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Turners are members of German-American gymnastic clubs called Turnverein. They promoted German culture, physical culture, liberal politics, supported the Union war effort during the American Civil War. Turners Francis Lieber, 1798–1872, were the leading sponsors of gymnastics as an American sport and the field of academic study. In Germany a major gymnastic movement was started by Turnvater Friedrich Ludwig Jahn in the early 19th century when Germany was occupied by Napoleon; the Turnvereine were not only athletic, but political, reflecting their origin in similar "nationalistic gymnastic" organizations in Europe. The Turner movement in Germany was liberal in nature, many Turners took part in the Revolution of 1848. After its defeat, the movement was suppressed and many Turners left Germany, some emigrating to the United States to the Ohio Valley region. Several of these Forty-Eighters went on to become Union soldiers, some became Republican politicians. Besides serving as physical education, social and cultural organizations for German immigrants, Turners were active in public education and the labor movements.

They were leading promoters of gymnastics in the United States as a sport, as a school subject. In the United States, the movement declined after 1900, after 1917; the Turnvereine made a contribution to the integration of German-Americans into their new home. The organizations continue to exist in areas of heavy German immigration, such as Iowa, Wisconsin, Ohio, Missouri, Syracuse, NY, New York City, Los Angeles. About 1000 Turners served as Union soldiers during the Civil War. Anti-slavery was a common element. Many Republican leaders in German communities were members; however most German-Americans were Democrats in the 19th century. They provided the bodyguard at Abraham Lincoln's inauguration on March 4, 1861, at his funeral in April 1865. In the Camp Jackson Affair, a large force of German volunteers helped prevent Confederate forces from seizing the government arsenal in St. Louis just prior to the beginning of the war. After the Civil War the national organization took a new name, Nordamerikanischer Turnerbund" and supported German language teaching in the public high schools, as well as gymnastics.

Women's auxiliaries were formed in the 1860s. The high point in membership came in 1894, with 317 societies and about 40,000 adult male members, along with 25,000 children and 3000 women. Like other German-American groups the Turners experienced suspicion during World War I, Even though by this time they had little contact with Germany. German Language instruction ended at many schools and universities, the federal government imposed restrictions on German language publications; the younger generation demanded the switch to exclusive use of the English language in society affairs, allowing many Turner societies to continue to function. Cultural assimilation and the two World Wars with Germany took a gradual toll on membership, with some halls closing and others becoming regular dance halls, bars, or bowling alleys. Fifty-four Turner societies still existed around the U. S. as of 2011. The current headquarters of the American Turners is in Kentucky. In 1948, the U. S. Post Office issued a 3-cent commemorative stamp marking the 100th anniversary of the movement in the United States.

The Sacramento, California Turnverein, founded in 1854, claims to be the oldest still in existence in the United States. The Turnverein Vorwaerts of Fort Wayne, owned the Hugh McCulloch House from 1906 until 1966, it was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1980. German-Americans in the Civil War George Brosius Forty-Eighters Sokol, A comparable movement for Czechs in Europe and the United States Barney, Robert Knight. "German Turners in America: Their Role in Nineteenth Century Exercise Expression and Physical Education Legislation." In Earle F. Zeigler ed. American Sport and Physical Education History: 116+. Online Barney, Robert Knight. "Knights of Cause and Exercise: German Forty-Eighters and Turnvereine in the United States during the Antebellum Period." Canadian Journal of History of Sport 13.2: 62-79. Barney, Robert Knight. "America's First Turnverein: Commentary in Favor of Louisville, Kentucky." Journal of Sport History 11.1: 134-137. Online Kramer, William M. and Norton B.

Stern. "The Turnverein: A German Experience for Western Jewry." Western States Jewish History 16: 227. Metzner, Henry. A brief history of the American Turnerbund online> Pfister, Gertrud. "The Role of German Turners in American Physical Education," International Journal of the History of Sport 26 1893-925 Pumroy and Katja Rampelmann. Research guide to the Turner movement in the United States. Website of the American Turners Archives of the American Turners American Turner Topics newsletter Website of the Los Angeles Turners with history, photos and links to other Turners Organizations The American Turners, Wilmington Records and the Roxborough Turners Records, including by-laws, correspondence and photographs, are available for research use at the Historical Society of Pennsylvania

2013–14 TFF Third League

The 2013–14 TFF Third League is the 13th season of the league since its establishment in 2001 as the fourth level division. The start date of the league is 1 September 2013 and end date is 13 May 2014. League was started with 54 teams in three groups: Groups 1, 2 and 3, each consisting 18. Winner of each group will promote to 2013–14 TFF Second League A playoff series will be played among the best four teams in each group to determine the three more teams to promote. Bottom three teams in each groups will relegate to 2012–13 Regional Amateur League. Four teams relegated from 2012–13 TFF Second League: Denizli Belediyespor, Çamlıdere Şekerspor, Ünyespor, Sakaryaspor. Eleven teams promoted from 2012–13 Turkish Regional Amateur League: Trabzon Düzyurtspor, Yeni Diyarbakırspor, 1930 Bafraspor, Payas Belediyespor 1975, 68 Yeni Aksarayspor, Adliyespor, Kızılcabölükspor, Balçova Belediyespor, Ayvalıkgücü Belediyespor, Çıksalınspor and Tuzlaspor. Teams continuing from 2012–13 TFF Third League: Group 1: Anadolu Üsküdar 1908, Ankara Demirspor, Belediye Vanspor, Bergama Belediyespor, Beşikdüzüspor, Çorumspor, Fatih Karagümrük, Gölcükspor, İstanbulspor, Kayseri Şekerspor, Kırıkhanspor, Sandıklıspor, Tekirova Belediyespor.

Group 2: Adıyamanspor, Batman Petrolspor, Belediye Bingölspor, Bursa Nilüferspor, Derince Belediyespor, Sivas Dört Eylül Belediyespor, Manavgat Evrensekispor, Menemen Belediyespor, Silivrispor, Trabzon Kanuni FK, Ümraniyespor. Group 3: Arsinspor, Beylerbeyi, Çorum Belediyespor, Darıca Gençlerbirliği, Elazığ Belediyespor, Erzurum BB, Kahramanmaraş Belediyespor, Keçiörengücü, Maltepe, Oyak Renaultspor, Sancaktepe Belediyespor, Yimpaş Yozgatspor. 2013–14 Turkish Cup 2013–14 Süper Lig 2013–14 TFF First League 2013–14 TFF Second League

Gayle Manning

Gayle Manning is a member of the Ohio House of Representatives, serving since 2019. She was a member of the Ohio Senate, serving the Thirteenth District from 2011 to 2018. Manning taught elementary school students in North Olmsted City Schools for 37 years, winning numerous awards and citations for her accomplishments in education, she was named Educator of the Year by the North Olmsted Council of PTA and received the Teacher in American Enterprise Award from the Ohio Council on Economic Education. Senator Manning co-sponsored legislation in 2013 that the Lorain Morning Journal hailed as “life-saving.” The legislation allows law enforcement officers quicker access to cell phone records of people who are believed to be kidnapped or missing and in danger. Senator Manning drew criticism after a report published by the League of Women Voters of Ohio on May 6, 2019 released a 2011 email from the Senator to Ray DiRossi, a Republican operative contracted for $105,000 to draw new district lines for state elections after the 2010 census.

After mentioning that “ knows they are looking for Republicans in Lorain County” Senator Manning listed several individual streets within the city of Lorain where she had “gained a good response from the people.” Another email from the same report detailed a meeting between DiRossi and Senator Manning in “the bunker”, the name DiRossi and his staff described a Double Tree hotel room just outside the statehouse. The report concluded that this taxpayer-funded hotel room was used “to ensure no one could gain access to the redistricting plans”. According to the League of Women Voters, for meetings like Senator Manning’s “every effort was made to conduct deliberations in private”. Gayle, official campaign website Project Vote Smart- Gayle Manning Gayle Manning- Ohio GOP

Caleb Green

Master sergeant Caleb Bernard Green III is a solo vocalist with the United States Army Band. An accomplished performer of the US national anthem, Green is called upon to sing at important sporting events, diplomatic functions and military ceremonies. Green and former military member, Bob McDonald are the primary national anthem singers for the Washington Capitals, his most notable anthem performance was at the 2009 "We Are One" presidential inauguration concert at the Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D. C.. Prior to this his most notable outing was onstage in the TNT production "Christmas in Washington 2008", in which he sang "O Holy Night", he is a member of Voices of Service, an accapalla group formed by him and three other military members to provide music therapy to ex-military with posttraumatic stress disorder. The group is into the semifinals of America's Got Talent, season 14 for a shot to win 1 million dollars and to headline a Las Vegas show. Bio at

Albion M. Marble

Albion M. Marble was an American architect from Massachusetts. Marble was born in 1848, he attended the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, graduating in 1880. He established himself as an architect in Fall River. During the late 1880s he left active practice, turned up in Boston during the 1890s, where he remained until about 1904. At that point, he moved back to Fall River. After a brief time, he went on to Rhode Island. After this move, his whereabouts are unknown, he died on May 1909, in Boston. His death certificate lists his residence as Jamaica Plain. Despite his relative obscurity, Marble designed a number of prominent buildings in southeastern Massachusetts. 1896 - Eldredge Public Library, 564 Main St, Massachusetts 1896 - Joseph D. Warren House, 180 Medway St, Rhode Island 1898 - Brayton Avenue School, 425 Brayton Ave, Fall River, MassachusettsDemolished in 2012 1903 - Bristol County Registry of Deeds, 11 Court St, Massachusetts 1904 - Watson School, Eastern Ave, Fall River, Massachusetts

Beth Carvalho

Elizabeth Santos Leal de Carvalho, known professionally as Beth Carvalho, was a Brazilian samba singer, guitarist and composer. Carvalho was raised in a middle-class family in Rio de Janeiro's South Zone, her father, João Francisco Leal de Carvalho, was a lawyer. She grew up influenced by different types of music, her father used to take her to samba school rehearsals, her mother was a lover of classical music who encouraged her to become a ballerina. She started playing the guitar as a teenager, got involved with the emerging Bossa Nova movement, winning a nationwide song contest on TV at the age of 19. Following a 1967 album, "Muito Na Onda," with the project'Conjunto 3D,' Carvalho did her first solo record, 1968's "Andança", carried the song of the same name to victory in a larger festival, which brought her to prominence. Although she started her career with Bossa Nova, an ephemeral phase which lasted less than one year. Beth started dedicating herself to samba just as her fame began, working with legendary composers such as Nelson Sargento.

Carvalho is a important artist in the history of samba, as she celebrated and brought the spotlight to the work of legendary composers such as Cartola, Nelson Cavaquinho & Guilherme de Brito when they weren't receiving the attention they deserved. All of her records have songs by these composers, among other legendary sambistas such as Nelson Sargento and the Old Guard of Portela, her samba school was Mangueira, but that didn't stop her from recording dozens of songs from composers of Portela, the other great traditional samba school in Rio. In the late 1970s and early 80s, Beth helped bring to the public the work of other rising pagode artists from Cacique de Ramos, such as Almir Guineto, Jorge Aragão and the Fundo de Quintal group. In 1983, she introduced Zeca Pagodinho who would become the major samba name of the 90s. Carvalho always tried to bring underrated composers the recognition they deserve, she is regarded as madrinha do samba, she was a driving force in the modernization of samba in the 80s, at the same time rejected commercial pop trends in samba arrangements, preserving tradition.

In the 1990s, Beth's popularity wasn't the strongest. She recorded an album dedicated to the samba from São Paulo, rejecting the famous axiom that "São Paulo is the grave of samba". In 1998 she recorded an album dedicated to the pagode classics, Pérolas do Pagode. In the new millennium, Beth worked more than releasing CDs and DVDs. With a career that spanned 40 years, she was a historical figure in Brazilian culture, recognized as the female sambista with the most substantial opus in Brazil, without diminishing other, younger stars such as Clara Nunes and Daniela Mercury. Beth was a known supporter of both the Botafogo and Clube Atlético Mineiro football teams Beth was one of the main personalities of the samba school Mangueira Beth had a variety of hits in the 1970s, with her 1979 song "Coisinha Do Pai" being one of her biggest hits; the song was inserted into the Mars Pathfinder. Her social music concerned the poor and the Indigenous peoples in Brazil Beth Carvalho – 40 anos de Carreira – Ao Vivo no Theatro Municipal – Vol.1 – Andança/Sony – BMG – 2006 Beth Carvalho – 40 anos de Carreira – Ao Vivo no Theatro Municipal – Vol.2 – Andança/Sony – BMG – 2006 Beth Carvalho – 40 anos de Carreira – Ao Vivo no Theatro Municipal – Andança/Sony – BMG – 2006 Beth Carvalho – A Madrinha do Samba – Ao Vivo – Indie – 2004 Beth Carvalho – A Madrinha do Samba – Ao Vivo – Indie – 2004 Beth Carvalho Canta Cartola – BMG – 2003 Nome Sagrado – Beth Carvalho Canta Nelson Cavaquinho – Jam Music – 2001 Pagode de Mesa Ao Vivo 2 – Universal Music – 2000 Pagode de Mesa Ao Vivo – Universal Music – 1999 Pérolas do Pagode – Globo / Polydor – 1998 Brasileira da GemaPolygram – 1996 Beth Carvalho Canta o Samba de São Paulo – Velas – 1993 Pérolas – 25 Anos de Samba – Som Livre – 1992 Ao Vivo no Olympia – Som Livre – 1991 Intérprete – Polygram – 1991 Saudades da Guanabara – Polygram – 1989 Alma do Brasil – Polygram – 1988 Beth Carvalho Ao Vivo – RCA – 1987 Beth – RCA – 1986 Das Bençãos Que Virão Com os Novos Amanhãs – RCA – 1985 Coração Feliz – RCA – 1984 Suor no Rosto – RCA – 1983 Traço de União – RCA – 1982 Na fonte – RCA – 1981 Sentimento Brasileiro – RCA – 1980 Beth Carvalho no Pagode – RCA – 1979 De Pé No Chão – RCA – 1978 Nos Botequins da Vida – RCA – 1977 Mundo Melhor – RCA – 1976 Pandeiro e ViolaTapecar – 1975 Pra Seu Governo – Tapecar – 1974 Canto Por Um Novo Dia – Tapecar – 1973 Andança – Odeon – 1969 Entrevista 1988