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Turner Prize

The Turner Prize, named after the English painter J. M. W. Turner, is an annual prize presented to a British visual artist. Between 1991 and 2016, only artists under the age of 50 were eligible. Awarding the prize is organised by the Tate gallery and staged at Tate Britain, though in recent years the award ceremony has sometimes been held in other UK cities. Since its beginnings in 1984 it has become the UK's most publicised art award; the award represents all media. As of 2004, the monetary award was established at £40,000. There have been different sponsors, including Gordon's Gin. A prominent event in British culture, the prize has been awarded by various distinguished celebrities: in 2006 this was Yoko Ono, in 2012 it was presented by Jude Law, it is a controversial event for the exhibits, such as The Physical Impossibility of Death in the Mind of Someone Living – a shark in formaldehyde by Damien Hirst – and My Bed, a dishevelled bed by Tracey Emin. Controversy has come from other directions, including Culture Minister Kim Howells criticising exhibits, a guest of honour swearing, prize judge Lynn Barber writing in the press, a speech by Sir Nicholas Serota about the purchase of a trustee's work.

The prize was named after Turner because while he is now considered one of the country's greatest artists, while he was active his work was controversial. While he is now looked at as a traditionalist, his new approach to landscape painting changed the course of art history, as many of the Turner Prize winners aspire to do; each year after the announcement of the four nominees and during the build-up to the announcement of the winner, the Prize receives intense attention from the media. Much of this attention is critical and the question is asked, "Is this art?"Artists are chosen based upon a showing of their work that they have staged in the preceding year. Nominations for the prize are invited from the public, although this was considered to have negligible effect—a suspicion confirmed in 2006 by Lynn Barber, one of the judges. There is a three-week period in May for public nominations to be received; the exhibition remains on view until January. The prize is not judged on the Tate show, but on the earlier exhibition for which the artist was nominated.

The exhibition and prize rely on commercial sponsorship. By 1987, money for the prize was provided by Drexel Burnham Lambert. Channel 4, an independent television channel, stepped in for 1991, doubling the prize money to £20,000, supporting the event with documentaries and live broadcasts of the prize-giving. In 2004, they were replaced as sponsors by Gordon's Gin, doubling the prize money to £40,000, with £5,000 going to each of the shortlisted artists, £25,000 to the winner; as much as the shortlist of artists reflects the state of British Art, the composition of the panel of judges, which includes curators and critics, provides some indication of who holds influence institutionally and internationally, as well as who are rising stars. Tate Director Sir Nicholas Serota has been the Chair of the jury since his tenure at the Tate. There are conflicting reports as to; the media success of the Turner Prize contributed to the success of the late 1990s phenomena of Young British Artists, Cool Britannia, exhibitions such as the Charles Saatchi-sponsored Sensation exhibition.

Most of the artists nominated for the prize selection become known to the general public for the first time as a consequence. Some have talked of the difficulty of the sudden media exposure. Sale prices of the winners have increased. Chris Ofili, Anish Kapoor and Jeremy Deller became trustees of the Tate; some artists, notably Sarah Lucas, have declined the invitation to be nominated. The identity of Turner Price is associated with conceptual art. For two of its first editions, Art & Language was nominated in 1986, Terry Atkinson, one of the founders and historical member of Art & Language, was nominated in 1985. In 2000, Tillmans was the first photographer and first non-British artist to receive the Turner Prize. Malcolm Morley is awarded the inaugural Turner Prize for his installation of two oil-on-canvas paintings inspired by a trip to Greece. Morley's win sparked controversy. Other nominees included Richard Long, Richard Deacon and Gilbert & George, all of whom went on to win the Turner Prize themselves.

The prize was awarded by Minister for the Arts at the time. Howard Hodgkin is awarded the Turner Prize for A Small Thing But My Own. Other nominees included Terry Atkinson, sculptor Tony Cragg, Ian Hamilton Finlay, Milena Kalinovska and painting/printing artist John Walker; the prize was awarded by celebrity presenter Sir Richard Attenborough. The controversial art duo Gilbert & George were awarded after a previous nomination in 1984. Other nominees included Art & Language, sculpture/printing artist Victor Burgin, painter Derek Jarman, painter Stephen McKenna and sculptor Bill Woodrow. Sculpture artist Richard Deacon is awarded the prize. Other nominees included graphic-style painter/printer Patrick Caulfield, Helen Chadwick, Richard

Margaret of Foix

Margaret of Foix was Duchess of Brittany from 1474 to 1486 by marriage to Francis II, Duke of Brittany. She was the daughter of Queen Eleanor of Navarre and of Gaston IV, Count of Foix. On 27 June 1471, at the Château de Clisson, she married Francis II, Duke of Brittany, son of Richard of Brittany, Count of Étampes, Margaret of Orléans, Countess of Vertus, it was Francis's second marriage, his first wife, Margaret of Brittany, having died in 1469. Margaret of Foix died at the Château de Nantes in Nantes and was buried in the Cathedral of St. Peter and St. Paul beside her husband and Margaret of Brittany, in a magnificent tomb named the Tomb of Francis II, a tomb constructed in the early French Renaissance style. Anne of Brittany, Duchess of Brittany, twice Queen of France: from 1491 to 1498 as the wife of King Charles VIII of France, from 1499 to 1514 as the wife of King Louis XII of France. Isabeau of Brittany, betrothed to Jean d'Albret in 1481, died young, was buried in the Rennes Cathedral.

Booton, Diane E.. Manuscripts and the Transition to Print in Late Medieval Brittany. Ashgate Publishing. Woodacre, Elena; the Queens Regnant of Navarre: Succession and Partnership, 1274-1512. Palgrave Macmillan. Anthony, R.. Identification et Étude des Ossements des Rois de Navarre inhumés dans la Cathédrale de Lescar. Archives du Muséum, 6e series. VII. Masson et Cie

Today Will Be Different

Today Will Be Different is a comedy novel by Maria Semple. It was first published on October 4, 2016 by Little and Company; the novel follows a day in the life of Eleanor Flood. A television adaptation of the novel written by Semple and starring Julia Roberts, is being developed for HBO; the entire book takes place in a single day in Eleanor Flood's life. Eleanor is a beleaguered woman living in Seattle with her husband Joe, a renowned hand surgeon, her son Timby, a third-grader at the Galer Street School, first introduced in Maria Semple's preceding novel Where'd You Go, Bernadette. At the start of the book, Eleanor decides to improve herself by adopting the mantra that "today will be different" and setting attainable goals for the day. However, things do not go according to plan in Eleanor's day, she finds herself having to deal with a missing husband, a sick son and a mystery lunch date; the novel was well received. The Los Angeles Times' Maris Kreizman described the novel as "truly smart and deep and funny — worthy of laughing out loud rather than saying LOL."

Comparing Today Will Be Different with Semple's previous novel Where'd You Go, The New York Times' Janet Maslin noted that: "it cuts closer to the bone than Bernadette did, its main character's problems feel more real. This time Ms. Semple delivers less satire and more soul."The Guardian's Suzi Feay commended the book's narrative voice and "memorable, monstrous" characters. Writing for The Guardian, Lucy Scholes noted that "nobody depicts better, with tongue-in-cheek humour and genuine warmth". Isabella Biedenharn of Entertainment Weekly gave the novel a "B+" grade, concluding that: "Today's tone veers wildly from satire to tragedy, but Semple is such a deft observer of human foibles that she glues it all together with wit and glitter — a master fabulist, just like Eleanor." Writing for USA Today, Steph Cha gave the book three stars out of four, noting that it is "unrelentingly entertaining" despite being "a bit messy". MariaSemple.com: Today Will Be Different

Pukara, Puno

Pukara, Puno is a town in the Puno Region, Lampa Province, Pucará District, Peru. It is located to the north-west of Lake Titicaca; the ancient archaeological site of Pukara, dated as early as 1,800 BC, is located to the west of the town. The site is large, spread in the area of 4.2 km2. This was the first large urban center in the region; the site gave its name to what some archaeologists refer to as a distinct Pukara culture. The site was declared a National Cultural Heritage of Peru by the National Institute of Culture; this was an important highland administrative and religious center. There was the urban sector or city; the ceremonial sector is composed of 9 pyramids of various shapes and sizes, the most important being the pyramid Kalasaya. This structure is built of large monoliths of finely crafted stone, includes some sculptures. In front of the pyramid, there is a staircase to the upper temple decorated with stelae. There are figures of mythological beings of men and animals, such as frogs, snakes and pumas.

There was a large sunken central court containing carved stone steles. This was an influential culture north of Lake Titicaca, centred at Pukara; this culture incorporated earlier communities of the Chiripa period, dominated the entire lake region by 200 BC. The Pukara engaged in agriculture and fishing; the population lived in small towns and villages, ruled from central location. Pukara ceramics are painted in various colours, they are finely made, include many non-utilitarian forms, such as human and animal motifs. Pukara pottery and textiles are found in the middle Andean, the coastal Pacific valleys, reaching out into Peru and Chile; the rise of Tiwanaku may have contributed to the weakening of Pukara around 200 AD. The site of Qaluyu is 4 km from Pukara, is the type-site of the Qaluyu culture that preceded the Pukara. Qaluyu is a moderate-sized mound, it was discovered by Manuel Chávez Ballón, was test-excavated in 1955 by Alfred Kidder and Ballón. Qaluyu culture was the dominant early culture of the north Titicaca Basin, it is dated traditionally to 1400–500 BC.

There are Qaluyu occupations under the main temples at Pucara. There are several Qaluyu period settlements around the towns of Arapa and Taraco, in the Huancane-Putina river valley that have been discovered recently; some of them are much bigger than Qaluyu. These areas are located about 40–60 km to the west of Pukara. Near the town of Taraco, recent research uncovered a long Pucara archaeological sequence. There are a great number of Qaluyu and Pucara stelae. Wankarani culture Images of Pukara culture, artefacts es.slideshare.net

Weston-super-Mare Tramways

The Weston-super-Mare Tramways were the electric street tramways of the seaside resort of Weston-super-Mare in Somerset, England. It operated a fleet of up to 16 standard gauge single- and double-deck tramcars on routes totalling 2.92 miles to Birnbeck Pier, The Sanatorium and Locking Road. It opened in 1902 and was replaced by bus services in 1937. There were three abortive schemes to open tramways in Weston-super-Mare during the last two decades of the nineteenth century. A scheme was promoted in 1882 for a 3 ft 6 in steam tram network to serve the railway station, the town centre and Birnbeck Pier. In 1885 the Weston and Portishead Tramway gained an Act of Parliament that allowed it to construct a tramway along The Boulevard, Gerrard Road and Milton Road to Ashcombe Road, from where it would continue across fields towards Portishead. Although rails were laid in 1894 they were taken up again three years and Ashcombe Road became the tramway's terminus when it opened to Clevedon that year. Motive power had been authorised as either steam power.

Another Act was passed in 1897 for a company named Drake and Gorham to build an electric tramway in the town, but the powers lapsed in 1899. It was in 1899 that the Weston-super-Mare Urban District Council transferred their obligations to supply electricity in the town to the Weston-super-Mare and District Electricity Supply Company; this was a subsidiary of British Electric Traction and the following year they obtained powers for an electric tramway as a complementary venture. This was to be a 4 ft 8 1⁄2 in gauge line along Locking Road and Regent Street to the sea front, from where lines would run north to the Pier, south to the Sanatorium. Further branches were authorised along Ashcombe Road to serve the Weston and Portishead Railway station, from Alexandra Parade to the Great Western Railway station. Neither of these were built, Regent Street was dropped in favour of a route along Oxford Street, a parallel road a little to the south. Construction started on 24 January 1902 and the route from Locking Road to Oxford Street and the Pier was opened on 13 May 1902, the same day as the opening of the new pavilion and public baths on Knightstone Island, towards the northern end of the sea front.

The section to the Sanatorium opened four days on 17 May. The Grand Pier at the end of Regent Street opened on 11 June 1904, but ferries from Wales continued to serve the Old Pier, so the tramway was kept busy bringing visitors down into the town centre. A short extension at the Old Pier allowed trams onto land belonging to the pier so that they could pick up from that pier's entrance; the Grand Pier Company tried to get the tramway to build a line along their pier but no powers were granted for this. Taxi drivers hated the introduction of the trams because they competed with the taxis' flourishing business; when the tram line first opened, drivers attempted many different tactics to obstruct the trams, but their methods only resulted in proceedings in magistrates' court that ended in favour of the tram line. The Old Pier extension led to angry confrontations with horse carriage operators who were barred from the pier's land. Further competition came in the form of motor buses. Local operator Burnell was taken over by the Bristol Tramways Company in 1934, other services in the town were operated by the GWR's road motors.

An agreement was soon reached with the Bristol company to close the tramway. The purchase price was £15,000, they paid the Urban District Council another £5,000, to lift the rails; the last trams ran on 17 April 1937. Two separate services were operated, the busiest one being between the Old Pier and Sanatorium via the Grand Pier; the other route saw services from the Old Pier to Locking Road, although in summer they ran only between Oxford Street and Locking Road to leave the sea front clear for Old Pier services. The third side of the triangle at the Grand Pier Junction was never used for services, any movements from the depot towards the Sanatorium ran towards the pier reversed as the arrangement of overhead wires made this easier for the crews. Short services were sometimes operated between the Old Pier and Grand Pier, or between the railway excursion station and the Grand Pier to cope with large crowds of visitors arriving by boat or train respectively. Extra services operated from Knightstone to the town centre after theatre performances in the pavilion.

From the northern limit of the network at the Old Pier, the line ran past the Royal Pier Hotel, Madeira Cove, Knightstone Causeway and along the sea front to the Grand Pier. A short distance beyond here the line turned inland to Grand Pier Junction at the end of Oxford Street, from where the sea front line continued along the landward side of the Beach Lawns to the Sanatorium; the junction gave access to the Locking Road branch. After running the length of Oxford Street to the Town Hall, the line turned left into Walliscote Road right into Locking Road by the railway excursion station; the line continued eastward to the Ashcombe Road junction, the terminus of passenger services. They were extended a little further past the girls' school to the corner of Langport Road; the line continued beyond here a short distance to the tram depot but this was only used by empty trams. The track was laid to 4 ft 8 1⁄2 in gauge with rail weighing 90 lb per yard; the tightest curve was 42 feet. The road surface

Lárus Sigurðsson

Lárus Orri Sigurðsson, known in English as Larus Sigurdsson, is an Icelandic former professional footballer, who played most notably for Stoke City and West Bromwich Albion in England. He is the manager of Icelandic team Þór Akureyri. Sigurðsson was born in Akureyri and played with Þór Akureyri along with his father Sigurdur Larusson who became the manager, his cousin Þorvaldur Örlygsson, playing in England for Stoke City recommend him to manager Lou Macari and he joined Stoke on trial. Lárus impressed Macari so much, he played 23 times in 1994–95 and his performances were so good he won the player of the year award. He was an ever-present in 1995–96 as Stoke reached the play-offs where they lost to Leicester City, he missed just one match in 1996 -- 97 in. He played in all but three matches in 1997–98 as Stoke suffered relegation to the third tier, he played 43 times in 1998–99 as Stoke failed to gain promotion and he was sold to West Bromwich Albion in August 1999 for a fee of £350,000 after making 228 appearances for Stoke.

He scored once for Albion, his goal coming in a 5–0 win over Portsmouth on 23 February 2002. After his professional career in England, Sigurðsson went home to his old club, Þór, played 15 games for them in 2005. In summer 2006, he was appointed player-manager at Þór, a position he held until 31 May 2010 when he resigned after conflict with the board. On 20 July 2010, he joined the club he played in as a youngster, his first senior appearance for ÍA came in a 4–2 win over Fjarðarbyggð. At the start of the 2011 season Lárus was appointed as the manager of KF. Sigurðsson won 42 caps, scoring two goals for Iceland, he made his debut for Iceland in a July 1995 friendly against Faroe Islands, coming on as a substitute for Izudin Dervic. Sources: Source: Stoke CityStoke City player of the year: 1995 Lárus Sigurðsson at Soccerbase