Turmeric is a flowering plant, Curcuma longa of the ginger family, the roots of which are used in cooking. The plant is a perennial, herbaceous plant native to the Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia, that requires temperatures between 20 and 30 °C and a considerable amount of annual rainfall to thrive. Plants are gathered each year for their rhizomes, some for propagation in the following season and some for consumption; the rhizomes are used fresh or boiled in water and dried, after which they are ground into a deep orange-yellow powder used as a coloring and flavoring agent in many Asian cuisines for curries, as well as for dyeing. Turmeric powder has a warm, black pepper-like flavor and earthy, mustard-like aroma. Although long used in Ayurvedic medicine, where it is known as haridra, there is no high-quality clinical evidence for using turmeric or its constituent, curcumin, to treat any disease. Turmeric has been used in Asia for thousands of years and is a major part of Ayurveda, Siddha medicine, traditional Chinese medicine and the animistic rituals of Austronesian peoples.
It was first used as a dye, later for its supposed properties in folk medicine. The greatest diversity of Curcuma species by number alone is at around 40 to 45 species. Thailand is much smaller than India. Other countries in tropical Asia have numerous wild species of Curcuma. Recent studies have shown that the taxonomy of Curcuma longa is problematic, with only the specimens from South India being identifiable as C. longa. The phylogeny, relationships and interspecific variation, identity of other species and cultivars in other parts of the world still need to be established and validated. Various species utilized and sold as "turmeric" in other parts of Asia have been shown to belong to several physically similar taxa, with overlapping local names. Furthermore, there is linguistic and circumstantial evidence of the spread and use of turmeric by the Austronesian peoples into Oceania and Madagascar; the populations in Polynesia and Micronesia, in particular, never came into contact with India, but use turmeric for both food and dye.
Thus independent domestication events are likely. The name derives from Middle English or Early Modern English as turmeryte or tarmaret, it may be of terra merita. The name of the genus, Curcuma, is derived from the Sanskrit kuṅkuma, referring to both turmeric and saffron, used in India since ancient times. Turmeric is a perennial herbaceous plant. Branched, yellow to orange, aromatic rhizomes are found; the leaves are arranged in two rows. They are divided into leaf sheath and leaf blade. From the leaf sheaths, a false stem is formed; the petiole is 50 to 115 cm long. The simple leaf blades are 76 to 115 cm long and up to 230 cm, they are oblong to elliptical, narrowing at the tip. At the top of the inflorescence, stem bracts are present on; the hermaphrodite flowers are threefold. The three sepals are 0.8 to 1.2 cm long and white, have fluffy hairs. The three bright-yellow petals are fused into a corolla tube up to 3 cm long; the three corolla lobes have a length of 1.0 to 1.5 cm and are triangular with soft-spiny upper ends.
While the average corolla lobe is larger than the two lateral, only the median stamen of the inner circle is fertile. The dust bag is spurred at its base. All other stamens are converted to staminodes; the outer staminodes are shorter than the labellum. The labellum is yellowish, with a yellow ribbon in its center and it is obovate, with a length from 1.2 to 2.0 cm. Three carpels are under a constant, trilobed ovary adherent, sparsely hairy; the fruit capsule opens with three compartments. In East Asia, the flowering time is in August. Terminally on the false stem is an inflorescence; the bracts are ovate to oblong with a blunt upper end with a length of 3 to 5 cm. Turmeric powder is about 60–70% carbohydrates, 6–13% water, 6–8% protein, 5–10% fat, 3–7% dietary minerals, 3–7% essential oils, 2–7% dietary fiber, 1–6% curcuminoids. Phytochemical components of turmeric include diarylheptanoids, a class including numerous curcuminoids, such as curcumin, demethoxycurcumin, bisdemethoxycurcumin. Curcumin constitutes up to 3.14% of assayed commercial samples of turmeric powder.
Some 34 essential oils are present in turmeric, among which turmerone, germacrone and zingiberene are major constituents. Turmeric is one of the key ingredients in many Asian dishes, imparting a mustard-like, earthy aroma and pungent bitter flavor to foods, it is used in savory dishes, but is used in some sweet dishes, such as the cake sfouf. In India, turmeric leaf is used to prepare special sweet dishes, patoleo, by layering rice flour and coconut-jaggery mixture on the leaf closing and steaming it in a special utensil. Most turmeric is used in the form of rhizome powder to impart a golden yellow color, it is used in many products such as canned beverages, baked products, dairy products, ice cream, yellow cakes, orange juice, popcorn color, sauces
U. S. Highway 52 enters the state of Minnesota at the unincorporated community of Prosper, north of the town of Burr Oak, Iowa; the route is marked north–south in Minnesota along its independent segment from the Iowa state line to downtown St. Paul. Highway 52 is not signed along the length of its concurrency with Interstate 94 from downtown St. Paul to the North Dakota state line at Moorhead and Fargo. U. S. 52 enters Fillmore County and heads through the same Driftless Area it ran through in Iowa. The route heads through proceeds north to Chatfield. Highway 52 enters terrain typical of southern Minnesota; this area is farmland for the rest of the length until the route enters the city of Rochester. Highway 52 intersects Interstate 90 south of Rochester, expands to a four-lane freeway north of this junction; the roadway expands further to six lanes around Rochester, from the junction with U. S. 63 to County Road 14, at the northern tip city. U. S. 14 is a major route, connects Owatonna to Rochester.
North of Rochester, Highway 52 becomes a four-lane expressway through the farmland of Olmsted and Goodhue counties. Zumbrota is bypassed by the highway, the route heads to Dakota County. In October 2014, an interchange was completed in Cannon Falls which eliminated the last two traffic lights between St. Paul and Rochester on Highway 52. North of Coates, Highway 52 enters the edge of the Twin Cities area; the route enters Inver Grove Heights where it becomes the Lafayette Freeway north of Concord Boulevard. Highway 52 splits with State Highway 55 north of there. Highway 55 heads to Minneapolis. Interstate 494 intersects 52 in the northern part of Inver Grove Heights; the St. Paul Downtown Airport is right off of Highway 52 in St. Paul. After Highway 52 crosses the Mississippi River in downtown St. Paul, the route intersects Interstate 94 and follows I-94 to the North Dakota state line. S. 52 is not signed along the length of this concurrency. U. S. Highway 52 was extended into the state of Minnesota in 1934.
The road replaced the former routing of old U. S. Highway 55 from the Iowa state line to the Twin Cities, the former route of old U. S. Highway 10S from Minneapolis west to North Dakota. Interstate 94 replaced most of the routing of Highway 52 west of St. Cloud, the routing from St. Cloud to Minneapolis was replaced by U. S. Highway 10, U. S. Highway 169, Hennepin County Road 81. Highway 52 was routed along University Avenue through Minneapolis and St. Paul until about 1995. West of here, it turned west onto Washington Avenue that traversed directly through the University of Minnesota and Downtown Minneapolis. Progressing further, it took another left turn at Broadway Street before curving to the northwest towards Robbinsdale, Brooklyn Park and Osseo. Afterwards, it turned right onto what is now US Highway 169 through Champlin and Anoka thus merging onto US Highway 10 towards Elk River and St. Cloud, it turned onto city streets through St. Cloud and back onto the present-day Interstate 94 alignment.
52 was routed along Robert Street through St. Paul, West St. Paul, into Inver Grove Heights until 1995; the Lafayette Bridge which takes the highway across the Mississippi River near downtown St. Paul was built in 1968 and was a "fracture critical" structure, in need of replacement. Construction of the new bridge, which carries six lanes of US-52, was completed in fall of 2015. U. S. Highway 52 was built as an expressway from Rochester to St. Paul in the 1960s; the "ROC52" project expanded the section of Highway 52 in Rochester to a 6-lane freeway in 2005–2006. Between Rochester and the Twin Cities, several at-grade intersections have been converted to interchanges since the 1990s. However, many at-grade intersections remain along this segment of highway. An experimental installation of Cooperative Intersection Collision Avoidance Systems–Stop Sign Assist was installed at the intersection with Goodhue County Road 9, making use of dynamic message signs to show when it is safe to cross or turn onto the highway.
It uses a diagram that looks like a divided highway sign A full-scale field test began in January 2010, though a previous version had been tried at the intersection a few years earlier. The study will run through 2012. Steve Riner Details of Routes 51-75; the Unofficial Minnesota Highways Page. Accessed March 24, 2007. Adam Froehlig US Route 52 Exit List Twin Cities Highways. Accessed August 5, 2007. Matt Salek US 52 Exits: SE Minnesota Upper Midwest Freeway Exit Guides. Accessed August 5, 2007
Natalie Ni Shi is a Canadian lyric operatic soprano and film actress. She has received critical acclaim since her debut as Queen of the Night in The Magic Flute. Shi has performed in cities like Vancouver, Hong Kong, New York and Vienna. Shi was born to a Chinese family in Canada before moving back to China with her parents; when she was 9, Shi participated in an NHK television documentary about the 100th anniversary of the China-Vietnam railway, which sparked a love of performing. At the age of 13, she left her parents to move to the UK, where she studied at the Sherborne College and Hurtwood House, her love of opera and musicals began during a school trip to watch Cat. After participating in several school musicals, Shi returned to Vancouver and graduated from University of British Columbia, where she majored in Opera Performance and minored in Commerce. In her final year, the opera artist program. Shortly after graduating, she moved to Rome to study with Rolando Nicolosi. In 2010, Shi was invited to perform in Vienna's Golden Hall, studied with language coach Nico Castel at the Juilliard School of Musi, where James Lvyone offered her the main role in his newly composed Chinese opera.
Shi realised the importance of mastering the language and started to notice more aesthetic differences between Chinese and Western music styles, which inspired her to complete her master's degree at the Central Conservatory of Music in Beijing. In 2015, Shi joined IEMR Resources Inc. as one of main five Directors. Shi performed the Canadian national anthem for Canadian citizenship ceremonies, receiving compliments from Senate Mobina Jaffer and judges. In both 2013 and 2014, ambassador Mr/ Guy Saint-Jacques invited her to sing the Canadian national anthem at the National Day of Canada celebrations in Beijing. Shi has won many awards and competitions, including the 40th XL Vincenzo Bellini International Voice Competition in 2008. In 2014, she was invited to be the judge of Miss Chinese Cosmos Pageant Americas Region. Shi created a seven-series analysis of Le nozze di Figaro, broadcast on China National Radio, her work on A Midsummer Night's Dream was published in CNKI. China Central Television broadcast her performances at the Yunnan 8 Universities Academia Concert.
Shi founded the North America Foundation for Arts and Minorities in 2008, with the aim of helping people suffering from poverty, natural disasters and sickness. She has since held several benefit concerts in China and Canada for disaster relief, such as for the 2008 Sichuan earthquake or for projects in Burma in 2018, she held the "Classical Enlightenment" performance in 2016, which raised money for an Alzheimer's Disease charity. 2004: Beauty Lies Within 2009: Keep it up International Artists music competition 2009 40th XL Vincenzo Bellini International Voice Competition, Italy 2008 Voice Division, Richmond Music Festival, Vancouver, 2006 Kiwanis Vancouver Music Festival, Vancouver, 2006 International Chinese Vocal Competition, New York City, 2007 Reigate & Regill music Festival, England, 1999 Canadian Millennium Scholarship 2006 British Columbia Scholarship for academic incline in undergraduate study 2008 Opera Nuova 2008 2007 Beijing Outstanding International Student Scholarship 2012 Natalie Ni Shi on IMDb Interview with Natalie Ni Shi on Phoenix North America Chinese Channel, 27 August 2014