Debt bondage, known as debt slavery or bonded labour, is a persons pledge of labour or services as security for the repayment for a debt or other obligation. The services required to repay the debt may be undefined, debt bondage can be passed on from generation to generation. Currently, debt bondage is the most common method of enslavement with an estimated 8.1 million people bonded to labour illegally as cited by the International Labour Organization in 2005. Debt bondage has been described by the United Nations as a form of modern day slavery, though most countries in South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa are parties to the Convention, the practice is still prevalent primarily in these regions. It is predicted that 84 to 88% of the labourers in the world are in South Asia. Lack of prosecution or insufficient punishment to this crime are the causes as to why this practice exists at this scale today. When the bonded laborer dies, debts are passed on to children. Although debt bondage, forced labour, and human trafficking are all defined as forms or variations of slavery, debt bondage differs from forced labour and human trafficking in that a person consciously pledges to work as a means of repayment of debt without being placed into labor against will.
Debt bondage only applies to individuals who have no hopes of leaving the labor due to inability to pay debt back. Those who offer their services to repay a debt and the employer reduces the debt accordingly are not in debt bondage. In the 19th century, people in Asia were bonded to labor due to a variety of reasons ranging from farmers mortgaging harvests to drug addicts in need for opium in China. When a natural disaster occurred or food was scarce, people willingly chose debt bondage as a means to a secure life, in the early 20th century in Asia, most laborers tied to debt bondage had been born into it. In certain regions, such as in Burma, debt bondage was far more common than slavery and these continued added loan values made leaving servitude unattainable. Moreover, after the development of the economy, more workers were needed for the pre-industrial economies of Asia during the 19th century. A greater demand for labor was needed in Asia to power exports to growing industrial countries like the United States and it started from the end of slavery in 1833 and continued until 1920.
Important to both East and West Africa, defined by Wilks as the use of people in transferring their rights for settlement of debt, was common during the 17th century, the system of pawnship occurred simultaneously with the slave trade in Africa. Though the export of slaves from Africa to the Americas is often analyzed, development of plantations like those in Zanzibar in East Africa reflected the need for internal slaves. Furthermore, many of the slaves that were exported were male as brutal and this created gender implications for individuals in the pawnship system as more women were pawned than men and often sexually exploited within the country
Battle of Cape Lopez
The Battle of Cape Lopez was fought in early 1722 during the Golden Age of Piracy. A British man-of-war under Captain Chaloner Ogle defeated the pirate ship of Bartholomew Roberts off the coast of Gabon, Bartholomew was the most successful pirate during the Golden Age, he captured well over 400 vessels ranging from small fishing boats to large frigates. In April 1721, known as Black Bart, was sailing the coast of Martinique when he came across a French frigate of fifty-two guns, aboard the vessel was the governor of the French colony who was hung by Roberts from the yardarm of his ship. Roberts and his men captured the two French warships off the Senegal Rivers mouth, the sixteen-gun sloop-of-war Comte de Toulouse and a ten-gun brig, Comte de Toulouse was renamed the Ranger and the brig Little Ranger. After taking the two Frenchmen, the pirates sailed southeast for the present day Gabon, while on the way, off the coast of Pepper Coast Roberts sighted and captured the Royal Africa Company frigate Onslow which he renamed the Royal Fortune.
The frigate mounted over forty guns and the crew consisted of about 250 men and white. Black Barts luck was soon to run out though, as two Royal Navy men-of-war began patrolling the waters of West Africa, at about the same time, Roberts anchored in Cape Lopez for careening. The British vessels on patrol were the fourth-rates HMS Swallow and HMS Weymouth, both mounting fifty guns or more but only the Swallow under Captain Chaloner Ogle encountered Black Bart. When Captain Ogle sailed around the cape he sighted four vessels, three of them pirates and one a merchant ship the Neptune belonging to a Captain Hill, which was illegally trading with the brigands. Ogle spotted a sandbar and quickly ordered his ship to turn out of the way, by this time the pirates had spotted the Swallow so Roberts allowed Captain James Skyrm in the Ranger to capture what he thought was a fleeing merchant ship. Sensing an opportunity, Captain Ogle chose to let the pirate chase him for hours until they were far away from the cape.
Ogle turned about, raised the White Ensign and engaged Captain Skyrm, after a relatively short action, the sloop was captured, made a prize, and ten pirates were killed. Ogle patiently sailed back to Cape Lopez where he arrived five days on February 10,1722, a few moments they discovered the incoming vessel was not their sloop but the Swallow. One of the pirates, a man named Armstrong who had absconded from the Swallows sister ship Weymouth at Madeira, recognized the British frigate and told Captain Roberts. Most of the crew from the Little Ranger was ordered to join the crew of the Royal Fortune so as to keep as many pirates as possible aboard the flagship for defense, the Little Ranger which was hauled on her side being cleaned at the time, was abandoned. When the pirates left, Captain Hills crew went aboard the Little Ranger and looted gold and other valuables, Roberts plan called for him to sail directly for the Swallow in order to quickly pass her and escape. By doing this the Swallow would have to turn about to engage or chase the Royal Fortune which would give Roberts valuable time to flee.
The plan however had one default, by sailing right past the British frigate, Captain Roberts set out for his escape and issued the command for Little Ranger and the merchantman to leave
Human trafficking is the trade of humans, most commonly for the purpose of forced labor, sexual slavery, or commercial sexual exploitation for the trafficker or others. This may encompass providing a spouse in the context of forced marriage, or the extraction of organs or tissues, including for surrogacy, Human trafficking can occur within a country or trans-nationally. Human trafficking is a crime against the person because of the violation of the rights of movement through coercion. Human trafficking is the trade in people, and does not necessarily involve the movement of the person from one place to another, according to the International Labour Organization, forced labor alone generates an estimated $150 billion in profits per annum as of 2014. Estimated that 21 million victims are trapped in modern-day slavery, of these,14.2 million were exploited for labor,4.5 million were sexually exploited, and 2.2 million were exploited in state-imposed forced labor. Human trafficking is thought to be one of the activities of trans-national criminal organizations.
Human trafficking is condemned as a violation of rights by international conventions. In addition, human trafficking is subject to a directive in the European Union, the protocol is one of three which supplement the CTOC. The Trafficking Protocol is the first global, legally binding instrument on trafficking in over half a century, one of its purposes is to facilitate international cooperation in investigating and prosecuting such trafficking. Another is to protect and assist human traffickings victims with full respect for their rights as established in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, in 2014, the International Labour Organization estimated $150 billion in annual profit is generated from forced labor alone. The average cost of a trafficking victim today is USD $90,000 which. The average slave in 1800 America was the equivalent to USD $40,000, though illegal, there may be no deception or coercion involved. After entry into the country and arrival at their ultimate destination, Human trafficking, on the other hand, is a crime against a person because of the violation of the victims rights through coercion and exploitation.
Unlike most cases of smuggling, victims of human trafficking are not permitted to leave upon arrival at their destination. While smuggling requires travel, trafficking does not, trafficked people are held against their will through acts of coercion, and forced to work for or provide services to the trafficker or others. The work or services may include anything from bonded or forced labor to commercial sexual exploitation, the arrangement may be structured as a work contract, but with no or low payment, or on terms which are highly exploitative. Sometimes the arrangement is structured as debt bondage, with the not being permitted or able to pay off the debt. Bonded labor, or debt bondage, is probably the least known form of labor trafficking today, the value of their work is greater than the original sum of money borrowed
Circassian beauties is a phrase used to refer to an idealized image of the women of the Circassian people of the Northwestern Caucasus. A fairly extensive literary history suggests that Circassian women were thought to be beautiful and elegant. As a result of this reputation, in Europe and America Circassians were often characterised as ideals of beauty in poetry. Cosmetic products were advertised, from the 18th century on, using the word Circassian in the title, in consequence, most wives of several Ottoman Sultans were ethnic Circassians converted to Islam, e. g. In the 1860s the showman P. T. Barnum exhibited women whom he claimed were Circassian beauties and it is not clear why Barnum chose this hairstyle. It may have been a reference to the Circassian fur hat, there were several classical Turkish music pieces and poems that praise the beauty of the Lepiska Saçlı Çerkes. They furnish with beauties the seraglio of the Turkish Sultan, of the Persian Sophy. Their beauty is mentioned in Henry Fieldings Tom Jones, in which Fielding remarked, How contemptible would the brightest Circassian beauty, drest in all the jewels of the Indies, beautys brightest colours Had decked her out in all the hues of heaven.
Her sale sent home some disappointed bawlers, Who bade on till the hundreds reached the eleven, But when the offer went beyond, they knew ‘Twas for the Sultan, and at once withdrew. Hugos comment was condemned by Karl Marx in The Philosophical Manifesto of the Historical School of Law on the grounds that it excused slavery, mark Twain reported in The Innocents Abroad that Circassian and Georgian girls are still sold in Constantinople by their parents, but not publicly. American travel author and diplomat Bayard Taylor in 1862 claimed that, So far as beauty is concerned. They have preserved in their home the purity of the Grecian models. An anthropological literary suggests that Circassians were best characterized by what was called rosy pale or translucent white skin, while most Circassian tribes were famous for their abundant fair or dark blond and red hair combined with greyish-blue or green eyes, some had dark hair with light complexions. The fact that Circassian women were encouraged to wear corsets in order to keep their posture straight might have shaped their wasp waist as a result.
It has suggested that a lithe and erect physique were favored for Circassians. In Henry Lindlahrs words in the early 20th century, Blue-eyed Caucasian regiments today form the cream of the Sultans army, Circassian beauties are admired for their abundant and luxuriant yellow hair and blue eyes. She was tall, and well, though slightly, shaped, at Bet il Sahel there was much more luxury and grand style than at Bet il Mtoni. The handsome and graceful Circassian women were more numerous than at Bet il Mtoni
Children in the military
Throughout history and in many cultures, children have been extensively involved in military campaigns even when such practices were against cultural morals. In World War I, in Great Britain 250,000 boys under 18 managed to join the army, in World War II, child soldiers fought throughout Europe, in the Warsaw Uprising, in the Jewish resistance, and in the Soviet Army. According to one study, children have been used militarily across the globe, Children are easy targets to recruit for military purposes because of their vulnerability to influence. Many are seized and recruited by force whereas others join to escape their reality, research shows that child soldiering prolongs the duration of civil wars, as it increases the strength of rebel organizations vis-a-vis the government. This reduction in both the calibre of infantry rifles and the mass of many items of equipment makes it easier for children to carry. However, children who are over the age of 15 but under the age of 18 are still able to take part in combat as soldiers.
The United Nations Security Council convenes regularly to debate, receive reports, the most recent meeting was on 17 July 2008. The first resolution on the issue, Resolution 1261, was passed in 1999, in 2014, more than 17 cases were covered about children in armed conflict. Many children in different countries are involved in such illegal conflicts and these children are detained with no real evidence, or in massive sweeps. Some of them are captured with their families, or by the activity of one of their family members and relatives are banded to the court. They can be detained without sufficient food, medical care, or under other inhumane conditions, some of these children live with physical and sexual torture. Refraining from recruiting children under fifteen does not exclude children who volunteer for armed service, non-state actors and guerrilla forces are forbidden from recruiting anyone under the age of 18 for any purpose. Opinion is currently divided over whether children should be prosecuted for committing war crimes, many child soldiers fought in the Sierra Leone Civil War.
In its wake, the UN sanctioned the Special Court for Sierra Leone to try the participants for war crimes, if found guilty under US law such a crime carries a maximum penalty of life imprisonment. This was agreed as part of a bargain, which would see Khadr deported to Canada after one year to serve the remaining seven years there. In a letter to the U. S. Omar Khadr remained in Guantanamo Bay, Khadr was transferred to the Canadian prison system in September 2012, and was freed on bail by a judge in the province of Alberta in May 2015. He is appealing his American conviction as a war criminal, in March 2012 Thomas Lubanga Dyilo was convicted by the International Criminal Court for military use of children. P. W. Singer of the Brookings Institution estimated in January 2003 that child soldiers participate in three quarters of all the ongoing conflicts in the world
Slavery in the Ottoman Empire
Slavery in the Ottoman Empire was a legal and significant part of the Ottoman Empires economy and society. The main sources of slaves were war captives and organized enslavement expeditions in North and East Africa, Eastern Europe and it has been reported that the selling price of slaves fell after large military operations. Enslavement of Caucasians was banned in the early 19th century, while slaves from other groups were allowed, in Constantinople, the administrative and political center of the Empire, about a fifth of the population consisted of slaves in 1609. Sixteenth- and 17th-century customs statistics suggest that Istanbuls additional slave import from the Black Sea may have totaled around 2.5 million from 1450 to 1700, even after several measures to ban slavery in the late 19th century, the practice continued largely unabated into the early 20th century. As late as 1908, female slaves were sold in the Ottoman Empire. Sexual slavery was a part of the Ottoman slave system throughout the history of the institution.
A member of the Ottoman slave class, called a kul in Turkish, harem guards and janissaries are some of the better known positions a slave could hold, but slaves were actually often at the forefront of Ottoman politics. The majority of officials in the Ottoman government were bought slaves, raised free, many officials themselves owned a large number of slaves, although the Sultan himself owned by far the largest amount. By raising and specially training slaves as officials in schools such as Enderun. In the mid-14th century, Murad I built an army of slaves, the new force was based on the Sultans right to a fifth of the war booty, which he interpreted to include captives taken in battle. The captive slaves converted to Islam and trained in the personal service. The devşirme system could be considered a form of slavery because the Sultans had absolute power over them, slaves were traded in special marketplaces called Esir or Yesir that were located in most towns and cities. It is said that Sultan Mehmed II the Conqueror established the first Ottoman slave market in Constantinople in the 1460s, probably where the former Byzantine slave market had stood.
According to Nicolas de Nicolay, there were slaves of all ages, most of the military commanders of the Ottoman forces, imperial administrators, and de facto rulers of the Empire, such as Pargalı Ibrahim Pasha and Sokollu Mehmed Pasha, were recruited in this way. By 1609, the Sultans Kapıkulu forces increased to about 100,000, domestic slavery was not as common as military slavery. On the basis of a list of estates belonging to members of the ruling class kept in Edirne between 1545 and 1659, the data was collected, out of 93 estates,41 had slaves. The total number of slaves in the estates was 140,54 female and 86 male,134 of them bore Muslim names,5 were not defined, and 1 was a Christian woman. Some of these appear to have been employed on farms
An odalisque was a chambermaid or a female attendant in a Turkish seraglio, particularly the court ladies in the household of the Ottoman sultan. The word odalisque is French in form and originates from the Turkish odalık, meaning chambermaid, from oda and it can be transliterated odahlic and odaliq. In western usage, the term has come to refer specifically to the harem concubine, by the eighteenth century the term odalisque referred to the eroticized artistic genre in which a nominally eastern woman lies on her side on display for the spectator. An odalık was not a concubine of the harem, but a maid, an odalık was ranked at the bottom of the social stratification of a harem, serving not the man of the household, but rather, his concubines and wives as personal chambermaids. Odalık were usually given as gifts to the sultan by wealthy Turkish men. Generally, an odalık was never seen by the sultan but instead remained under the supervision of his mother. If an odalık was of beauty or had exceptional talents in dancing or singing.
If selected, an odalık trained as a lady would serve the sultan sexually and only after such sexual contact would she change in status. In contrast to European depictions of nude women, they more often wore androgynous robes resembling those worn by the male pages of the palace. The conditions of the Ottoman harem resembled a monastery for young girls more than the bordello of European imagination. W. S. Gilbert refers to the Grace of an odalisque on a divan in Colonel Calverleys song If You Want A Receipt For That Popular Mystery from the Gilbert and Sullivan opera Patience. In popular use, the word may refer to a mistress. During the 19th century, odalisques became common fantasy figures in the movement known as Orientalism. The gentlemen who wish to buy an odalisque or a wife, many Turks, prefer to take a slave as a wife, as, in such case, there is no need to dread fathers, mothers, or brothers-in-law, and other undesirable relations. In 2011 the Law Society of British Columbia brought a discipline hearing against a lawyer for referring to another lawyers client as living with an odalisque.
The Law Society found the use of the word, though a poor choice. Culture of the Ottoman Empire Ottoman Sultans concubines Hammam Arab slave trade Islamic views on slavery Köçek Ottoman Turkish language Jeffrey Eugenides Middlesex, stretched across the couch, a Pisceasn Odalisque. The Imperial Harem by Leslie Pierce The Nature of the Early Ottoman State by Heath W Lowry
The Crimean Khanate was a Turkic vassal state of the Ottoman Empire from 1478 to 1774, the longest-lived of the Turkic khanates that succeeded the empire of the Golden Horde. The khanate was located in present-day Russia and Ukraine, Ottoman forces under Gedik Ahmet Pasha conquered all of the Crimean peninsula and joined it to the khanate in 1475. During the 16th and 17th centuries, the Crimean Khanate was an important center of the slave trade. In 1774, it was released as a independent state, following the Russo-Turkish Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca. English-speaking writers during the 18th and early 19th centuries often called the territory of the Crimean Khanate, the name Little Tartary distinguished the area from Tartary - those areas of central and northern Asia inhabited by Turkic peoples or Tatars. The Khanate included the Crimean peninsula and the adjacent steppes, mostly corresponding to the parts of South Ukraine between the Dnepr and the Donets. The Crimean Khanate originated in the early 15th century when certain clans of the Golden Horde Empire ceased their nomadic life in the Desht-i Kipchak and decided to make Crimea their yurt.
At that time, the Golden Horde of the Mongol empire had governed the Crimean peninsula as an ulus since 1239, the local separatists invited a Genghisid contender for the Golden Horde throne, Hacı Giray, to become their khan. Hacı Giray accepted their invitation and traveled from exile in Lithuania and he warred for independence against the Horde from 1420 to 1441, in the end achieving success. But Hacı Giray had to fight off internal rivals before he could ascend the throne of the khanate in 1449, the khanate included the Crimean Peninsula as well as the adjacent steppe. The sons of Hacı I Giray contended against each other to succeed him, the Ottomans intervened and installed one of the sons, Meñli I Giray, on the throne. Menli I Giray, took the imperial title Sovereign of Two Continents, in 1475 the Ottoman forces, under the command of Gedik Ahmet Pasha, conquered the Greek Principality of Theodoro and the Genoese colonies at Cembalo and Caffa. Thenceforth the khanate was a protectorate of the Ottoman Empire, the Ottoman sultan enjoyed veto power over the selection of new Crimean khans.
The Empire annexed the Crimean coast but recognized the legitimacy of the rule of the steppes. In 1475, the Ottomans imprisoned Meñli I Giray for three years for resisting the invasion, after returning from captivity in Constantinople, he accepted the suzerainty of the Ottoman Empire. Nevertheless, Ottoman sultans treated the khans more as allies than subjects, the khans continued to have a foreign policy independent from the Ottomans in the steppes of Little Tartary. The khans continued to mint coins and use their names in Friday prayers and they did not pay tribute to the Ottoman Empire, instead the Ottomans paid them in return for their services of providing skilled outriders and frontline cavalry in their campaigns. Later on, Crimea lost power in this relationship as the result of a crisis in 1523, during the reign of Meñlis successor and he died that year and beginning with his successor, from 1524 on, Crimean khans were appointed by the Sultan
Blackbirding is the coercion of people through trickery and kidnapping to work as labourers. From the 1860s, blackbirding ships in the Pacific sought workers to mine the deposits on the Chincha Islands in Peru. In the 1870s, the blackbirding trade focused on supplying labourers to plantations, particularly the sugar plantations of Queensland. The first documented practice of a major blackbirding industry for sugar cane labourers occurred between 1842 and 1904 and those blackbirded were recruited from the indigenous populations of nearby Pacific islands or northern Queensland. In the early days of the industry in Western Australia at Nickol Bay and Broome. Blackbirding has continued to the present day in developing countries, the term may have been formed directly as a contraction of blackbird catching, blackbird was a slang term for the local indigenous people. Byrne, an Irish speculator, persuaded countrymen to financially back a scheme to bring colonists from the New Hebrides to Peru as indentured agricultural workers, the first ship, was fitted and on 15 June 1862 set out across the Pacific.
Calling in at Tongareva in the northern Cook Islands, Byrne found the one island in the Pacific where the population was willing to leave because of a severe coconut famine. He took 253 recruits, by September, they were working in Peru as plantation workers, almost immediately speculators and ship owners fitted out ageing ships that went to Polynesia to bring willing colonists. From September 1862 to April 1863, no less than 30 ships set out, because profit was the main motive, many ship captains resorted to dishonest tactics and kidnapping to fill their ships. In June 1863 about 350 people were living on ʻAta atoll in Tonga, in a village called Kolomaile, but once almost half of the population was on board, the ships doors and rooms were locked, and the ship sailed away. The Grecian tried to take slaves from the Lau group, from Niuafouʻou, McGrath captured only 30 people, this was the second island in Tonga to be affected. The Grecian never made it to Peru, probably near Pukapuka, it met another slaver, the General Prim, which had left Callao in March.
Its captain was willing to take over the 174 Tongans to quickly return to port, the Peruvian government, under pressure from foreign powers and shocked that its labour plan had turned into a slave trade, had on 28 April 1863 cancelled all licenses. The islanders on board General Prim, and other ships were not allowed to land and they were transferred to other ships chartered by the Peruvian government to return them to their homeland. By the time the Adelante finally left on 2 October 1863, captain Escurra of the Adelante, pocketed his fee of $30/head, but dumped them on uninhabited Cocos Island. He claimed that the 426 kanakas were affected with smallpox, when the whaler Active visited the island on 21 October, its crew found some 200 Tongans still alive. A month the Peruvian warship Tumbes went to rescue the remaining 38 survivors and took them to Paita, nowadays their descendants still live in Haʻatuʻa, of which a part has been named Kolomaile
Atlantic slave trade
The Atlantic slave trade or transatlantic slave trade took place across the Atlantic Ocean from the 15th through the 19th centuries. This was crucial to those western European countries which, in the late 17th and 18th centuries, were vying with each other to create overseas empires, the Portuguese were the first to engage in the New World slave trade in the 16th century. In 1526, the Portuguese completed the first transatlantic voyage from Africa to the Americas. The first Africans imported to the English colonies were classified as indentured servants, like coming from England. By the middle of the 17th century, slavery had hardened as a caste and their offspring were legally the property of their owners. As property, the people were considered merchandise or units of labour, the major Atlantic slave trading nations, ordered by trade volume, the Portuguese, the British, the French, the Spanish, and the Dutch Empire. Several had established outposts on the African coast where they purchased slaves from local African leaders and these slaves were managed by a factor who was established on or near the coast to expedite the shipping of slaves to the New World.
Slaves were kept in a factory while awaiting shipment, current estimates are that about 12 million Africans were shipped across the Atlantic, although the number purchased by the traders is considerably higher, as the passage had a high death rate. Near the beginning of the century, various governments acted to ban the trade. In the early twenty-first century, several governments issued apologies for the slave trade. The Atlantic slave trade arose after trade contacts were first made between the continents of the Old World and those of the New World, between 1600 and 1800, approximately 300,000 sailors engaged in the slave trade visited West Africa. In doing so, they came into contact with societies living along the west African coast, historian John Thornton noted, A number of technical and geographical factors combined to make Europeans the most likely people to explore the Atlantic and develop its commerce. That leadership gave rise to the myth that the Iberians were the leaders of the exploration.
Slavery was practiced in parts of Africa, Asia. There is evidence that people from some African states were exported to other states in Africa, Europe. The African slave trade provided a number of slaves to Europeans. The Atlantic slave trade was not the slave trade from Africa, although it was the largest in volume. As Elikia M’bokolo wrote in Le Monde diplomatique, The African continent was bled of its resources via all possible routes