click links in text for more info


Turnus was the legendary King of the Rutuli in Roman history, the chief antagonist of the hero Aeneas in Virgil's Aeneid. According to the Aeneid, Turnus is the son of Daunus and the nymph Venilia and is brother of the nymph Juturna. While there is a limited amount of information in historical sources about Turnus, some key details about Turnus and the Rutuli differ from the account in the Aeneid; the only source predating the Aeneid is Marcus Portius Cato's Origines. Turnus is mentioned by Livy in his Ab Urbe Condita and by Dionysius of Halicarnassus in his Ρωμαϊκή Αρχαιολογία, both of which come than the Aeneid. In all of these historical sources, Turnus' heritage is unclear. Dionysius calls him Tyrrhenus, which means "Etruscan". In all of these sources and his Rutulians are settled in Italy prior to the arrival of the Trojans and are involved in the clash between the Latins and the Trojans, but there is a great deal of discrepancy in details, it appears that Virgil drew on a variety of historical sources for the background of Turnus in the Aeneid.

Prior to Aeneas' arrival in Italy, Turnus was the primary potential suitor of Lavinia, the only daughter of Latinus, King of the Latin people. Upon Aeneas' arrival, Lavinia is promised to the Trojan prince. Juno, determined to prolong the suffering of the Trojans, prompts Turnus to demand a war with the new arrivals. King Latinus is displeased with Turnus, but steps down and allows the war to commence. During the War between the Latins and the Trojans, Turnus proves himself to be hot-headed. In Book IX, he nearly takes the fortress of the Trojans after defeating many opponents, but soon gets into trouble and is only saved from death by Juno. In Book X, Turnus slays the son of the young prince Pallas; as he gloats over the killing, he puts it on. Enraged, Aeneas seeks out the Rutulian King with full intent of killing him. Virgil marks the death of Pallas by mentioning the inevitable downfall of Turnus. To prevent his death at the hands of Aeneas, Juno conjures a ghost apparition of Aeneas, luring Turnus onto a ship and to his safety.

Turnus takes great offense at this action, questioning his worth and contemplating suicide. In Book XII, Aeneas and Turnus duel to the death. Turnus begs Aeneas either to give his body back to his people. Aeneas considers but upon seeing the belt of Pallas on Turnus, he is consumed by rage and finishes him off; the last line of the poem describes Turnus' unhappy passage into the Underworld. Turnus' supporters include: his sister and minor river / Juturna. In the Middle English poem Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, the unknown poet cites as a parallel to Brutus of Troy's founding of Britain, that of an unidentified "Ticius" to Tuscany. Although some scholars have tried to argue that "Titius" is derived from Titus Tatius, Otis Chapman has proposed that "Ticius" is a scribal error for what the poet intended to read as Turnus. On top of manuscript stylometric evidence, Chapman notes that in a passage in Ranulf Higdon's Polychronicon, Turnus is named as King of Tuscany; this suggests that legends in the age after Virgil came to identify Turnus "as a legendary figure like Aeneas, Romulus, "Langeberde", Brutus".

In Book IX of John Milton's Paradise Lost, the story of Turnus and Lavinia is mentioned in relation to God's anger at Adam and Eve. Turnus can be seen as a "new Achilles," due to his fierceness. According to Barry Powell, he may represent Mark Antony or local peoples who must submit to Rome's empire. Powell adds that in the dispute between Turnus and Aeneas, Turnus may have the moral upper hand, having been arranged to marry Lavinia first. However, Turnus must be stopped. Quotations related to Turnus at Wikiquote Media related to Turnus at Wikimedia Commons


Gokayama is an area within the city of Nanto in Toyama Prefecture, Japan. It has been inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List due to its traditional gasshō-zukuri houses, alongside nearby Shirakawa-gō in Gifu Prefecture; the survival of this traditional architectural style is attributed to the region's secluded location in the upper reaches of the Shōgawa river. This is the reason that Gokayama's lifestyle and culture remained traditional for many years after the majority of the country had modernized. Many of the houses surpass 300 years in age; the Gokayama region includes the former villages of Taira and Toga. The gasshō hamlet of Ainokura is located in Taira. Ainokura, in the Gokayama region, was inscribed on the World Heritage List in December 1995 as one of the three villages of gassho-style houses. Ainokura has 20 gassho-style houses known as minka. Most of them are 100 to 200 years old, the oldest is said to have been built some 400 years ago; the gassho roof has a slope of about 60 degrees forming a nearly equilateral triangle.

This steep pitch allows snow to slide off the roof easily. The enormous roof is supported by stout oak beams called chonabari; the roofs are rethatched every 15 to 20 years. Nowadays this is done by Gokayama Forest Owners' Cooperative. Fumihito, Prince Akishino stayed at an Ainokura inn two times; the first time was when he was a second-year student at the Gakushūin high-school when he took part in a summer geography training seminar. While staying in Ainkoura, he said, "I like three places in the world most, one of them is Gokayama"; the second time was nine years after that with his wife. Gokayama is twinned with: Alberobello, Italy Historic Villages of Shirakawa-gō and Gokayama List of Historic Sites of Japan World Heritage Sites in Japan Japanese Guest Houses to stay a night in Gokayama Travel diary and pictures of a stay in Ainokura


Compello AS is a Norwegian IT company established in 2011 after the merger of Client Computing Europe ASA and Compello Software AS. The company develops solutions for automated data flow comprising solutions for EDI, eInvoice and Invoice Approval; the company is 100 % owned by Etrinell AS with headquarters in Norway. More than 80 people are employed in Compello based in Oslo, Sandefjord and Colombo; the company collaborates with Microsoft and was chosen Best Norwegian Independent Software Partner at Microsoft’s annual Partner Conference in Washington DC in 2014. In 2018 Compello won a role model prize of promoting women in tech. In 2018 Compello's German business was sold out from the Compello group. Client Computing Europe ASA merged with Compello Software AS in 2011, rebranded at the same time to Compello AS. Client Computing was established in 1995, focused on message flow and EDI-messages to the power and textile industries; the business expanded to Sweden in 1998 by acquiring the EDI-part of Posten/SDS, into Germany in 2006 through GLI GmbH.

In 2004 the company invested in Euronova AS. Euronova became a owned subsidiary named Client Computing Norway AS; the Norwegian EDI and eInvoice activities were organised under Client Computing Utility AS and Client Computing Norway AS. In late 2010 Client Computing Utility AS was merged with Client Computing Norway AS. Client Computing Norway AS merged with Compello Software AS in 2012. Compello Software was established in 1997 focusing on electronic invoice approval; this covers invoice scanning, workflow and ERP integration. The company merged with Client Computing Europe ASA in 2011. Official webpage


A glacis in military engineering is an artificial slope as part of a medieval castle or in early modern fortresses. They may be constructed of earth of stone in more permanent structure. A glacis plate is the sloped front-most section of the hull of a tank or other armoured fighting vehicle. More a glacis is any slope, natural or artificial, which fulfils the above requirements; the etymology of this French word suggests a slope made dangerous with ice, hence the relationship with glacier. A glacis could appear in ancient fortresses, such as the one the ancient Egyptians built at Semna in Nubia. Here it was used by them to prevent enemy siege engines from weakening defensive walls. Hillforts in Britain started to incorporate glacis around 350 BC; those at Maiden Castle, Dorset were 25 metres high. Glacis called talus, were incorporated into medieval fortifications to strengthen the walls against undermining, to hamper escalades and so that missiles dropped from the battlements would ricochet off the glacis into attacking forces.

Towards the end of the medieval period some castles were modified to make them defensible against cannons. Glacis consisting of earthen slopes faced with stones were placed in front of the curtain walls and bastions to absorb the impact of cannon shots or to deflect them. Towers were converted into gun platforms. Early modern European fortresses were so constructed as to keep any potential assailant under the fire of the defenders until the last possible moment. On natural, level ground, troops attacking any high work have a degree of shelter from its fire when close up to it; this gave defenders a direct line of sight into the assaulting force, allowing them to efficiently sweep the field with fire from the parapet. Additionally, but secondarily, the bank of earth would shield the walls from being hit directly by cannon fire. Though defenders on a high ground have a direct line of sight, a glacis allows the field of fire to be swept more efficiently by minimizing changes to the angle of their guns while firing.

Furthermore, the glacis prevents attacking cannon from having a clear shot at the walls of a fortress, as these cannot be seen until the glacis is crossed and the ditch, bounded on either side by the smooth, masoned scarp and counterscarp, is reached. The term glacis plate describes the sloped front-most section of the hull of a tank or other armored fighting vehicle composed of upper and lower halves. In a head-on-head armored engagement, the glacis plate is the largest and most obvious target available to an enemy gunner. Sloped armour has two advantages: many projectiles will deflect rather than penetrate. Anti-tank mines that employ a tilt-rod fuze are designed to detonate directly underneath the glacis plate; as a result, it is the thickest, most robust armored section of a tank, followed by the turret face and gun mantlet. Fortification Siege Jackson, Louis. "Fortification and Siegecraft". In Chisholm, Hugh. Encyclopædia Britannica. 10. Cambridge University Press. Pp. 679–725. Decaëns, Joseph.

Caen Castle: A Ten Centuries Old Fortress. Publications du Crahm. P. 17. ISBN 9782902685752. Dyer, James. Hillforts of England and Wales. Shire Series. 16. Osprey Publishing. P. 19. ISBN 9780747801801. Stokstad, Marilyn. Medieval Castles. Greenwood guides to historic events of the medieval world. Greenwood Publishing Group. P. 84. ISBN 9780313325250

Nelly van Doesburg

Nelly van Doesburg or Cupera, Pétro van Doesburg, Nelly van Moorsel was a Dutch avant-garde musician and artist. As a painter, she used the pseudonym Cupera. Nelly van Doesburg Moorsel was born on 27 July 1899 in The Hague, she was a life long champion of De Stijl movement and advisor to notable American art collector and socialite Peggy Guggenheim. In 1920 she met Theo Van Doesburg through her brother, who had a subscription to the magazine De Stijl, published by Van Doesburg. During the opening of the La Section d'Or exhibition in The Hague on 11 July 1920, she would fell in love with him, her Catholic parents did not appreciate the association with Van Doesburg, not only Protestant, but married. She ran away from home around the turn of the year from 1920-1921 and was received in Leiden by J. J. P. Oud and Van Doesburg's wife Lena Milius. During her relationship with Van Doesburg she was introduced to the world of modern art. Van Doesburg took her on a lecture tour through Europe in March 1921, during which they visited Piet Mondriaan in Paris.

From April 1921 she lived with Van Doesburg in Weimar. In December she spent a few weeks in Vienna to reflect on her future. Here she met publisher of the magazine Ma. Aktivista Folyóirat. After this a correspondence between Kassák and Theo van Doesburg arose. On 24 September 1922 she visited with Theo, Cor van Eesteren and others, the Städtische Kunstverein by Walter Dexel in Jena; the following day she played compositions by Vittorio Rieti during a dada evening at Hotel Fürstenhof in Weimar, in which Jean Arp and Tristan Tzara participated. In January-February 1923 she participated with her future husband and the artists Kurt Schwitters and Vilmos Huszár, under her stage name Pétro, on the Dutch Dada tour. During these evenings she played music by Rieti. After this tour, she played compositions by Arthur Honegger, Daniël Ruyneman, Francis Poulenc, Josef Hauer and Egon Wellesz during a "Modern Soirée" on 12 March at the Lily Green dance school in The Hague; the Taste of Style Art by the composer Jakob van Domselaer featured in her repertoire.

In addition, under the pseudonym Cupera she made a number of paintings, in which influences from De Stijl can be recognized. In Paris she enjoyed some fame as a dancer as Sonia Pétrowska. From 2 October 1929 to 5 January 1930 she organized the ESAC of "contemporary young Parisian painting" at the Stedelijk Museum in Amsterdam and Pulchri Studio in The Hague. Van Doesburg participated in this exhibition under her pseudonym P. Cupera. After Theo van Doesburg's death, widow Nelly van Doesburg committed herself to keeping the memory of her husband alive, she wanted to help the one-sided image, that he was a follower instead of an innovator of modern art, out of the world. To this end, she organized a series of exhibitions of his work, she provided a good shelter for a large part of his paintings by selling them to the best collections of modern art in the world. Many paintings by Van Doesburg ended up in the United States, for example in the Museum of Modern Art and the Guggenheim collections, because Van Doesburg was friends with Peggy Guggenheim, who acted as her agent in America.

In the fifties she made some reproductions in silkscreen of her husband's works. Van Doesburg's remaining collection, consisting of archive material, studies and drawings, left Nelly van Doesburg to her cousin Wies van Moorsel, who donated it to the Dutch Nation in 1981; the collection is managed by the Netherlands Institute for Cultural Heritage and the Netherlands Institute for Art History. She remained active in the artists' circuit, she had a short relationship with the German architect Ludwig Mies van der Rohe. She was as an important witness of the entire Stijl movement, a good source for, among others, the book Holland Dada by K. Schippers. At the end of her life she returned to her roots and she became Catholic again, it is rumoured that Nelly van Doesburg had an affair with Jazz musician Thelonious Monk who she met whilst in at the Minton's Playhouse, continued the relationship in the De Stijl house in Meudon. Nelly van Doesburg died at the age of 76 from the consequences of breast cancer in the home and studio designed by Theo van Doesburg in Meudon, France.

Nelly van Doesburg in the RKD

List of Saudi detainees at Guantanamo Bay

A total of 133 Saudi citizens have been held in the United States'Guantanamo Bay detention camps at its naval base in Cuba since January 2002. Most had been swept up in Afghanistan following the US invasion in the fall of 2001, they were classified by the US government as enemy combatants. In addition, a United States citizen, Yaser Esam Hamdi, born in Louisiana but moved as a child with his parents to Saudi Arabia, where he had citizenship, was held there; as an American citizen, he was transferred to a military prison brig on the mainland of the United States. His challenge to his detention, without being informed of charges or brought to trial, was a case that reached the United States Supreme Court. In Hamdi v. Rumsfeld, the Supreme Court ruled that detainees who are U. S. citizens must have the rights of due process, the ability to challenge their enemy combatant status before an impartial authority. After this decision, the government made a deal with Hamdi. After he agreed to renounce his US citizenship and observe travel restrictions, in October 2004 Hamdi was deported to Saudi Arabia.

He has returned to his family. Following the deaths of two Saudi citizens in custody on June 10, 2006, another on May 30, 2007, which the Department of Defense claimed were due to suicides, the Saudi government put pressure on the United States to release its citizens. Nearly 100 were returned to Saudi Arabia from June 2006 through 2007; as of today, eleven Saudi citizens are still held at the detention camp. In January 2002, the United States completed the first phase of construction of the Guantanamo Bay detention camp at its naval base in Cuba, it was designed to hold enemy combatants captured in its war on terror - most taken during action in Afghanistan beginning in the fall of 2001. In total, the US has held 133 Saudi Arabian citizens at Guantanamo; the United States has held a total of 778 detainees in the Guantanamo Bay detention camps at its naval base in Cuba since the camps opened on January 11, 2002. The camp population peaked in 2004 at 660; as of January 2017, 45 detainees remain at Guantanamo.

Three Saudis: Yasser Talal Al Zahrani, Mani Shaman Turki al-Habardi Al-Utaybi and Abdul Rahman al-Amri, died at Guantanamo in 2006 and 2007 during their detention. All were announced by the United States Department of Defense as suicides; the first two were among three men who died on June 10, 2006. Journalists and the Center for Policy and Research in its 2009 report have noted glaring inconsistencies in the NCIS report of 2008. Based on an account by four former guards at Guantanamo, Scott Horton suggested in 2010 that the men died as a result of torture and government agencies tried to cover this up. Al-Amri died on May 30, 2007, as an apparent suicide, according to DOD; as a result of these deaths, the Saudi government pressured the United States to repatriate its citizens. It developed a reintegration program for former detainees and has worked with them on religious re-education, reintegrating them into society by arranging for marriages and jobs. From June 2006 and December 2007, a total of 93 Saudi citizens were returned to the country.

As of today, eleven Saudi citizens are still held at the detention camp. A July 26, 2007 article from Asharq Alawsat described the Care Rehabilitation Center repatriated detainees are held in until they are released. According to the article the detainees received special meals, had access to satellite TV, were able to get day passes. British Prime Minister Gordon Brown visited the facility on November 2, 2008, spoke with several former Guantanamo detainees; the Saudi Arabian government has published four Saudi lists of "most wanted" suspected terrorists. On February 3, 2009, the Saudi Arabian government published a list of 85 suspected terrorists. Unlike the previous three lists, the most recent list was reported to name eleven former Guantanamo captives. Saudi captives Guantanamo detainee assessment briefs "Detainee Transfer Announced". Department of Defense. July 16, 2007. Retrieved July 16, 2007. Raid Qusti. "More Gitmo Detainees Come Home". Arab News. Retrieved July 17, 2007