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Turkish people

Turkish people or the Turks known as Anatolian Turks, are a Turkic ethnic group and nation living in Turkey and speaking Turkish, the most spoken Turkic language. They are the largest ethnic group in Turkey, as well as by far the largest ethnic group among the Turkic peoples. Ethnic Turkish minorities exist in the former lands of the Ottoman Empire. In addition, a Turkish diaspora has been established with modern migration in Western Europe. Turks arrived from Central Asia and Western China and settled in the Anatolian basin in around the 11th century through the conquest of Seljuk Turks, mixing with the peoples of Anatolia; the region began to transform from a predominately Greek Christian one to a Turkish Muslim society. Thereafter, the Ottoman Empire came to rule much of the Balkans, the Caucasus, the Middle East, North Africa over the course of several centuries, with an advanced army and navy; the Empire lasted until the end of the First World War, when it was defeated by the Allies and partitioned.

Following the successful Turkish War of Independence that ended with the Turkish national movement retaking most of the land lost to the Allies, the movement abolished the Ottoman sultanate on 1 November 1922 and proclaimed the Republic of Turkey on 29 October 1923. Not all Ottomans were Muslims and not all Ottoman Muslims were Turks, but by 1923, the majority of people living within the borders of the new Turkish republic identified as Turks. Article 66 of the Turkish Constitution defines a "Turk" as "anyone, bound to the Turkish state through the bond of citizenship". However, the majority of the Turkish population are of Turkish ethnicity and are estimated at 70–75 percent; the vast majority of Turks are Muslims. The ethnonym "Turk" may be first discerned in Herodotus' reference to Targitas, a king of the Scythians. Pomponius Mela refers to the "Turcae" in the forests north of the Sea of Azov, Pliny the Elder lists the "Tyrcae" among the people of the same area; the first definite references to the "Turks" come from Chinese sources in the sixth century.

In these sources, "Turk" appears as "Tujue". In the 19th century, the word Türk only referred to Anatolian villagers; the Ottoman ruling class identified themselves as Ottomans, not as Turks. In the late 19th century, as the Ottoman upper classes adopted European ideas of nationalism the term Türk took on a much more positive connotation. During Ottoman times, the millet system defined communities on a religious basis, a residue of this remains in that Turkish villagers consider as Turks only those who profess the Sunni faith. Turkish Jews, Christians, or Alevis may be considered non-Turks. In the early 20th century the Young Turks abandoned Ottoman nationalism in favor of the Turkish nationalism, while adopting the name Turks, imposed in the Turkish Republic. Article 66 of the Turkish Constitution defines a "Turk" as anyone, "bound to the Turkish state through the bond of citizenship." Anatolia was first inhabited by hunter-gatherers during the Paleolithic era, in antiquity was inhabited by various ancient Anatolian peoples.

After Alexander the Great's conquest in 334 BC, the area was Hellenized, by the first century BC it is thought that the native Anatolian languages, themselves earlier newcomers to the area, as a result of the Indo-European migrations, became extinct. The early Turkic peoples lived somewhere in northern China in western Manchuria, as agricultural group, but started their migration to Central Asia and Siberia with a predominantly nomadic life style. In Central Asia, the earliest surviving Turkic-language texts, the eighth-century Orkhon inscriptions, were erected by the Göktürks in the sixth century CE, include words not common to Turkic but found in unrelated Inner Asian languages. Although the ancient Turks were nomadic, they traded wool, leather and horses for wood, silk and grain, as well as having large ironworking stations in the south of the Altai Mountains during the 600s CE. Most of the Turkic peoples were followers of Tengrism, sharing the cult of the sky god Tengri, although there were adherents of Manichaeism, Nestorian Christianity and Buddhism.

However, during the Muslim conquests, the Turks entered the Muslim world proper as slaves, the booty of Arab raids and conquests. The Turks began converting to Islam after Muslim conquest of Transoxiana through the efforts of missionaries and merchants. Although initiated by the Arabs, the conversion of the Turks to Islam was filtered through Persian and Central Asian culture. Under the Umayyads, most were domestic servants, whilst under the Abbasid Caliphate, increasing numbers were trained as soldiers. By the ninth century, Turkish commanders were leading the caliphs’ Turkish troops into battle; as the Abbasid Caliphate declined, Turkish officers assumed more military and political power taking over or establishing provincial dynasties with their own corps of Turkish troops. During the 11th century the Seljuk Turks who were admirers of the Persian civilization grew in number and were able to occupy the eastern province of the Abbasid Empire. By 1055, the Seljuk Empire captured Baghdad and began to make their first incursions into the edges of Anatolia.

When the Seljuk Turks won the Battle of Manzikert against the Byzantine Empire in 1071, it opened the gates of Anatolia to them. Although ethnically Turkish, the Seljuk Turks appreciated and became the purveyors of the Persian culture

Eungella Hinterland, Queensland

Eungella Hinterland is a rural locality in the Mackay Region, Australia. In the 2016 census, Eungella Hinterland had a population of 3 people. Eungella Hinterland is mountainous undeveloped terrain with individual peaks including Mount William 1,259 metres, Mount David 1,249 metres, Mount Dalrymple 1,260 metres; the eastern half of the locality is a protected area, involving the Macartney State Forest, Eungella National Park, Pelion Forest Reserve and Pelion State Forest. The locality takes its name from the town and pastoral run name, which in turn was named in July 1876 by explorer Ernest Favenc in July 1876, it is believed to be an Aboriginal word, meaning land of cloud

1986 Angolan legislative election

Parliamentary elections were held in Angola on 9 December 1986. They had been scheduled for 1983, but were postponed due to the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola's military gains in the civil war; the elections were the second elections conducted in the nation after in got independence from Portugal in 1975 and after the 1980 elections. During the period of 1975 to 1980, a civil war was fought between three parties, People's Movement for the Liberation of Angola, National Front for the Liberation of Angola, the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola and the disturbance continued to the 90s; the Unicameral Parliament of Angola was scheduled to be constituted with the 289 elected members for a period of three years after the elections. All Angolan citizens with 18 years of age were eligible to cast their vote; the representatives of the provincial assemblies formed a college and they elected the representatives of the House of Parliament. Elections were planned to be held in 1983, but was postponed to three years for political disturbances and was held on 9 November 1986 for electoral colleges for choosing the electorates of the legislature.

At the time, the country was a one-party state, with the People's Movement for the Liberation of Angola - Party of Labour as the sole legal party. As a result, most candidates were members of the party, two-thirds were re-nominated from 1980 elections; the elected assemblies took oath on 30 January 1987 and José Eduardo dos Santos took oath as the second elected President of Angola. MPLA won 173 out of the 289 seats, while there were 117 independent winners and one seat remained vacant. Angola was a colony of Portugal for more than 400 years from the 15th century; the demand for independence in Angola picked up momentum during the early 1950s. The Portuguese régime, refused to accede to the demands for independence, provoking an armed conflict that started in 1961 when freedom fighters attacked both white and black civilians in cross-border operations in northeastern Angola, called the Colonial War; the principal protagonists included the People's Movement for the Liberation of Angola, founded in 1956, the National Front for the Liberation of Angola, which appeared in 1961, the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola, founded in 1966.

After many years of conflict that weakened all of the insurgent parties, Angola gained its independence on 11 November 1975, after the 1974 coup d'état in Lisbon, which overthrew the Portuguese régime headed by Marcelo Caetano. A fight for dominance broke out between the three nationalist movements; the events prompted a mass exodus of Portuguese citizens, creating up to 300 000 destitute Portuguese refugees—the retornados. The new Portuguese government tried to mediate an understanding between the three competing movements, agreed by the movements, but failed and resulted in a devastating civil war which lasted several decades, it produced many refugees. Following negotiations held in Portugal, itself experiencing severe social and political turmoil and uncertainty due to the April 1974 revolution, Angola's three main guerrilla groups agreed to establish a transitional government in January 1975. Within two months, the FNLA, MPLA and UNITA had started fighting each other and the country began splitting into zones controlled by rival armed political groups.

The MPLA gained much of the rest of the country. With the support of the United States, Zaïre and South Africa intervened militarily in favour of the FNLA and UNITA with the intention of taking Luanda before the declaration of independence. In response, Cuba intervened in favor of the MPLA. With Cuban support, the MPLA held Luanda and declared independence on 11 November 1975, with Agostinho Neto becoming the first president, though the civil war continued. Jose Eduardo dos Santos won the 1980 elections and became the first elected President of the country; the civil war continued with UNITA fighting against the MLPA, with both parties taking international support. The Unicameral Parliament of Angola was scheduled to be constituted with the 289 elected members (229 in 1980 elections for a period of three years after the elections. All Angolan citizens with 18 years of age were eligible to cast their vote. Citizens who were members of factional groups, had criminal record and who had not rehabilitated were barred from exercising their voting rights.

The representatives of the provincial assemblies formed a college and they elected the representatives of the House of Parliament. The candidates were expected to be answerable to the citizens in public meetings, with their candidature approved by a majority in the province where they were getting nominated. A constitutional amendment on 19 August 1980 indicated that the Council would be replaced by a national people's assembly and there would be 18 elected assemblies. Elections were scheduled to be held in 1983 after the completion of the previous four year term, but were postponed on account of the Civil war and other political disturbances. Elections were held on 9 December 1986 for all 18 assemblies for choosing the electorates of the legislature. At the time, the country was a one-party state, with the People's Movement for the Liberation of Angola - Party of Labour being the sole legal party; as a result, most candidates were members of the party, those that were not were vetted to ensure that they were not elected to the colleges.

The party invited more number of candidates from various sections of the society and nominated lot of women. The party re-nominated c