Turkish Airlines

Turkish Airlines is the national flag carrier airline of Turkey. As of August 2019, it operates scheduled services to 315 destinations in Europe, Asia and the Americas, making it the largest mainline carrier in the world by number of passenger destinations; the airline serves more destinations non-stop from a single airport than any other airline in the world, flies to 126 countries, more than any other airline. With an operational fleet of 24 cargo aircraft, the airline's cargo division serves 82 destinations; the airline's corporate headquarters are at the Turkish Airlines General Management Building on the grounds of Istanbul Atatürk Airport in Yeşilköy, Bakırköy, Istanbul. Istanbul Airport in Arnavutkoy is the airline's main base, there are secondary hubs at Istanbul Sabiha Gökçen International Airport and Ankara Esenboğa International Airport. Turkish Airlines has been a member of the Star Alliance network since 1 April 2008. Turkish Airlines was established on 20 May 1933 as Turkish State Airlines as a department of the Ministry of National Defence.

The airline's initial fleet consisted of two five-seat Curtiss Kingbirds, two four-seat Junkers F 13s and one ten-seat Tupolev ANT-9. In 1935, the airline was turned over to the Ministry of Public Works and was subsequently renamed General Directorate of State Airlines. Three years in 1938, it became part of the Ministry of Transportation. Several Douglas DC-3s and Douglas C-47s were phased in during 1945. Being set up as a domestic carrier, the airline commenced international services with the inauguration of Ankara–Istanbul–Athens flights in 1947. Nicosia and Cairo were soon added to the airline's international flight destinations. However, domestic services remained the carrier's primary focus until the early 1960s. In 1956, the Turkish government reorganized the airline under the name Türk Hava Yolları A. O.. It was capitalized at 60 million TL; the airline joined the International Air Transport Association shortly thereafter. In 1957, British Overseas Airways Corporation began supplying technical support after acquiring a 6.5 percent shareholding, which it held for about 20 years.

New aircraft including Vickers Viscounts, Fokker F27s and Douglas DC-3s were added to the fleet in the late 1950s and early 1960s. Turkish Airlines began operating their first jet, a McDonnell Douglas DC-9, in 1967; this was followed by the addition of three Boeing 707 jets in 1971. Other aircraft operated in the early 1970s included the McDonnell Douglas DC-10 and the Fokker F28 which were put into service in 1972 and 1973 respectively; the airline was plagued by several issues in the 90s. It developed a reputation for delays, it endured hijackings and suffered seven accidents between 1974 and 1983. The most notorious was the 1974 crash of Turkish Airlines Flight 981, when an aircraft design flaw led to a faulty cargo door breaking off in flight near Ermenonville, resulting in the deaths of 346 people. A new government came to power in 1983 which recognized THY's importance as Turkey's gateway to the world, beginning the airline's makeover into a modern operation, it would go on to maintain one of the youngest fleets in the world.

Security was intensified, causing one shipper to compare it to Israel's El Al, at least in terms of delays. THY built a new, state-of-the-art technical center at Yeşilköy Airport in 1984; the airline was capable of both heavy maintenance on many different aircraft types. Technical staff made up one-quarter of the airline's 6,000 employees, according to Air Transport World. In 1984, the company's capital was raised to 60 billion TL as it was classified as a state economic enterprise. Three years the capital was raised again, to 150 billion TL. By the mid-1980s, THY had a fleet of 30 aircraft, it was flying three million passengers a year to 16 domestic destinations and three dozen international ones. The airline was Turkey's largest source of foreign currency. Turkish Airlines began operating Airbus A310s in 1985, allowing the addition of flights to Singapore in 1986. A route to New York City via Brussels was added in 1988; the company posted losses in 1987 and 1988 due to high payments on its dozen new Airbus A310s, according to Air Transport World.

The fleet included 11 Boeing 727s and nine Douglas DC-9s. THY ended the decade with 8,500 employees; the company suffered in the global aviation crisis following the Persian Gulf War and would not break-even again until 1994. However, the business was again booming in the mid-1990s, with the greatest growth coming from North American destinations. THY launched a nonstop flight to New York City in July 1994; the company's capital continued to be raised, reaching 10 trillion TL in 1995. During that year, the airline converted three of its Boeing 727s to dedicated freighters; the DC-9s had been sold off. The company posted a $6 million profit on revenues of $1 billion for the year. While profitable, THY had to contend with Turkey's exorbitant inflation, making capital improvements difficult; the domestic market was deregulated in 1996, allowing new scheduled competition from charter airlines. At the same time, larger international carriers were providing stiff competition on routes to Western Europe.

THY entered into marketing agreements with other international airlines to enhance their competitiveness. The company teamed with Japan Airlines to offer service to Osaka and Tokyo in 1997 and 1998. Other jointly operated flights soon followed with Austrian Airlines and Croatia Airlines. A new terminal opened in January 2000 at Istanbul's Istanbul Atatürk Airport. Turkish Air


Deafheaven is an American post-metal band formed in 2010. Based in San Francisco, the group began as a two-piece with singer George Clarke and guitarist Kerry McCoy, who recorded and self-released a demo album together. Following its release, Deafheaven began to tour. Before the end of 2010, the band signed to Deathwish Inc. and released their debut album Roads to Judah, in April 2011. A follow-up album, was released in 2013 to wide critical acclaim, becoming one of the best reviewed albums of the year in the United States. In 2015 the band released their third album, New Bermuda, in 2018 their fourth, Ordinary Corrupt Human Love. Deafheaven's musical style has been described by Rolling Stone as a "boundary-pushing blend of black metal and post-rock". McCoy has cited various other influences on the band's sound, including alternative rock and early thrash metal, said they do not consider themselves a black metal band, although influenced by the genre, they do not have "the ethos, the aesthetic or the sound of one".

In a 2017 interview with Red Bull Music Academy Daily, McCoy stated: "The whole shoegaze/black metal, or post-black metal thing, was being done ten years before we were a band." Deafheaven formed in February 2010 in San Francisco, California with vocalist George Clarke and guitarist Kerry McCoy, who performed in the grindcore band Rise of Caligula together. Clarke is not sure how he arrived on the name Deafheaven, though he is aware of its appearance in William Shakespeare's Sonnet 29; the two words'deaf' and'heaven' were combined as a homage to Slowdive. Clarke and McCoy recorded an untitled demo album in April 2010 at Atomic Garden Studios with Jack Shirley for about US$500, which the band could not afford at the time; because the duo did not own an electric guitar or amp at the time, the demo was written on an acoustic guitar and recorded with equipment borrowed from the studio. The untitled demo, released digitally and on cassette tape in limited quantities, featured four songs that combined traditional black metal and post-rock.

Deafheaven did not intend to release the material, but they sent it out to a few of their favorite blogs. After the demo had been positively received, Clarke and McCoy recruited three additional musicians—bassist Derek Prine, guitarist Nick Bassett of the shoegaze band Whirr and drummer Trevor Deschryver, who responded to an ad on Craigslist—to form a five-piece group, started playing their first shows in July 2010. Deafheaven announced they had signed to Deathwish Inc. in December 2010—a label, founded by Converge's vocalist Jacob Bannon. Deathwish contacted Deafheaven, only wanted to give their demo a wide physical release. By this point, the group had some new material written and asked if Deathwish could release both the demo and the new material; the first release that Deafheaven released through Deathwish was a 7" vinyl single that featured "Libertine Dissolves" and "Daedalus", two songs that were taken from the group's demo. The single was pressed in a limited quantity and sent out as a gift to random people that made a purchase from Deathwish's webstore.

Their debut album, Roads to Judah, was released on April 2011 through Deathwish. The title of the album is a reference to the N Judah light rail that provides transportation in Deafheaven's hometown, lyrically the album is about Clarke's "year of substance abuse and debauchery." Roads to Judah received positive reviews from Decibel and RVA Magazine, was placed on several year-end lists including NPR, Pitchfork and The A. V. Club. MSN Music named Deafheaven one of the best new artists of 2011. To promote Roads to Judah, Deafheaven performed at Austin, Texas' SXSW festival in March 2011, toured the United States with the Canadian noise rock band KEN mode in June 2011, performed at California's Sound and Fury Festival in July 2011, toured the US with the post-rock band Russian Circles in November 2011, performed a European tour in February 2012. McCoy said that Russian Circles "took us under their wing" while on tour and taught them how a band ought to behave, he said, "The three rules of any successful band are to write good tunes, be excellent live, to not be an asshole while doing that.

We were always striving to do that, but hammered it into our heads." Deafheaven participated in the mid-2012 festivals Northside in Brooklyn, New York and Fun Fun Fun in Austin, Texas. As a part of Deathwish Inc's free live album series, Deafheaven released Live at The Blacktop in July 2011; the album featured an entire live performance from January 15, 2011 in Bell Gardens, California at The Blacktop—a former loading dock converted into a venue. In October 2012, Deafheaven released a split EP with the American black metal band Bosse-de-Nage through The Flenser. Deafheaven contributed a cover of two Mogwai songs, "Punk Rock" and "Cody", released as a single track; the two songs originate from Mogwai's 1999 album Come On Die Young. In 2012, Deafheaven released a remastered, limited-edition vinyl record of its 2010 demo through Sargent House; as early as September 2011, Deafheaven announced they had begun writing new music for a potential split album, EP or full-length. At the time, McCoy described the material as being "faster, darker, a lot heavier and far more experimental" than Roads to Judah.

However, in December 2012, Clarke described their new material as less melancholic and less centered around black metal, but rather featuring a more "lush and rock-driven pop-driven" sound at times. The new album, titled Sunbather, was written by founding members Clarke and McCoy—similar to the way its demo was composed, but different from Roads to Judah, written

SMS Kaiser (1858)

SMS Kaiser was a 92-gun wooden ship of the line of the Austrian Navy, the last vessel of the type, the only screw-driven example, to be built by the Austrians. She was built by the naval shipyard in Pola; the ship took part in the Second Schleswig War of 1864, but saw no action during her deployment to the North Sea. Kaiser did see action during the Seven Weeks' War two years during which she took part in the Battle of Lissa as the flagship of Anton von Petz, commander of the Austrian 2nd Division. Kaiser engaged several Italian ironclads rammed one—Re di Portogallo—and damaged another—Affondatore—with gunfire. In doing so, she became the only wooden ship of the line to engage an ironclad warship in battle. In 1869, the Austro-Hungarians decided to rebuild Kaiser into an ironclad casemate ship. By this time, casemate ships were being superseded by turret ships, as a result, Kaiser spent the years 1875–1902 in reserve, she was modernized periodically throughout the 1870s and 1880s in attempts to improve her performance.

In 1901–1902, she was renamed Bellona and had her armament and engines removed so she could be used as a barracks ship in Pola, a role she filled through World War I. Italy seized the ship as a war prize after the end of the conflict, but her ultimate fate is unknown Starting in the early 1850s, the Austrian Empire, faced with a strengthening Kingdom of Sardinia—which unified most of the Italian peninsula in a decade—began to modernize its navy with new steam-driven warships. Archduke Ferdinand Maximilian oversaw the program, which began with the screw frigate Radetzky laid down in Britain in 1852. Two years Ferdinand decided a steam ship of the line should be built next; the excellent performance of the French ship Algésiras during the war prompted the Austrians to modify the Agamemnon design to incorporate features of the French vessel, including a greater size and more powerful machinery. A second vessel of a larger design, to have been named Österreich and armed with 101 guns, was cancelled in 1859 before she was laid down.

Figures for Kaiser's original characteristics are unclear. According to the contemporary historian Wilhelm von Rüstow, Kaiser was 74 meters long, with a displacement of 5,337 long tons, but the modern naval historian Andrew Lambert states. He provides a beam of 16.21 metres. Her crew numbered men, which included a contingent of naval infantry, she was armed with a battery of ninety-two guns, consisting of sixteen 60-pounder guns, seventy-four 30-pounder smoothbores, two 24-pounder breech loaders. The ship was powered by a two-cylinder horizontal steam engine, which drove a single screw propeller, 5.75 m in diameter. Steam was provided by six coal-fired boilers with twenty-six fireboxes; the engine, manufactured by Maudslay and Field, was rated at 800 nominal horsepower. A three-masted ship rig supplemented the steam engine; the keel of Kaiser was laid down on 25 March 1855 at the naval shipyard in Pola. She began sea trials on 6 December that year, with the first trip under her own power taking place from Muggia to Pola.

In February 1864, the Austrian Empire joined Prussia in the Second Schleswig War against Denmark. Kaiser was sent with the new armored frigate Juan de Austria and two smaller vessels under Vice Admiral Bernhard von Wüllerstorf-Urbair to reinforce a smaller force consisting of the screw frigates Schwarzenberg and Radetzky under then-Captain Wilhelm von Tegetthoff. After the two groups combined in Den Helder, the Netherlands, they proceeded to Cuxhaven on 27 June, arriving three days later; the now outnumbered Danish fleet remained in port for the rest of the war and did not seek battle with the Austro-Prussian squadron. Instead, the Austrian and Prussian naval forces supported operations to capture the islands off the western Danish coast. During the campaign, Kaiser was commanded by Friedrich von Pöck. In June 1866, Italy declared war on Austria, as part of the Third Italian War of Independence, fought concurrently with the Austro-Prussian War. Tegetthoff, by now promoted to Rear Admiral and given command of the entire fleet, brought the Austrian fleet to Ancona on 27 June, in an attempt to draw out the Italians, but the Italian commander, Admiral Carlo Pellion di Persano, refused to engage Tegetthoff.

At the time, Kaiser served as the flagship of the 2nd Division of the Austrian fleet, under the command of Baron Anton von Petz. On 16 July, Persano took the Italian fleet, with twelve ironclads, out of Ancona, bound for the island of Lissa, where they arrived on the 18th. With them, they brought troop transports carrying 3,000 soldiers. Persano spent the next two days bombarding the Austrian defenses of the island and unsuccessfully attempting to force a landing. Tegetthoff received a series of telegrams between 17 and 19 July notifying him of the Italian attack, which he believed to be a feint to draw the Austrian fleet away from its main bases at Pola and Venice. By the morning of the 19th, however, he was convinced that Lissa was in fact the Italian objective, so he requested permission to att