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Turks and Caicos Islands

The Turks and Caicos Islands are a British Overseas Territory consisting of the larger Caicos Islands and smaller Turks Islands, two groups of tropical islands in the Lucayan Archipelago of the Atlantic Ocean and northern West Indies. They are known for tourism and as an offshore financial centre; the resident population was 31,458 as of 2012 of whom 23,769 live on Providenciales in the Caicos Islands. It is the third largest of the British overseas territories by population; the Turks and Caicos Islands lie southeast of Mayaguana in The Bahamas island chain, northeast of Cuba, north of the island of Hispaniola. Cockburn Town, the capital since 1766, is situated on Grand Turk Island about 1,042 kilometres east-southeast of Miami, United States; the islands have a total land area of 430 square kilometres. The Turks and Caicos Islands were inhabited for centuries by native Amerindian peoples; the first recorded European sighting of the islands occurred in 1512. In the subsequent centuries, the islands were claimed by several European powers, with the British Empire gaining control.

For many years the islands were governed indirectly through Bermuda, the Bahamas, Jamaica. When the Bahamas gained independence in 1973, the islands received their own governor, have remained a separate autonomous British Overseas Territory since; the Turks and Caicos Islands are named after the Turk's cap cactus, the Lucayan term caya hico, meaning'string of islands'. The first inhabitants of the islands were the Arawakan-speaking Taíno people, who most crossed over from Hispaniola some time from AD 500 to 800. Together with Taíno who migrated from Cuba to the southern Bahamas around the same time, these people developed as the Lucayan. Around 1200, the Turks and Caicos Islands were resettled by Classical Taínos from Hispaniola, it is unknown who the first European to sight the islands was. Some sources state that Christopher Columbus saw the islands on his voyage to the Americas in 1492; however other sources state that it is more that Spanish conquistador Juan Ponce de León was the first European in Turks and Caicos, in 1512.

In any case, after 1512 the Spanish began capturing the Taíno and Lucayans as slaves to replace the depleted native population of Hispaniola. As a result of this, the introduction of diseases to which the native people had no immunity, the southern Bahama Islands and the Turks and Caicos Islands were depopulated by about 1513, remained so until the 17th century. From the mid 1600s Bermudian salt collectors began seasonally visiting the islands settling more permanently with their African slaves. For several decades around the turn of the 18th century, the islands became popular pirate hideouts. During the Anglo-French War the French captured the archipelago in 1783, however it was confirmed as British colony with the Treaty of Paris. After the American War of Independence, many Loyalists fled to British Caribbean colonies bringing with them African slaves, they developed cotton as an important cash crop, but it was superseded by the development of the salt industry, with the labour done by African slaves forcibly imported from Africa or the other Caribbean islands and their descendants, who soon came to outnumber the European settlers.

In 1799, both the Turks and the Caicos island groups were annexed by Britain as part of the Bahamas. The processing of sea salt was developed as a important export product from the West Indies and continued to be a major export product into the nineteenth century. In 1807, Britain, in 1833, abolished slavery in its colonies. British ships sometimes intercepted slave traders in the Caribbean, some ships were wrecked off the coast of these islands. In 1837, the Esperança, a Portuguese slaver, was wrecked off one of the larger islands. While the crew and 220 captive Africans survived the shipwreck, 18 Africans died before the survivors were taken to Nassau. Africans from this ship may have been among the 189 liberated Africans whom the British colonists settled in the Turks and Caicos from 1833 to 1840. In 1841, the Trouvadore, an illegal Spanish slave ship, was wrecked off the coast of East Caicos. All the 20-man crew and 192 captive Africans survived the sinking. Officials freed the Africans and arranged for 168 persons to be apprenticed to island proprietors on Grand Turk Island for one year.

They increased the small population of the colony by seven percent. The remaining 24 were resettled in Bahamas; the Spanish crew were taken there, to be turned over to the custody of the Cuban consul and taken to Cuba for prosecution. An 1878 letter documents the "Trouvadore Africans" and their descendants as constituting an essential part of the "labouring population" on the islands. In 2004, marine archaeologists affiliated with the Turks and Caicos National Museum discovered a wreck, called the "Black Rock Ship", that subsequent research has suggested may be that of the Trouvadore. In November 2008, a cooperative marine archaeology expedition, funded by the United States NOAA, confirmed that the wreck has artefacts whose style and date of manufacture link them to the Trouvadore. In 1848, Britain designated the Caicos as a separate colony under a council president. In 1873-4, the islands were made part of the Jamaica colony. In 1917, Canadian Prime Minister Robert Borden suggested that the Turks and Caicos join Canada, but this suggestion was rejected by British Prime Minister David Lloyd Georg

Quarter 7-cubic honeycomb

In seven-dimensional Euclidean geometry, the quarter 7-cubic honeycomb is a uniform space-filling tessellation. It has half the vertices of the 7-demicubic honeycomb, a quarter of the vertices of a 7-cube honeycomb, its facets are 7-demicubes, pentellated 7-demicubes, × duoprisms. This honeycomb is one of 77 uniform honeycombs constructed by the D ~ 7 Coxeter group, all but 10 repeated in other families by extended symmetry, seen in the graph symmetry of rings in the Coxeter–Dynkin diagrams; the 77 permutations are listed with its highest extended symmetry, related B ~ 7 and C ~ 7 constructions: Regular and uniform honeycombs in 7-space: 7-cube honeycomb 7-demicube honeycomb 7-simplex honeycomb Truncated 7-simplex honeycomb Omnitruncated 7-simplex honeycomb Kaleidoscopes: Selected Writings of H. S. M. Coxeter, edited by F. Arthur Sherk, Peter McMullen, Anthony C. Thompson, Asia Ivic Weiss, Wiley-Interscience Publication, 1995, ISBN 978-0-471-01003-6 H. S. M. Coxeter and Semi-Regular Polytopes III, See p318 Klitzing, Richard.

"7D Euclidean tesselations#7D"

Zabel (engine)

A Zabel is a German two-stroke motocross engine used in Sidecarcross. Zabel engines have won the Sidecarcross world championship in 1998 - driven by Kristers Sergis from Latvia 1999, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2010, 2011 and 2012 driven by Daniel Willemsen from the Netherlands at 2015 with Kaspars and Etienne at 2017 with Etienne and Nicolas Musset and at 2018 with Ben van den and driver as Marvine. Prior to 1990 a 610cc Zabel manufactured big-bore conversion was available for large bore Maico motocross engines. From 1990 to 1996 both 620cc and 685cc versions of Zabel's own engine were available; the 620 version was discontinued with the 685cc version remaining available until the end of 1998. In 1999 a new 700cc version of the engine was released with many modifications; this engine has been in continuous development since. The most recent ZM29 model was released in 2010 but improved to be ZM30. MX Zabel - Motoren and Racing Homepage