Turkish cuisine is the heritage of Ottoman cuisine, which can be described as a fusion and refinement of Central Asian, Middle Eastern, Eastern European and Balkan cuisines. Turkish cuisine has in turn influenced those and other neighbouring cuisines, including those of Southeast Europe, Central Europe, Western Europe; the Ottomans fused various culinary traditions of their realm with influences from Levantine cuisines, along with traditional Turkic elements from Central Asia, creating a vast array of specialities. Turkish cuisine varies across the country; the cooking of Istanbul, Bursa and rest of the Asia Minor region inherits many elements of Ottoman court cuisine, with a lighter use of spices, a preference for rice over bulgur, koftes and a wider availability of vegetable stews, stuffed dolmas and fish. The cuisine of the Black Sea Region uses fish extensively the Black Sea anchovy and includes maize dishes; the cuisine of the southeast is famous for its variety of kebabs and dough-based desserts such as baklava, şöbiyet, kadayıf, künefe.
In the western parts of Turkey, where olive trees grow abundantly, olive oil is the major type of oil used for cooking. The cuisines of the Aegean and Mediterranean regions are rich in vegetables and fish. Central Anatolia has many famous specialties, such as keşkek, gözleme. Food names directly cognate with mantı are found in Chinese and Korean cuisine. A specialty's name sometimes includes that of a city or region, either in or outside of Turkey, may refer to the specific technique or ingredients used in that area. For example, the difference between Urfa kebap and Adana kebap is the thickness of the skewer and the amount of hot pepper that the kebab contains. Urfa kebap is less thicker than Adana kebap. Although meat-based foods such as kebabs are the mainstay in Turkish cuisine as presented in foreign countries, native Turkish meals center around rice and bread. Turks prefer a rich breakfast. A typical Turkish breakfast consists of cheese, olives, tomatoes, jam and kaymak, pastırma, börek, simit, poğaça and soups are eaten as a morning meal in Turkey.
A specialty for breakfast is called menemen, prepared with tomatoes, green peppers, olive oil and eggs. Invariably, Turkish tea is served at breakfast; the Turkish word for breakfast, kahvaltı, means "before coffee". Homemade food is still preferred by Turkish people. Although the newly introduced way of life pushes the new generation to eat out. A typical meal starts with soup, followed by a dish made of vegetables or legumes boiled in a pot with or before rice or bulgur pilav accompanied by a salad or cacık. In summertime many people prefer to eat a cold dish of vegetables cooked with olive oil instead of the soup, either before or after the main course, which can be a chicken, meat or fish plate. Although fast food is gaining popularity and many major foreign fast food chains have opened all over Turkey, Turkish people still rely on the rich and extensive dishes of Turkish cuisine. In addition, some traditional Turkish foods köfte, döner, kokoreç, kumpir midye tava börek and gözleme, are served as fast food in Turkey.
Eating out has always been common in large commercial cities. Esnaf lokantası are widespread. In the hot Turkish summer, a meal consists of fried vegetables such as eggplant and peppers or potatoes served with yogurt or tomato sauce. Menemen and çılbır are typical summer dishes, based on eggs. Sheep cheese, tomatoes and melons make a light summer meal; those who like helva for dessert prefer summer helva, lighter and less sweet than the regular one. Used ingredients in Turkish specialties include: lamb, rice, eggplants, green peppers, garlic, beans and tomatoes. Nuts pistachios, almonds and walnuts, together with spices, have a special place in Turkish cuisine, are used extensively in desserts or eaten separately. Semolina flour is used to make a cake called irmik helvasi. Olives are common on various breakfasts and meze tables frequently. Beyaz peynir and yogurt are part of many dishes including börek, manti and cacik. Butter or margarine, olive oil, sunflower oil, canola oil, corn oil are used for cooking.
Sesame, hazelnut and walnut oils are used as well. Kuyruk yağı is sometimes used in kebabs and meat dishes; the rich and diverse flora of Turkey means that fruit is varied and cheap. In Ottoman cuisine, fruit accompanied meat as a side dish. Plums, pomegranates, apples and figs, along with many kinds of citrus are the most used fruit, either fresh or dried, in Turkish cuisine. For example, komposto or hoşaf are among the main side dishes to pilav. Dolma and pilaf contain currants or raisins. Etli yaprak sarma used to be cooked with sour plums in Ottoman cuisine. Turkish desserts do
Perrine Simon-Nahum is a contemporary French historian. Holder of a doctorate in history, Simon-Nahum is responsible for research at the CNRS and associate member of the CRIA-EHESS. Specializing in contemporary history, her research focuses on Judaism and the history of Jews in France. In 1989, she published a compilation of texts by Raymond Aron entitled Essais sur la condition juive contemporaine, she codirected a Dictionnaire critique de la République in 2002. At the same time, she is director of series at Éditions Grasset. Choice of texts and annotation of Raymond Aron, Essais sur la condition juive contemporaine, Paris, Éditions de Fallois, 1989. ISBN 2-87706-021-7. ISBN 978-2-84734-444-8 La cité investie. La science du judaïsme français et la République, Paris, Éditions du Cerf, "Bibliothèque franco-allemande", 1992. ISBN 2-204-04405-9, Les ombres de l'histoire. Crime et châtiment au XIXe siècle, texts collected by Michelle Perrot, Flammarion, 2001. ISBN 2-08-067914-7. ISBN 2-08-080059-0 with Vincent Duclert and Christophe Prochasson, Dictionnaire critique de la République, Flammarion, 2002.
ISBN 2-08-068059-5 with Vincent Duclert and Christophe Prochasson, Il s'est passé quelque chose le 21 avril 2002, Paris, Éditions Denoël, « Médiations », 2003. ISBN 2-207-25473-9 André Malraux: L'engagement politique au XXe siècle, Armand Colin, 2010. ISBN 978-2-200-24606-8 Perrine Simon-Nahum on Cespra Perrine Simon-Nahum on ITEM Perrine Simon-Nahum on France Culture Perrine Simon-Nahum on Akadem
L’Écho des Savanes is a Franco-Belgian comics magazine founded in May 1972 by Claire Bretécher, Marcel Gotlib and Nikita Mandryka. It featured the work of French and international authors and graphic artists in mature-oriented comics over the course of 34 years and temporarily ended publication in December 2006, it was relaunched in 2008. The first issue of L’Écho des Savanes was published on May 1, 1972, it was the only issue that year, although popular demand caused it to be reprinted in several editions. All its pages were in black and white and contained the work of its founders, Bretécher and Mandryka. Marked as a publication for adults, it staked a different course than Pilote magazine, the family-friendly publication the founders had a long relationship with. Over the following two years, it was a quarterly publication. Only near the end of this period, work by other creators began to appear, such as Alexis, Harvey Kurtzman, Jean Solé, Moebius. In 1975, the magazine adapted a bi-monthly schedule, from 1976 it became monthly.
Although no longer labeled "for adults", the usual cover imagery suggested nothing about the contents had changed. During this period, contributions began to arrive from creators such as Neal Adams, Richard Corben, Robert Crumb, Dick Giordano, Alejandro Jodorowsky, Jeff Jones, Gérard Lauzier, Jacques Lob, Georges Pichard, Jacques Tardi, Martin Veyron, Wallace Wood and Berni Wrightson. From the late 1970s, leading to 1982's suspension of publication, L'Écho continued a successful run, including frequent editions of L'Écho special U. S. A. and a side publication titled Virus. The work by Bretécher and Mandryka stopped appearing, notable additions to the pool of contributors were Jean Michel Charlier, Guido Crepax, Jean-Claude Forest, Carlos Giménez, Tanino Liberatore and Art Spiegelman. Purchased by publisher Albin Michel, L'Écho relaunched June 1 after a five-month pause, making alterations to the image of the magazine. Among the new contributors were Baru, Will Eisner, Milo Manara, Frank Miller, Jean-Marc Reiser, Alex Toth and Alex Varenne.
In addition to "adult" comic strips, issues contained articles featuring photographs of semi-naked women. A weekly version named L’Hebdo Écho des Savanes, L’Ebdo was launched in 1984 in place of the monthly magazine for a few months; the December 2006 issue was to be the final release of L'Écho, after a decision by Lagardère Active Media to cease publication. Glénat publisher restarted the publication from March 28, 2008 with issue number 267. Franco-Belgian comics