Henry (bishop of Finland)
Henry was a medieval English clergyman. He came to Sweden with Cardinal Nicholas Breakspeare in 1153 and was designated to be the new Archbishop of Uppsala, but the independent church province of Sweden could only be established in 1164 after the civil war, Henry would have been sent to organize the Church in Finland, where Christians had existed for two centuries. According to legend, he entered Finland together with King Saint Eric of Sweden and died as a martyr, becoming a central figure in the local Catholic Church, the authenticity of the accounts of his life and ministry are disputed and there are no historical records of his birth, existence or death. Together with his alleged murderer Lalli, Henry is an important figure in the early history of Finland, his feast is celebrated by the majority Lutheran Church of Finland, as well as by the Catholic Church of Finland. He is commemorated in the liturgical calendars of several Anglican churches; the legend of Bishop Henry's life, or his Vita, was written 150 years after his time, at the end of the 13th century, contains little concrete information about him.
He is said to have been an English-born bishop in Uppsala at the time of King Eric the Saint of Sweden in the mid-12th century, ruling the peaceful kingdom with the king in heavenly co-existence. To tackle the perceived threat from the non-Christian Finns and Henry were forced to battle them. After they had conquered Finland, baptized the people and built many churches, the victorious king returned to Sweden while Henry remained with the Finns, more willing to live the life of a preacher than that of a high bishop; the legend draws to a conclusion. The accused man became enraged and killed the bishop, thus considered to be a martyr; the legend emphasizes that Henry was a Bishop of Uppsala, not a Bishop of Finland which became a conventional claim on by the church itself. He was never appointed as a bishop there; the legend does not state whether there had been bishops in Finland before his time or what happened after his death. The vita is so void of any concrete information about Finland that it could have been created anywhere.
The Latin is scholastic and the grammar is in general exceptionally good. Henry's Vita is followed by the more local miracula, a list of eleven miracles that various people were said to have experienced sometime after the bishop's death. With the exception of a priest in Skara who suffered a stomach ache after mocking Henry, all miracles seem to have taken place in Finland; the other miracles, which occurred following prayer to Bishop Henry, were: The murderer lost his scalp when he put the bishop's hat on his head The Bishop's finger was found the next Spring A boy was raised from the dead in Kaisala A girl was raised from the dead in Vehmaa A sick woman was healed in Sastamala A Franciscan called Erlend had his headache healed A blind woman got back her eyesight in Kyrö A man with a paralyzed leg could walk again in Kyrö A sick girl was healed A group of fishermen from Kokemäki survived a stormMost versions of Henry's legend only include a selection of these miracles. Henry and his crusade to Finland were a part of the legend of King Eric.
The appendix of the early 13th century Västgötalagen, which has a short description of Eric's memorable deeds makes no reference to Henry or the crusade. Henry and the crusade do not appear until a version of Eric's legend that dates to 1344. Similarities in the factual content and phraseology regarding the common events indicate that either one of the legends has acted as the model for the other. Henry's legend is considered to have been written during the 1280s or 1290s at the latest, for the consecration of the Cathedral of Turku in 1300, when his alleged remains were translated there from Nousiainen, a parish not far from Turku, yet as late as in the 1470s, the crusade legend was ignored in the Chronica regni Gothorum, a chronicle of the history of Sweden, written by Ericus Olai, the Canon of the Uppsala cathedral. Noteworthy in the development of the legend is that the first canonically elected Bishop of Turku, Johan of Polish origin, was elected as the Archbishop of Uppsala in 1289, after three years in office in Turku.
The Swedish bishops of Finland before him, Bero and Kettil, had been selected by the King of Sweden. Related to the new situation was the appointment of the king's brother as the Duke of Finland in 1284, which challenged the Bishop's earlier position as the sole authority on all local matters. Johan was followed in Turku by Bishop Magnus, born in Finland. In 1291 a document by the cathedral chapter makes no reference to Henry though it mentions the cathedral and election of the new bishop many times. A papal letter by Pope Nicholas IV from 1292 has the Virgin Mary as the sole patrona in Turku; the first mention of Bishop Henry in historical sources is from 1298, when he is mentioned along with king Eric in a document from a provincial synod of Uppsala in Telge. This document, although mentioned many times as a source over the centuries, was not dated until 1910; the legend itself is first referred in a letter by the Archbishop of Uppsala in 1298, where Eric and Henry are mentioned together as martyrs who needed to be prayed to for the sake of the situation in Karelia, associating their alleged crusade to Finland with the new expeditions against Novgorod.
The war between Novgorod and Sweden for the control of Karelia had started in 1293. The first certain appearance of
A church building or church house simply called a church, is a building used for Christian religious activities for Christian worship services. The term is used by Christians to refer to the physical buildings where they worship, but it is sometimes used to refer to buildings of other religions. In traditional Christian architecture, the church is arranged in the shape of a Christian cross; when viewed from plan view the longest part of a cross is represented by the aisle and the junction of the cross is located at the altar area. Towers or domes are added with the intention of directing the eye of the viewer towards the heavens and inspiring visitors. Modern church buildings have a variety of architectural layouts; the earliest identified Christian church building was a house church founded between 233 and 256. From the 11th through the 14th centuries, a wave of building of cathedrals and smaller parish churches were erected across Western Europe. A cathedral is a church building Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, or Oriental Orthodox, housing a cathedra, the formal name for the seat or throne of a presiding bishop.
In Greek, the adjective kyriak-ós/-ē/-ón means "belonging, or pertaining, to a Kyrios", the usage was adopted by early Christians of the Eastern Mediterranean with regard to anything pertaining to the Lord Jesus Christ: hence "Kyriakós oíkos", "Kyriakē", or "Kyriakē proseukhē". In standard Greek usage, the older word "ecclesia" was retained to signify both a specific edifice of Christian worship, the overall community of the faithful; this usage was retained in Latin and the languages derived from Latin, as well as in the Celtic languages and in Turkish. In the Germanic and some Slavic languages, the word kyriak-ós/-ē/-ón was adopted instead and derivatives formed thereof. In Old English the sequence of derivation started as "cirice" Middle English "churche", "church" in its current pronunciation. German Kirche, Scots kirk, Russian церковь, etc. are all derived. According to the New Testament, the earliest Christians did not build church buildings. Instead, they synagogues; the earliest archeologically identified Christian church is a house church, the Dura-Europos church, founded between 233 and 256.
In the second half of the 3rd century AD, the first purpose-built halls for Christian worship began to be constructed. Although many of these were destroyed early in the next century during the Diocletianic Persecution larger and more elaborate church buildings began to appear during the reign of the Emperor Constantine the Great. From the 11th through the 14th centuries, a wave of building of cathedrals and smaller parish churches occurred across Western Europe. In addition to being a place of worship, the cathedral or the parish church was used by the community in other ways, it could serve as a hall for banquets. Mystery plays were sometimes performed in cathedrals, cathedrals might be used for fairs; the church could be used as a place to store grain. Between 1000 and 1200 the romanesque style became popular across Europe. While the name of the romanesque era refers to the tradition of Roman architecture, it was a West- and Central European trend. Romanesque buildings appear rather compact.
Typical features are circular arches, octagonal towers and cushion capitals on the pillars. In the early romanesque era, coffering on the ceiling was fashionable, while in the same era, groined vault was more popular; the rooms became the motivs of sculptures became more epic. The Gothic style emerged around 1140 in spread through all of Europe; the gothic buildings were less compact than they had been in the romanesque era and contained symbolic and allegoric features. For the first time, pointed arches, rib vaults and buttresses were used, with the result that massive walls were not longer needed to stabilise the building. Due to that advantage, the area of the windows became bigger, which resulted in a brighter and more friendly atmosphere inside the church; the nave so did the pillars and the church steeple. The amibition to test out the limits of the architectural possibilities resulted in the collapse of several towers. In Germany and the Netherlands, but in Spain, it became popular to build hall churches, in which every vault has the same height.
Cathedrals were built in a lavish way, as in the romanesque era. Examples for that are the Notre-Dame de Paris and the Notre-Dame de Reims in France, but the San Francesco d’Assisi in Palermo, the Salisbury Cathedral and the Wool Church in Lavenham, England. Many gothic churches contain features from the romanesque era; some of the most well-known gothic churches stayed unfinished for hundreds of years, after the gothic style was not popular anymore. About half of the Cologne Cathedral was for example build in the 19th century. In the 15th and 16th century, the change in e
Carl Ludvig Engel
Carl Ludvig Engel, or Johann Carl Ludwig Engel, was a German architect known for his Empire style, a phase of Neoclassicism. He had a great impact on the architecture of Finland in the first part of the 19th century, not just as an architect but as the head of the Intendent's Office, responsible for all key public buildings throughout the country, his most noted work can be found in Helsinki, which he helped rebuild as the new capital of the newly founded Grand Duchy of Finland. His works include most of the buildings around the capital's monumental centre, the Senate Square and the buildings surrounding it; the buildings are Helsinki Cathedral, The Senate, the City of Helsinki Town Hall, the library and the main building of Helsinki University. Carl Ludvig Engel was born in 1778 in Charlottenburg, into a family of bricklayers, it was as a bricklayer apprentice that he first came in contact with his future profession as an architect. He trained at the Berlin Institute of Architecture after which he served in the Prussian building administration.
The stagnation caused by Napoleon's victory over Prussia in 1806 forced him and other architects to find work abroad. In 1808 he applied for the position as town architect of Estonia, he in this way came into the vicinity of St. Petersburg and the Russian Empire. Finland was close by and was soon to experience a new governmental phase as a Grand Duchy under Russian rule. Engel started working in Tallinn in 1809, but just after a few years he was forced to move on again because of a lack of assignments. From this period in Estonia, a palace on Kohtu street 8 in Tallinn survives and Kernu manor. From 1814 to 1815 he worked for a businessman in Turku and this way he came in contact with Johan Albrecht Ehrenström, who led the project of rebuilding Helsinki; the city had just been promoted to be the new capital of the new Grand Duchy of Finland. Ehrenström was searching for a talented architect to work at his side and this meeting proved to be decisive for Carl Ludvig Engel's future career. At this stage Engel did not however stay in Finland.
In March 1815 he travelled to St. Petersburg. In 1816 Engel was planning on returning to his city of birth, but at the same time Ehrenström got approval for his plan to get Engel to Helsinki. Engel's plans for Helsinki had been shown to Czar Alexander I and in February Engel was appointed architect of the reconstruction committee for Helsinki. Engel thought that this would once again be a temporary job, but instead Helsinki came to be his life's work. In 1819–1820, when Engel's first creations were nearing completion, his status as a kind of head architect of the Grand Duchy was established when he received more and more building assignments, both private and public, in other parts of Finland; the final confirmation came when he in 1824 was appointed head of the statewide Intendant's Office, responsible for all key state buildings throughout the country, a position he was offered - but first refused because he still had hopes of returning to Prussia - following the resignation of its first head, the Italian-born architect Carlo Bassi, which he retained until his death.
Among his other key works from this period are Helsinki Old Church in Kamppi completed in 1826. He designed the first theate of Helsinki, Engels Teater, in 1827, though this was a rather modest building, he was responsible for the new city plan for Turku after most of it was wiped out by the Great Fire of Turku in 1827. Engel died on May 1840 in Helsinki. Architecture of Finland
Jesus referred to as Jesus of Nazareth and Jesus Christ, was a first-century Jewish preacher and religious leader. He is the central figure of Christianity, is described as the most influential person in history. Most Christians believe he is the incarnation of God the Son and the awaited Messiah prophesied in the Old Testament. All modern scholars of antiquity agree that Jesus existed although the quest for the historical Jesus has produced little agreement on the historical reliability of the Gospels and on how the Jesus portrayed in the Bible reflects the historical Jesus. Jesus was a Galilean Jew, baptized by John the Baptist and began his own ministry, he preached orally and was referred to as "rabbi". Jesus debated with fellow Jews on how to best follow God, engaged in healings, taught in parables and gathered followers, he was arrested and tried by the Jewish authorities, turned over to the Roman government, crucified on the order of Pontius Pilate, the Roman prefect. After his death, his followers believed he rose from the dead, the community they formed became the early Church.
The birth of Jesus is celebrated annually on December 25th as Christmas. His crucifixion is honored on his resurrection on Easter; the used calendar era "AD", from the Latin anno Domini, the equivalent alternative "CE", are based on the approximate birthdate of Jesus. Christian doctrines include the beliefs that Jesus was conceived by the Holy Spirit, was born of a virgin named Mary, performed miracles, founded the Christian Church, died by crucifixion as a sacrifice to achieve atonement for sin, rose from the dead, ascended into Heaven, from where he will return. Most Christians believe; the Nicene Creed asserts that Jesus will judge the living and the dead either before or after their bodily resurrection, an event tied to the Second Coming of Jesus in Christian eschatology. The great majority of Christians worship Jesus as the incarnation of God the Son, the second of three persons of the Trinity. A minority of Christian denominations reject Trinitarianism, wholly or as non-scriptural. Jesus figures in non-Christian religions and new religious movements.
In Islam, Jesus is considered one of the Messiah. Muslims believe Jesus was a bringer of scripture and was born of a virgin, but was not the son of God; the Quran states. Most Muslims do not believe that he was crucified, but that he was physically raised into Heaven by God. In contrast, Judaism rejects the belief that Jesus was the awaited Messiah, arguing that he did not fulfill Messianic prophecies, was neither divine nor resurrected. A typical Jew in Jesus' time had only one name, sometimes followed by the phrase "son of <father's name>", or the individual's hometown. Thus, in the New Testament, Jesus is referred to as "Jesus of Nazareth". Jesus' neighbors in Nazareth refer to him as "the carpenter, the son of Mary and brother of James and Joses and Judas and Simon", "the carpenter's son", or "Joseph's son". In John, the disciple Philip refers to him as "Jesus son of Joseph from Nazareth"; the name Jesus is derived from the Latin Iesus, a transliteration of the Greek Ἰησοῦς. The Greek form is a rendering of the Hebrew ישוע, a variant of the earlier name יהושע, or in English, "Joshua", meaning "Yah saves".
This was the name of Moses' successor and of a Jewish high priest. The name Yeshua appears to have been in use in Judea at the time of the birth of Jesus; the 1st-century works of historian Flavius Josephus, who wrote in Koine Greek, the same language as that of the New Testament, refer to at least twenty different people with the name Jesus. The etymology of Jesus' name in the context of the New Testament is given as "Yahweh is salvation". Since early Christianity, Christians have referred to Jesus as "Jesus Christ"; the word Christ was a office, not a given name. It derives from the Greek Χριστός, a translation of the Hebrew mashiakh meaning "anointed", is transliterated into English as "Messiah". In biblical Judaism, sacred oil was used to anoint certain exceptionally holy people and objects as part of their religious investiture. Christians of the time designated Jesus as "the Christ" because they believed him to be the Messiah, whose arrival is prophesied in the Hebrew Bible and Old Testament.
In postbiblical usage, Christ became viewed as a name—one part of "Jesus Christ". The term "Christian" has been in use since the 1st century; the four canonical gospels are the foremost sources for the message of Jesus. However, other parts of the New Testament include references to key episodes in his life, such as the Last Supper in 1 Corinthians 11:23. Acts of the Apostles refers to the early ministry of its anticipation by John the Baptist. Acts 1:1 -- 11 says more about the Ascension of Jesus. In the undisputed Pauline letters, which were written earlier than the gospels, the words or instructions of Jesus are cited several times; some early Christian groups had separate descriptions of the life and teachings of Jesus that are not included in the New Testament. These include the Gospel of Thomas, Gospel
Old Great Square (Turku)
The Old Great Square is a medieval market square located in the city centre of Turku, Finland. It is located in the II District in close proximity to Turku Cathedral; the area was the administrative and commercial centre of Turku since the founding of the city in the 13th century up until the Great Fire of Turku. Today, there are buildings alongside the Old Great Square, only on the southern side because the blocks on the northern side changed to Porthaninpuisto after the fire. There are four historical buildings which the City of Turku restored for cultural use: the Brinkkala Mansion, Old Town Hall, Hjelt Mansion and Juselius Mansion; the buildings were constructed after the fire and represent neoclassicism. The Brinkala Mansion is best known for the traditional proclamation of Christmas Peace, given from the Brinkkala Mansion balcony each Christmas Eve at 12:00 since 1886. Prior to that, Christmas peace was proclaimed from the "doors and windows of the town hall" as the old saying went; the wooden balcony known as the Christmas peace balcony was added to the Brinkkala facade during renovations from 1884 to 1886.
The declaration started in the 14th century. The earliest information about the Brinkkala Mansion are from the 16th century when it was a town house of the owner of Brinkhall Manor in Kakskerta. Before its renovations from 1884 to 1886, it was town hall and Turku police station. Nowadays, it is a space for art galleries and banquet halls. There is a coffee house located in the courtyard; the Turku Medieval Market takes place in the courtyard. It is assumed that the City of Turku administrative centre was headquartered at the Old Town Hall since the 14th century; the most famous of the Turku town halls was the stone building planned by master bricklayer Samuel Berner, finished in 1736. Berner's town hall was destroyed by the fire of 1827, along with its bell tower. A private house was built upon the walls of the badly destroyed building, this house being acquired by factory owner Juselius in the 1850s; the building was redone into a three story factory in 1899, active until the 1920s. In 1932, the building was acquired by the City of Turku, was for police department use.
Nowadays, it is a banquet hall and concerts. After the fire, Captain Hjelt bought the site along the town square, built the impressive two story stone building in 1830; the Hjelt Mansion is the only remaining stone building in Finland which represents the St. Petersburg empire style; the Hjelt Mansion was taken over by the City of Turku in the 1930s, at which time both stories were used by the police department. After this, the downstairs level was a used as the children and young adults section of Turku City Library and the Turku Cultural Centre worked in the upstairs level; the library section moved to the new building of Turku Main Library and the Turku Cultural Centre moved next door to the Old Town Hall. Four Baltic sea organisations moved to the building at the beginning of 2008: UBC Environment and Sustainable Development Secretariat, WHO Healthy Cities, Centrum Balticum and Valonia; the building was designated as the Itämeritalo on 19 August 2008. The new renaissance Juselius Mansion is the newest of the buildings in the area.
It was built by Carl Fredrik Juselius in 1892 as his home. It has been a residential building for city officials, space for the police depeartment and a dociros office. Nowadays, the building is used for other purposes, such as the legendary restaurant Teini. Katedralskolan i Åbo is a Swedish-language senior high school, built after the fire on the foundation of the former Hovrätt by C. L. Engel, its style is empire. There was a school under the authority of Turku Cathedral in the Turku city centre in late 13th century called Turun katedraalikoulu. There are different events organiased at the Old Great Square throughout the year. Turku Medieval Market is organised in June and July, stretching out to Porthaninpuisto, the courtyard and Luostarin Välikatu. Christmas City events take place for three weekends as well as events for Turku Night of the Arts; the Old Great Square and its historical surroundings have been designed to be marketed as the old part of the city of Turku. Under EU protection, the idea is to revive the area to a European style by attracting more cafes and restaurants and organising different events at the square and park.
Furthermore, a bridge called Pennisilta, to replace the one destroyed by the fire, is due to be built to connect the old part of the city to the traffic centre. Turun Sanomat Turun kaupungin kulttuurikeskus Turku Cultural Centre Ihmiselle parempi keskusta -hanke
Transfiguration of Jesus
The transfiguration of Jesus is an event reported in the New Testament when Jesus is transfigured and becomes radiant in glory upon a mountain. The Synoptic Gospels describe it, the Second Epistle of Peter refers to it, it has been hypothesized that the first chapter of the Gospel of John alludes to it. In these accounts and three of his apostles, James, John, go to a mountain to pray. On the mountain, Jesus begins to shine with bright rays of light; the prophets Moses and Elijah appear next to him and he speaks with them. Jesus is called "Son" by a voice in the sky, assumed to be God the Father, as in the Baptism of Jesus. Many Christian traditions, including the Eastern Orthodox, Roman Catholic and Anglican churches, commemorate the event in the Feast of the Transfiguration, a major festival; the transfiguration is one of the miracles of Jesus in the Gospels. This miracle is unique among others that appear in the canonical gospels, in that the miracle happens to Jesus himself. Thomas Aquinas considered the transfiguration "the greatest miracle" in that it complemented baptism and showed the perfection of life in Heaven.
The transfiguration is one of the five major milestones in the gospel narrative of the life of Jesus, the others being baptism, crucifixion and ascension. In 2002, Pope Saint John Paul II introduced the Luminous Mysteries in the rosary, which includes the transfiguration. In Christian teachings, the transfiguration is a pivotal moment, the setting on the mountain is presented as the point where human nature meets God: the meeting place of the temporal and the eternal, with Jesus himself as the connecting point, acting as the bridge between heaven and earth. Moreover, Christians consider the transfiguration to fulfill an Old Testament messianic prophecy that Elijah would return again after his ascension. Gardner states The last of the writing prophets, promised a return of Elijah to hold out hope for repentance before judgment.... Elijah himself would reappear in the Transfiguration. There he would appear alongside Moses as a representative of all the prophets who looked forward to the coming of the Messiah....
Christ's redemptive sacrifice was the purpose for which Elijah had ministered while on earth.... And it was the goal. In the Synoptic Gospels, the account of the transfiguration happens towards the middle of the narrative, it is a key episode and immediately follows another important element, the Confession of Peter: "you are the Christ". The transfiguration narrative acts as a further revelation of the identity of Jesus as the Son of God to some of his disciples. In the gospels, Jesus takes Peter, son of Zebedee and his brother John the Apostle with him and goes up to a mountain, not named. Once on the mountain, Matthew 17:2 states. At that point the prophets Elijah and Moses appear and Jesus begins to talk to them. Luke states. Luke is specific in describing Jesus in a state of glory, with Luke 9:32 referring to "they saw His glory". Just as Elijah and Moses begin to depart from the scene, Peter begins to ask Jesus if the disciples should make three tents for him and the two prophets; this has been interpreted as Peter's attempt to keep the prophets there longer.
But before Peter can finish, a bright cloud appears, a voice from the cloud states: "This is my beloved Son, with whom I am well pleased. The disciples fall to the ground in fear, but Jesus approaches and touches them, telling them not to be afraid; when the disciples look up, they no longer see Moses. When Jesus and the three apostles are going back down the mountain, Jesus tells them to not tell anyone "the things they had seen" until the "Son of Man" has risen from the dead; the apostles are described as questioning among themselves as to what Jesus meant by "risen from the dead". In addition to the principal account given in the synoptic gospels. Elsewhere in the New Testament, Paul the Apostle's reference in 2 Corinthians 3:18 to the "transformation of believers" via "beholding as in a mirror the glory of the Lord" became the theological basis for considering the transfiguration as the catalyst for processes which lead the faithful to the knowledge of God. Although Matthew 17 lists the disciple John as being present during the transfiguration, the Gospel of John has no account of it.
This has resulted in debate among scholars, some suggesting doubts about the authorship of the Gospel of John, others providing explanations for it. One explanation is that John wrote his gospel not to overlap with the synoptic gospels, but to supplement it, hence did not include all of their narrative. Others believe that the Gospel of John does in fact allude to the transfiguration, in John 1:14; this is not the only incident not present in the fourth gospel, the institution of the Eucharist at the Last Supper is another key example, indicating that the author either was not aware of these narrative traditions, did not accept their veracity, or decided to omit them. The general explanation is thus the Gospel of John was written thematically, to suit the author's theological purposes, a
The nave is the central part of a church, stretching from the main entrance or rear wall, to the transepts, or in a church without transepts, to the chancel. When a church contains side aisles, as in a basilica-type building, the strict definition of the term "nave" is restricted to the central aisle. In a broader, more colloquial sense, the nave includes all areas available for the lay worshippers, including the side-aisles and transepts. Either way, the nave is distinct from the area reserved for clergy; the nave extends from the entry—which may have a separate vestibule —to the chancel and may be flanked by lower side-aisles separated from the nave by an arcade. If the aisles are high and of a width comparable to the central nave, the structure is sometimes said to have three naves, it provides the central approach to the high altar. The term nave is from navis, the Latin word for ship, an early Christian symbol of the Church as a whole, with a possible connection to the "ship of St. Peter" or the Ark of Noah.
The term may have been suggested by the keel shape of the vaulting of a church. In many Scandinavian and Baltic countries a model ship is found hanging in the nave of a church, in some languages the same word means both'nave' and'ship', as for instance Danish skib, Swedish skepp or Spanish; the earliest churches were built when builders were familiar with the form of the Roman basilica, a public building for business transactions. It had a wide central area, with aisles separated by columns, with windows near the ceiling. Old St. Peter's Basilica in Rome is an early church, it was built in the 4th century on the orders of Roman emperor Constantine I, replaced in the 16th century. The nave, the main body of the building, is the section set apart for the laity, while the chancel is reserved for the clergy. In medieval churches the nave was separated from the chancel by the rood screen. Medieval naves were divided into the repetition of form giving an effect of great length. During the Renaissance, in place of dramatic effects there were more balanced proportions.
Longest nave in Denmark: Aarhus Cathedral, 93 m Longest nave in England: St Albans Cathedral, St Albans, 85 m Longest nave in Ireland: St Patrick's Cathedral, Dublin, 91 m, externally Longest nave in France: Bourges Cathedral, 91 m, including choir where a crossing would be if there were transepts Longest nave in Germany: Cologne cathedral, 58 m, including two bays between the towers Longest nave in Italy: St Peter's Basilica in Rome, 91 m, in four bays Longest nave in Spain: Seville, 60 m, in five bays Longest nave in the United States: Cathedral of Saint John the Divine, New York City, United States, 70 m Highest vaulted nave: Beauvais Cathedral, France, 48 m, but only one bay of the nave was built. Highest completed nave: Rome, St. Peter's, Italy, 46 m Abbey, with architectural discussion and groundplans Cathedral architecture Cathedral diagram List of highest church naves