, it is regarded that the success of "The House of the Rising Sun" by British band the Animals in 1964 was a catalyst, prompting Bob Dylan to "go electric", in which, like the Animals, he brought folk and rock music together, from which other musicians followed. In the same year, the Beatles began incorporating overt folk influences into their music, most noticeably on their Beatles for Sale album; the Beatles and other British Invasion bands, in turn, influenced the American band the Byrds, who released their recording of Dylan's "Mr. Tambourine Man" in April 1965, setting off the mid-1960s American folk rock movement. A number of British groups those associated with the British folk revival, moved into folk rock in the mid-1960s, including the Strawbs and Fairport Convention. British folk rock was taken up and developed in the surrounding Celtic cultures of Brittany, Scotland and the Isle of Man, to produce Celtic rock and its derivatives, has been influential in countries with close cultural connections to Britain.

It gave rise to the genre of folk punk. By the 1980s the genre was in steep decline in popularity, but survived and revived in significance merging with the rock music and folk music cultures from which it originated; some commentators have found a distinction in some British folk rock, where the musicians are playing traditional folk music with electric instruments rather than merging rock and folk music, they distinguish this form of playing by calling it "electric folk". Though the merging of folk and rock music came from several sources, it is regarded that the success of "The House of the Rising Sun" by British band the Animals in 1964 was a catalyst, prompting Bob Dylan to go electric. In the same year, the Beatles began incorporating overt folk influences into their music, most noticeably on the song "I'm a Loser" from their Beatles for Sale album; the Beatles and other British Invasion bands, in turn, influenced the Californian band the Byrds, who began playing folk-influenced material and Bob Dylan compositions with rock instrumentation.

The Byrds' recording of Dylan's "Mr. Tambourine Man" was released in April 1965 and reached #1 on the U. S. and UK singles charts. The Beatles' late 1965 album, Rubber Soul, contained a number of songs influenced by the American folk rock boom, such as "Nowhere Man" and "If I Needed Someone". During this period, a number of electric bands began to play rock versions of folk songs and folk musicians used electric musical instruments to play their own songs, including Dylan at the Newport Folk Festival in the summer of 1965. Folk rock became an important genre among emerging English bands those in the London club scene towards the end of the 1960s; the skiffle movement, to which many English musicians, including the Beatles, owed their origins as performers, meant that they were familiar with American folk music As they emulated the guitar and drum based format that had crystallised as the norm for rock music, these groups turned to American folk and folk rock as the focus of their sound and inspiration.

Among these groups from 1967 were Fairport Convention, who had enjoyed some modest mainstream success with three albums of material, American in origin or style, before a radical change of direction in 1969 with their album Liege & Lief, which came out of the encounter between American inspired folk rock and the products of the English folk revival. The first English folk music revival had seen a huge effort to record and archive traditional English music by figures such as Cecil Sharp and Vaughan Williams in the late 19th and early 20th centuries; the second revival in the period after the Second World War, built on this work and followed a similar movement in America, to which it was connected by individuals like Alan Lomax, who had fled to England in the era of McCarthyism. Like the American revival, it was overtly left wing in its politics, led by such figures as Ewan MacColl and A. L. Lloyd from the early 1950s, it attempted to produce a distinctively English music, an alternative to the American dominance of popular culture, which was, as they saw it, displacing the traditional music of an urbanised and industrialised working class.

Most important among their responses were the foundation of folk clubs in major towns, starting with London where MacColl began the Ballads and Blues Club in 1953. These clubs were urban in location, but the songs sung in them hearkened back to a rural pre-industrial past. In many ways this was the adoption of abandoned popular music by the middle classes. By the mid-1960s there were over 300 folk clubs in Britain, providing an important circuit for acts that performed traditional songs and tunes acoustically, where they could sustain a living by playing to a small but committed audience; this meant that there were, by the 1960s, a group of performers with musical skill and knowledge of a wide variety of traditional songs and tunes. A number of groups who were part of the folk revival experimented with electrification in the mid-1960s; these included the unrecorded efforts of Sweeney's Men from Ireland, the jazz folk group Pentangle, who moved from acoustic to electric, who released one album in 1968, the Strawbs who developed from a bluegrass band into a "progressive Byrds" band by 1967.

However, none provided a sustained or much emulated effort in this direction. Products of the folk club circuit were Sandy Denny who joined Fairport Convention as a


Hoe-deopbap or raw fish bibimbap is a Korean dish consisting of steamed rice mixed with sliced or cubed saengseon hoe, various vegetables such as lettuce and sesame leaves, sesame oil, chogochujang. The fish used for making hoedeopbap is either halibut, sea bass, tuna, salmon, or whitefish; the manner of eating hoedeopbap is the same as that used to eat bibimbap: using a spoon, all the ingredients are mixed by the diner at the table before eating. There are different varieties named according to their ingredients, such as gul hoedeopbap made from raw oysters and gajami hoedeopbap made from raw sole, a specialty dish from Gangneung and its neighboring regions. Albap, fish roe bibimbap Poke, Hawaian raw fish salad

World Congress of Soil Science

The World Congress of Soil Science is a conference held every four years under the guidance of the International Union of Soil Sciences. The purpose of a congress is to: ensure the advancement of soil science and its application, to handle the business of the society. Of the 18 congresses, eight have been held in Europe, five in the Americas, three in Asia, one in Australia and one in Africa; the congresses are only open to society members. The number of members attending has increased, with 2000 members attending each congress since the 15th WCSS in Acapulco, Mexico; the 19th WCSS was held in the week of 1 to 6 August 2010 in Brisbane, Australia at the Brisbane Convention and Exhibition Centre. The congress theme was "Soil solutions for a changing world"; the conference was organised by the IUSS Vice-President. The 19th WCSS was the second congress held in Australia, was held in conjunction with the Australian Society of Soil Science Incorporated; the 20th WCSS was held from 8 to 13 June 2014 on Jeju-do Island, South Korea The 21st WCSS was held in Rio de Janeiro in August 2018.

The upcoming WCSS are 2026 in Nanjing. Past and future locations for the WCSS: IUSS Official Website 19th WCSS Official Website ASSSI Official Website Brisbane Convention & Exhibition Centre Website

Raw (The Alarm album)

Raw is the fifth and final studio album released by the original line-up of The Alarm. The band split up soon, it was released in 1991 on IRS Records. The album was released on vinyl LP, cassette and CD, reaching number 33 in the UK Albums Chart, number 161 in the US Billboard 200. An extended re-mastered version was released, including extra tracks. "Raw" - 4:28 "Rockin' in the Free World" - 3:59 "God Save Somebody" - 4:09 "Moments in Time" - 5:42 "Hell or High Water" - 3:47 "Lead Me Through the Darkness" - 4:34 "The Wind Blows Away My Words" - 4:32 "Let the River Run Its Course" - 3:53 "Save Your Crying" - 4:38 "Wonderful World" - 5:00 "Raw" was released before the album, reaching number 51 in the UK Singles Chart. It was the only single to be released off the album Bass, Backing Vocals, Producer - Eddie MacDonald Drums, Backing Vocals, Producer - Nigel Twist Engineer - Mark Phythian Engineer - Danny Griffiths, Dave Buchanan, Keith Andrew, Keith Hartley Engineer - Ian McFarlane Engineer, Keyboards - Rob Storm Lead Guitar, Vocals, Producer - Dave Sharp Lead Vocals, Acoustic Guitar, Producer - Mike Peters Written-By - Dave Sharp, Eddie MacDonald, Mike Peters, Neil Young, Nigel Twist An edition of the album sung in Welsh called Tân was released.

"Y Ffordd" - 3:46 "Y Gwynt Sy'n Chwythu'Ngeiriau" - 4:32 "Eiliadau Fel Hyn" - 5:18 "Rocio Yn Ein Rhyddid" - 4:43 "Tân" - 4:33 "Dyfnach Na'r Dyfroedd" - 3:48 "Tywys Fi Drwy'r Tywyllwch" - 4:34 "Fel Mae'r Afon" - 4:30 "Crynu Dan Fy Nhraed" - 4:38 "Nadolig Llawen " - 3:40 A Japanese promotional sample 10-track CD album was issued to radio stations in advance of release. It contained a custom promo stamped disc, stickered picture sleeve complete with lyrics and obi-strip Released in 2000, the remastered edition featured a revised track listings, B-sides and unreleased recordings and original artwork, unseen photos, sleeve notes by Mike Peters and interactive programming information to play the album in its original form. Track listing: "The Road" - 3:46 "Rockin' in the Free World" - 4:42 "Raw" - 4:28 "The Wind Blows Away My Words" - 4:31 "Unsafe Building" - 4:50 "God Save Somebody" - 4:10 "Moments in Time" - 5:43 "Let the River Run Its Course" - 4:29 "Lead Me Through the Darkness" - 4:34 "Hell or High Water" - 3:48 "Wonderful World" - 5:01 "Save Your Crying" - 4:38 "Up for Murder" - 2:57 "Happy Xmas" - 3:44 "Walk Forever by My Side" - 4:10 EMI, after taking over from IRS, released the complete Alarm back catalogue on CD