Turku is a city on the southwest coast of Finland at the mouth of the Aura River, in the region of Finland Proper. The region was called Suomi, which became the name for the whole country. Turku, as a town, was never founded; the Pope first mentioned the town Aboa in his Bulla in 1229 and the year is now used as the foundation year of the city. As the oldest town in the country Turku was the most important city in Finland, a status it retained for hundreds of years throughout the centuries under the rule of the Kingdom of Sweden. After the war Finland became an autonomous grand duchy of the Russian Empire under the direct rule of the Czar and the capital of the autonomous Grand Duchy of Finland was moved to Helsinki, it was only after the last great fire in 1827 that most governmental institutions were moved to Helsinki along with the Academy of Turku founded in 1640, which became the University of Helsinki. Turku continued to be the most populous city in Finland until the end of the 1840s, it remains the regional capital and an important business and cultural center and port.
Because of its long history, it has been the site of many important events, has extensively influenced Finnish history. The history of the country is linked to Turku, the former capital. Along with Tallinn, the capital city of Estonia, Turku was designated the European Capital of Culture for 2011. In 1996, it was declared the official Christmas City of Finland. Due to its location, Turku is a notable commercial and passenger seaport with over three million passengers traveling through the Port of Turku each year to Stockholm and Mariehamn; as of 30 September 2018, the population of Turku was 191,499 making it the sixth largest city in Finland. There were 330,192 inhabitants living in the Turku sub-region, ranking it as the third largest urban area in Finland after the Greater Helsinki area and Tampere sub-region; the city is bilingual as 5.2 percent of its population identify Swedish as a mother-tongue. The Finnish name Turku originates from an Old East Slavic word, tǔrgǔ, meaning "market place".
The word turku still means "market place" in some Finnish dialects. The Swedish name Åbo may be a simple combination of bo; as this pattern does not appear in any other Swedish place names in Finland, etymologists believe there could be a different explanation. One theory is that it comes from "Aabo", the Finnish rendition of the Russian "Avram", which could be the origin of the name of the river Aura. There is however an old legal term called "åborätt", which gave citizens the inheritable right to live at land owned by the crown. In Finnish, the genitive of Turku is Turun, meaning "of Turku"; the Finnish names of organizations and institutes of Turku begin with this word, as in Turun yliopisto for the University of Turku. Turku has a long history as Finland's largest city and as the administrative center of the country, but for the last two hundred years has been surpassed by Helsinki; the city's identity stems from its status as the oldest city in Finland and the country's first capital. The word "Finland" referred only to the area around Turku.
Although archaeological findings in the area date back to the Stone Age and early literary sources such as Al-Idrisi's world map from 1154 mentions Turku, the town of Turku was founded in late 13th century. Turku Cathedral was consecrated in 1300. During the Middle Ages, Turku was the seat of the Bishop of Turku, covering the eastern half of the Kingdom of Sweden until the 17th century. If Turku had no official capital status, both the short-lived institutions of Dukes and Governors-General of Finland had their Finnish residences there. In the aftermath of the War against Sigismund, the town was the site of the Åbo Bloodbath. In 1640, the first university in Finland, the Royal Academy of Turku, was founded in Turku. Turku was the meeting place for the States of Finland in 1676. After the Finnish War, which ended when Sweden ceded Finland to Imperial Russia at the Treaty of Fredrikshamn in 1809, Turku became the official capital, but soon lost the status to Helsinki, as Emperor Alexander I felt that Turku was too far from Russia and too aligned with Sweden to serve as the capital of the Grand Duchy of Finland.
The change took place in 1812. The government offices that remained in Turku were moved to the new capital after the Great Fire of Turku, which completely destroyed the city in 1827. After the fire, a new and safer city plan was drawn up by German architect Carl Ludvig Engel, who had designed the new capital, Helsinki. Turku remained the largest city in Finland for another twenty years. In 1918, a new university, the Åbo Akademi – the only Swedish language university in Finland – was founded in Turku. Two years the Finnish language University of Turku was founded alongside it; these two universities are the third to be founded in Finland, both by private donations. In the 20th century, Turku was called "Finland's gateway to the West" by historians such as Jarmo Virmavirta; the city enjoyed good connections with other Western European countries and cities since the 1940s with Stockholm across the Gulf of Bothnia. In the 1960s, Turku became the first Western city to sign a twinning agreement with Leningrad in the Soviet Union, leading to greater inte
Kid Supreme is a series of fictional characters appearing in the comic book series Supreme and related books. There have been three versions of the character: Charles Flanders, a World-War-II-era sidekick of Supreme, who could tap into the hero's powers; the first Kid Supreme was a boy who could tap into Supreme's powers. He became Kid Supreme, Supreme's World War II sidekick, though his relationship with Supreme was not one of equal partners – rather, he was treated more like a pet than a friend by Supreme. Charles was devastated when Supreme left the planet Earth after the war and he had to return to normal life as an ordinary fourteen-year-old boy. In adulthood he had a career writing Supreme stories for comic books. Convinced that Supreme would return to Earth and need his help again, he kept himself in good physical condition until suffering a stroke in middle age. Following Supreme's return to Earth in the 1990s, he and Charles reconnected. While under the influence of the villain Blackheart, Charles took the powers of the new Kid Supreme, Danny Fuller, attempted to battle Supreme for sole right to the name – however, he relinquished the powers when Blackheart's influence on him was broken.
Afterwards, he remained on good terms with Danny, as well as Lady Supreme. The second original version of Kid Supreme was a teenager named Danny Fuller, he is caught at ground zero of the battle between Supreme and Union, received super-powers in an explosion that occurs during the fight. He finds that he has become super strong and capable of flight; as Danny is a fan of Supreme and super-heroes, he decides to become one himself. Supreme is reluctant to team up with him, but Danny persisted and continued operating as a superhero in his own right, he meets superheroes like Glory and Lady Supreme, fights villains such as the forces of Darkthornn. After a mistake of Danny's indirectly leads to a man's death, he decides to quit being a superhero and live a normal life, he moves in with his grandparents in the town of Montez, enrolling in a new school under the alias Sam Preston. However, he soon finds that he is unable to forego using his powers and returns to being Kid Supreme once again, fighting villains such as Reptyle, Kilowatt and the Moretti crime family.
When reality is rewritten to introduce a new incarnation of Supreme, Danny is sent to the extra-dimensional realm known as the Supremacy, – however, he is able to escape through the dimensional gateway at the last second and return to his life in Montez. Some time he appears as part of an ad-hoc team of young superheroes helping S. P. I. C. E. to evade capture. An alternate version of Danny Fuller appears in "Supreme: Blue Rose". Powerless and confined to a wheelchair, he serves as a guide to Diana Dane. Moore's version of Supreme featured numerous childhood adventures of Kid Supreme, a teenage version of the adult hero. Several of these adventures featured Kid Supreme's colleagues in The League of Infinity, a team of teenage heroes from different eras. Grown up versions of these heroes would sometimes appear with the adult Supreme. Apart from Kid Supreme/Supreme and his younger sister Suprema, the most prominent members of the League of Infinity include: Futuregirl/Futurewoman from the 25th century.
Her technology makes the League's existence possible. Witch Wench/Witch Woman a beautiful young witch from 17th century Salem. Giganthro, a prehistoric caveman, possessing great strength and unusually high intelligence. Young Bill Hickok/Wild Bill Hickok, the legendary 19th century Wild West hero. Young Achilles/Achilles, the invulnerable hero of Greek mythology. Aladdin, the legendary master of the Genie in the lamp. Supreme #9 Supreme #19 Supreme #42 Weirdspace page on Charles Flanders Weirdspace page on Danny Fuller
936 Kunigunde is a dark Themistian asteroid from the outer regions of the asteroid belt 40 kilometers in diameter. It was discovered on 8 September 1920, by German astronomer Karl Reinmuth at the Heidelberg-Königstuhl State Observatory; the carbonaceous B-type asteroid has a rotation period of 9.4 hours. It was named "Kunigunde", a common German female name unrelated to the discoverer's contemporaries, taken from the almanac Lahrer Hinkender Bote. Kunigunde is a core member of the Themis family, when applying the hierarchical clustering method to its proper orbital elements; the large family of carbonaceous asteroids is named after 24 Themis. Kunigunde orbits the Sun in the outer main-belt at a distance of 2.6–3.7 AU once every 5 years and 6 months. Its orbit has an inclination of 2 ° with respect to the ecliptic; the asteroid was first observed as A913 HA at Simeiz Observatory on 27 April 1913. The body's observation arc begins at Heidelberg with its official discovery observation on 8 September 1920.
This minor planet was named "Kunigunde", after a female name picked from the Lahrer Hinkender Bote, published in Lahr, southern Germany. A Hinkender Bote was a popular almanac in the alemannic-speaking region from the late 17th throughout the early 20th century; the calendar section contains the dates of important fairs and astronomical ephemerides. For 3 March, the calendar gives "Kunigund" as the German name day analogue next to Kunigunde and Titian, the protestant and catholic entries in the calendar of saints referring to Cunigunde of Luxembourg and Titian of Brescia; as with 22 other asteroids – starting with 913 Otila, ending with 1144 Oda – Reinmuth selected names from this calendar due to his many asteroid discoveries that he had trouble thinking of proper names. These names are not related to the discoverer's contemporaries. Lutz Schmadel, the author of the Dictionary of Minor Planet Names learned about Reinmuth's source of inspiration from private communications with Dutch astronomer Ingrid van Houten-Groeneveld, who worked as a young astronomer at Heidelberg.
In both the Tholen- and SMASS-like taxonomy of the Small Solar System Objects Spectroscopic Survey, Kunigunde is a B-type asteroid, a somewhat brighter spectral type than the common C-type typical for Themistian asteroids. In March 2018, a rotational lightcurve of Kunigunde was obtained from photometric observations by French amateur astronomer René Roy. Lightcurve analysis gave a well-defined rotation period of 9.3650±0.0006 hours with a brightness variation of 0.34±0.01 magnitude. Richard Ditteon at the Oakley Southern Sky Observatory determined a period of 8.82±0.02 with an amplitude of 0.30±0.05 magnitude. Photometry by Angeli and Guimarães at observatories in Brazil and Argentina gave a similar period of 8.80 hours. In 2013, an international study modeled a lightcurve with a sidereal period of 8.82653 hours and found two spin axes at and in ecliptic coordinates. According to the survey carried out by the Japanese Akari satellite, the Infrared Astronomical Satellite IRAS, the NEOWISE mission of NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, Kunigunde measures, kilometers in diameter and its surface has an albedo of, respectively.
The Collaborative Asteroid Lightcurve Link derives an albedo of 0.0792 and a diameter of 39.29 km based on an absolute magnitude of 10.4. Further published mean-diameters and albedos by the WISE team include and with corresponding albedos of and. An asteroid occultation on 21 November 2004, gave a best-fit ellipse dimension of 39.0 × 39.0 kilometers. These timed; however the quality of the measurement is poorly rated. Lightcurve Database Query, at www.minorplanet.info Dictionary of Minor Planet Names, Google books Asteroids and comets rotation curves, CdR – Observatoire de Genève, Raoul Behrend Discovery Circumstances: Numbered Minor Planets - – Minor Planet Center 936 Kunigunde at AstDyS-2, Asteroids—Dynamic Site Ephemeris · Observation prediction · Orbital info · Proper elements · Observational info 936 Kunigunde at the JPL Small-Body Database Close approach · Discovery · Ephemeris · Orbit diagram · Orbital elements · Physical parameters