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Turkic peoples

The Turkic peoples are a collection of ethno-linguistic groups of Central, Eastern and Western Asia as well as parts of Europe and North Africa. The origins of the Turkic people are a matter of contention among scholars. Yunusbayev suggested. According to several linguists southern Mongolia is the homeland of the early Turkic language; the Turkic peoples speak related languages belonging to the Turkic language family. They share, to certain cultural traits, common ancestry and historical backgrounds. In time, different Turkic groups came in contact with other ethnicities, absorbing them, leaving some Turkic groups more diverse than the others. Many vastly differing ethnic groups have throughout history become part of the Turkic peoples through language shift, intermixing and religious conversion. Despite this, many do share, to varying degrees, non-linguistic characteristics like cultural traits, ancestry from a common gene pool, historical experiences; the most notable modern Turkic-speaking ethnic groups include Turkish people, Uzbeks, Turkmens and Uyghur people.

The first known mention of the term Turk applied to a Turkic group was in reference to the Göktürksin the Khüis Tolgoi inscription most-likely not than 587 AD. A letter by Ishbara Qaghan to Emperor Wen of Sui in 585 described him as "the Great Turk Khan." The Bugut and Orkhon inscription use the terms Türk and Türük. Previous use of similar terms are of unknown significance, although some feel that they are evidence of the historical continuity of the term and the people as a linguistic unit since early times; this includes Chinese records Spring and Autumn Annals referring to a neighbouring people as Beidi. During the first century CE, Pomponius Mela refers to the "Turcae" in the forests north of the Sea of Azov, Pliny the Elder lists the "Tyrcae" among the people of the same area. There are references to certain groups in antiquity whose names could be the original form of "Türk/Türük" such as Togarma, Turukha/Turuška, Turukku and so on, but the information gap is so substantial that a connect of these ancient people to the modern Turks is not possible.

Turkologist Peter B. Golden posits, it is accepted that the term "Türk" is derived from the Old-Turkic migration-term Türük/Törük, which means "created", "born", or "strong", from the Old Turkic word root *türi-/töri- and conjugated with Old Turkic suffix from Proto-Turkic *türi-k, The earliest Turkic-speaking peoples identifiable in Chinese sources are the Dingling and Xinli, located in South Siberia. The Chinese Book of Zhou presents an etymology of the name Turk as derived from "helmet", explaining that this name comes from the shape of a mountain where they worked in the Altai Mountains. During the Middle Ages, various Turkic peoples of the Eurasian steppe were subsumed under the "umbrella-identity" of the "Scythians". Between 400 CE and the 16th century, Byzantine sources use the name Σκύθαι in reference to twelve different Turkic peoples. In the modern Turkish language as used in the Republic of Turkey, a distinction is made between "Turks" and the "Turkic peoples" in loosely speaking: the term Türk corresponds to the "Turkish-speaking" people, while the term Türki refers to the people of modern "Turkic Republics".

However, the proper usage of the term is based on the linguistic classification in order to avoid any political sense. In short, the term Türki can be used for vice versa. Turkic ethnic groups are prominent in the world today and there have been Turkic nations in the past. Note: Some modern Turkic peoples by origin lost their Turkic language, for example, the Hazaras. Historical Turkic groups The origins of the Huns, Pannonian Avars and Xiongnu are unknown but may be of Turkic ancestry; the Turkic languages constitute a language family of some 30 languages, spoken across a vast area from Eastern Europe and the Mediterranean, to Siberia and Western China, through to the Middle East. Some 170 million people have a Turkic language as their native language; the Turkic language with the greatest number of speakers is Turkish proper, or Anatolian Turkish, the speakers of which account for about 40% of all Turkic speakers. More than one third of these are ethnic Turks of Turkey, dwelling predominantly in Turkey proper and Ottoman-dominated areas of Southern and Eastern Europe and West Asia.

The remainder of the Turkic people are concentrated in Central Asia, the Caucasus and northern Iraq. The Turkic alphabets are sets of related alphabets with letters, used for writing Turkic languages. Inscriptions in Turkic alphabets were found in Mongolia. Most of the preserved inscriptions were dated to between 8th and 10th centuries CE; the earliest positively dated and read Turkic inscriptions date from c. 150, the alphabets were replaced by the Old Uyghur alphabet in the Central Asia, Arabic script in the Middle and Western Asia, Cyrillic in Eastern Europe and in the Balkans, Latin alphabet in Centr

Geology of the Appalachians

The geology of the Appalachians dates back to more than 480 million years ago. A look at rocks exposed in today's Appalachian Mountains reveals elongate belts of folded and thrust faulted marine sedimentary rocks, volcanic rocks and slivers of ancient ocean floor – strong evidence that these rocks were deformed during plate collision; the birth of the Appalachian ranges marks the first of several mountain building plate collisions that culminated in the construction of the supercontinent Pangaea with the Appalachians and neighboring Little Atlas near the center. These mountain ranges once reached elevations similar to those of the Alps and the Rocky Mountains before they were eroded. During the earliest Paleozoic Era, the continent that would become North America straddled the equator; the Appalachian region was a passive plate margin, not unlike today's Atlantic Coastal Plain Province. During this interval, the region was periodically submerged beneath shallow seas. Thick layers of sediment and carbonate rock were deposited on the shallow sea bottom when the region was submerged.

When seas receded, terrestrial sedimentary deposits and erosion dominated. During the Middle Ordovician Period, a change in plate motions set the stage for the first Paleozoic mountain building event in North America; the once quiet Appalachian passive margin changed to a active plate boundary when a neighboring oceanic plate, the Iapetus, collided with and began sinking beneath the North American craton. With the creation of this new subduction zone, the early Appalachians were born. Along the continental margin, volcanoes grew. Thrust faulting warped older sedimentary rock laid down on the passive margin; as mountains rose, erosion began to wear them down. Streams carried; this was just the first of a series of mountain building plate collisions that contributed to the formation of the Appalachians. Mountain building continued periodically throughout the next 250 million years. Continent after continent was thrust and sutured onto the North American craton as the Pangean supercontinent began to take shape.

Microplates, smaller bits of crust, too small to be called continents, were swept in, one by one, to be welded to the growing mass. By about 300 million years ago Africa was approaching the North American craton; the collisional belt spread into the Ozark-Ouachita region and through the Marathon Mountains area of Texas. Continent vs. continent collision raised the Appalachian-Ouachita chain to a lofty mountain range on the scale of the present-day Himalaya. The massive bulk of Pangea was completed near the end of the Paleozoic Era when Africa plowed into the continental agglomeration, with the Appalachian-Ouachita mountains near the core. Pangea began to break up about 220 million years ago, in the Early Mesozoic Era; as Pangea rifted apart a new passive tectonic margin was born and the forces that created the Appalachian and Marathon Mountains were stilled. Weathering and erosion prevailed, the mountains began to wear away. By the end of the Mesozoic Era, the Appalachian Mountains had been eroded to an flat plain.

It was not until the region was uplifted during the Cenozoic Era that the distinctive topography of the present formed. Uplift rejuvenated the streams, which responded by cutting downward into the ancient bedrock; some streams flowed along weak layers that define the folds and faults created many millions of years earlier. Other streams downcut so that they cut right across the resistant folded rocks of the mountain core, carving canyons across rock layers and geologic structures; the ridges of the Appalachian Mountain core represent erosion-resistant rock that remained after the rock above and beside it was eroded away. The Appalachian Mountains span across five geologic provinces: the Appalachian Basin, the Blue Ridge Mountains, the Piedmont Province, the Adirondack Province, the New England Province; the Appalachian Basin is a foreland basin containing Paleozoic sedimentary rocks of Early Cambrian through Early Permian age. From north to south, the Appalachian Basin Province crosses New York, eastern Ohio, West Virginia, western Maryland, eastern Kentucky, western Virginia, eastern Tennessee, northwestern Georgia, northeastern Alabama.

The northern end of the Appalachian Basin extends offshore into Lakes Erie and Ontario as far as the United States–Canada border. The Appalachian Basin province covers an area of about 185,500 square miles; the province is 1,075 miles long from northeast to southwest and between 20 to 310 miles wide from northwest to southeast. The northwestern flank of the basin is a broad homocline that dips southeastward off the Cincinnati Arch. A complexly thrust faulted and folded terrane, formed at the end of the Paleozoic by the Alleghenian orogeny, characterizes the eastern flank of the basin. Metamorphic and igneous rocks of the Blue Ridge Thrust Belt that bounds the eastern part of the Appalachian Basin Province were thrust westward more than 150 miles over lower Paleozoic sedimentary rocks; the Appalachian Basin is one of the most important coal producing regions in the US and one of the biggest in the world. Appalachian Basin bituminous; the coal is used within the eastern U. S. or exported for electrical power generation, but some of it is suitable for meta

Hearables

Hearables or Smart headphones are technically advanced, electronic in-ear-devices designed for multiple purposes ranging from wireless transmission to communication objectives, medical monitoring and fitness tracking. Hearables are therefore a manifestation of the concept of ubiquitous computing; the neologism "hearable" is a hybrid of the terms wearable and headphone, as hearables combine major assets of wearable technology with the basic principle of audio-based information services, conventional rendition of music and wireless telecommunication. The term was introduced in April 2014 by Apple in the context of the company's acquisition of Beats Electronics and product designer and wireless application specialist Nick Hunn in a blogpost for a wearable technologies internet platform. Hearables are referenced as a subset of wearables. Sometimes the terms "smart headphones" or "smart advisors" are used to denominate hearables, it is noteworthy that the term "hearable" is used with a stronger focus on the primary communication pattern rather than its physical implementation.

In this sense news agency Reuters in its "Journalism media and technology predicitions 2015" ranked voice driven virtual assistants in general as an important field of innovation, including voice recognition software like Apple's Siri, Amazon's Echo, or Me-OS on Vinci headphones. The first description of a wearable ear-worn multimedia platform for health monitoring, heart rate monitoring, entertainment and cloud-based communications was described by Valencell in 2006. Current advancements in the development of hearables aim at feature integration, size reduction, covering a diverse range of applications. Controlled by touch, thought or voice these miniaturized in ear computers are designed for the purposes of mobile communication, real time information services, activity tracking and various monitoring applications focussing on the wearers health conditions and body performance in combination with a wireless media player; the concept of hearables thus follows an holistic technological approach, targeting the consolidation of different major state of the art communication and information technologies in one single device, discreetly concealed in a small earbud.

Among the predominant future uses intended for hearables are therefore advisory services only provided by conventional web applications or by dedicated devices, while current developments focus on the implementation of hearables as health monitors, Activity Trackers and fitness trackers. The hardware architecture of "Hearables" or "Smart Headphones" comprises Speakers, to convert analog signals to sound Bluetooth IC, to communicate with other devices a smartphone Sensors, to track heart rate, cadence, or to detect proximity Microphones, to take or make phone calls, or take voice commandsMost of the "Hearables" seen to date are Bluetooth devices that use phones or PCs as the central computing unit. Vinci smart headphones, announced in 2016, incorporated a dual-core CPU, local storage, WiFi and 3G connectivity that allow users to use without a phone. One important benefit of placing the entire interaction unit in-ear and addressing users purely through acoustic signals is the lower grade of overall distraction compared to vision based augmented reality tools or wearables with tactile signal and interaction mechanismns.

At the same time acoustic warning signals – for example in case of an otherwise unnoticed medical crisis – are, as experiments have shown, more effective and immediate than visual indicators. Furthermore, the measurement of biometric data such as temperature, heart rate or oxygen saturation can be monitored through via PPG with higher reliability and better response times through in ear monitoring than contact devices placed on wrist or torso. A substantial amount of research around hearables is dedicated to aiding the hearing impaired and the increasing number of elderly people struggling with conventional input/output devices such as keyboard, mouse or touchscreen, as it is reflected for instance by the recent cooperation between the EHIMA and the Bluetooth Special Interest Groupworks on the enhancement of conventional hearing aids by applying the newest bluetooth generation for additional streaming of music, telecommunication and audio notifications; the European Commission has initiated a similar research project in mid 2013, with a projected runtime until summer 2016.

This so-called "AAL Joint Programme" involves the "Austrian Ministry of Traffic and Technology", the Austrian Society for Research Funding and several owned technology companies. A somewhat more ambitious project is the inclusion of EEG in hearables, making it an example of ear-EEG. Most systems in development are designed for binaural use and share a basic set of desired functionalities; the deployment of hearables is on the agenda of many consumer technology manufacturers. The first hearable product to enter the marketplace was the iriverON Bluetooth headset, launched in late 2013, which integrated biometric sensor technology into a Bluetooth audio headset. Other biometric have since followed in the market, including the Jabra Sport Pulse, the Sony B-Trainer, the LG HR Earphone, other biometric Bluetooth headsets; the core technology behind these products has been independently validated by Duke University. In the summer of 2014 "Earin", a headphone firm based in Lund, started a crowdfunding campaign for their "Minuscule" earbuds, claiming them to become