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Turbofan

The turbofan or fanjet is a type of airbreathing jet engine, used in aircraft propulsion. The word "turbofan" is a portmanteau of "turbine" and "fan": the turbo portion refers to a gas turbine engine which achieves mechanical energy from combustion, the fan, a ducted fan that uses the mechanical energy from the gas turbine to accelerate air rearwards. Thus, whereas all the air taken in by a turbojet passes through the turbine, in a turbofan some of that air bypasses the turbine. A turbofan thus can be thought of as a turbojet being used to drive a ducted fan, with both of these contributing to the thrust; the ratio of the mass-flow of air bypassing the engine core divided by the mass-flow of air passing through the core is referred to as the bypass ratio. The engine produces thrust through a combination of these two portions working together. Most commercial aviation jet engines in use today are of the high-bypass type, most modern military fighter engines are low-bypass. Afterburners are not used on high-bypass turbofan engines but may be used on either low-bypass turbofan or turbojet engines.

Modern turbofans have either a smaller fan with several stages. An early configuration combined a low-pressure fan in a single rear-mounted unit. Turbofans were invented to circumvent the undesirable characteristic of turbojets being inefficient for subsonic flight. To raise the efficiency of a turbojet, the obvious approach would be to increase the burner temperature, to give better Carnot efficiency and fit larger compressors and nozzles. However, while that does increase thrust somewhat, the exhaust jet leaves the engine with higher velocity, which at subsonic flight speeds, takes most of the extra energy with it, wasting fuel. Instead, a turbofan can be thought of as a turbojet being used to drive a ducted fan, with both of those contributing to the thrust. Whereas all the air taken in by a turbojet passes through the turbine, in a turbofan some of that air bypasses the turbine; because the turbine has to additionally drive the fan, the turbine is larger and has larger pressure and temperature drops, so the nozzles are smaller.

This means. The fan has lower exhaust velocity, giving much more thrust per unit energy; the overall effective exhaust velocity of the two exhaust jets can be made closer to a normal subsonic aircraft's flight speed. In effect, a turbofan emits a large amount of air more whereas a turbojet emits a smaller amount of air, a far less efficient way to generate the same thrust; the ratio of the mass-flow of air bypassing the engine core compared to the mass-flow of air passing through the core is referred to as the bypass ratio. The engine produces thrust through a combination of these two portions working together. Most commercial aviation jet engines in use today are of the high-bypass type, most modern military fighter engines are low-bypass. Afterburners are not used on high-bypass turbofan engines but may be used on either low-bypass turbofan or turbojet engines; the bypass ratio of a turbofan engine is the ratio between the mass flow rate of the bypass stream to the mass flow rate entering the core.

A 10:1 bypass ratio, for example, means that 10 kg of air passes through the bypass duct for every 1 kg of air passing through the core. Turbofan engines are described in terms of BPR, which together with overall pressure ratio, turbine inlet temperature and fan pressure ratio are important design parameters. In addition BPR is quoted for turboprop and unducted fan installations because their high propulsive efficiency gives them the overall efficiency characteristics of high bypass turbofans; this allows them to be shown together with turbofans on plots which show trends of reducing specific fuel consumption with increasing BPR. BPR can be quoted for lift fan installations where the fan airflow is remote from the engine and doesn't flow past the engine core. A higher BPR provides a lower fuel consumption for the same thrust. If all the gas power from a gas turbine is converted to kinetic energy in a propelling nozzle, the aircraft is best suited to high supersonic speeds. If it is all transferred to a separate big mass of air with low kinetic energy, the aircraft is best suited to zero speed.

For speeds in between, the gas power is shared between a separate airstream and the gas turbine's own nozzle flow in a proportion which gives the aircraft performance required. The trade off between mass flow and velocity is seen with propellers and helicopter rotors by comparing disc loading and power loading. For example, the same helicopter weight can be supported by a high power engine and small diameter rotor or, for less fuel, a lower power engine and bigger rotor with lower velocity through the rotor. Bypass refers to transferring gas power from a gas turbine to a bypass stream of air to reduce fuel consumption and jet noise. Alternatively, there may be a requirement for an afterburning engine where the sole requirement for bypass is to provide cooling air; this sets the lower limit for BPR and these engines have been called "leaky" or continuous bleed turbojets and low BPR turbojets. Low BPR has been used to

Kanigiri (Assembly constituency)

Kanigiri Assembly constituency is a constituency of the Andhra Pradesh Legislative Assembly, India. It is one of 12 constituencies in the Prakasham district, it is part of the Ongole Lok Sabha constituency along with another six Vidhan Sabha segments, Yerragondapalem, Ongole, Kondapi and Giddalur in the Prakasam district. 1955 - Gujjula Yalamanda Reddy - Communist Party of India 1962 - Kotapati Guriswamy Reddy - Communist Party of India 1967 - V. R.puli - Indian National Congress 1972 - Sura Papi Reddy - Independent 1978 - Ramasubba Reddy Buthalapalli - Indian National Congress 1983 - Mukku Kasi Reddy - Telugu Desam Party 1985 - Mukku Kasi Reddy - Telugu Desam Party 1989 - Erigineni Thirupathi Naidu - Indian National Congress 1994 - Mukku Kasi Reddy - Telugu Desam Party 1999 - Erigineni Thirupathi Naidu - Indian National Congress 2004 - Erigineni Thirupathi Naidu - Indian National Congress 2009 - Ugra Narasimha Reddy Mukku - Indian National Congress 2014 - Kadiri Baburao - Telugu Desam Party 2019 - Burra Madhusudan Yadav - YSR Congress Party List of constituencies of Andhra Pradesh Legislative Assembly

Jason Cain

Jason Cain is a professional basketball player who plays for Petro de Luanda in the Angolan Basketball League. Standing at 6 ft 10 in, he plays as power forward, he played in the University of Virginia Cavaliers playing significant minutes during his third and fourth years. Cain helped the Virginia team in reach the NCAA tournament in the 2006–07 season. In 2008, Cain started his professional career by playing for the New Yorker Phantoms Braunschweig in the German Basketball Bundesliga. In 2014, Cain signed with Petro de Luanda from Angola and went on to win the 2015 FIBA Africa Clubs Champions Cup with the club. In September, Petro de Luanda announced. LEB Oro profile German League profile