Inoceramus is an extinct genus of fossil marine pteriomorphian bivalves that superficially resembled the related winged pearly oysters of the extant genus Pteria. They lived from the Early Jurassic to latest Cretaceous; the taxonomy of the inoceramids is disputed, with genera such as Platyceramus sometimes classified as subgenus within Inoceramus. The number of valid species in this genus is disputed. Inoceramids had a thick shell paved with "prisms" of calcite deposited perpendicular to the surface, which gave it a pearly luster in life. Most species have prominent growth lines which appear as raised semicircles concentric to the growing edge of the shell. Paleontologists suggest that the giant size of some species was an adaptation for life in the murky bottom waters, with a correspondingly large gill area that would have allowed the animal to survive in oxygen-deficient waters. Species of Inoceramus had a worldwide distribution during the Jurassic periods. Many examples are found in the Pierre Shale of the Western Interior Seaway in North America.
Inoceramus can be found abundantly in the Cretaceous Gault Clay that underlies London. Other locations for this fossil include Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Spain, Germany, Albania, Angola, Argentina, Austria, Bulgaria, Chile, Cuba, the Czech Republic, Ecuador, Greenland, India, Indian Ocean, Italy, Japan, Kenya, Madagascar, Morocco, Nepal, New Caledonia, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, Poland, the Russian Federation, Saudi Arabia and Montenegro, South Africa, Switzerland, Turkey, the United Kingdom, United States, Venezuela. Ludvigsen, Rolf. West Coast Fossils: A Guide to the Ancient Life of Vancouver Island. Pp. 102–103. Acosta Garay, Jorge. INGEOMINAS. Pp. 1–84. Retrieved 2017-04-04. Kennedy, W. J.. G.. C.. "Upper Cretaceous Invertebrate Faunas from Durban, South Africa". Geological Society of South Africa Transactions. 76: 95–111. Klinger, H. C.. J.. "Upper Cretaceous ammonites and inoceramids from the off-shore Alphard Group of South Africa". Annals of the South African Museum. 82: 293–320. Gebhardt, H..
"Inoceramids and ammonites from the Nkalagu Formation type locakity: biostratigraphy and palaeoecologic implications". Neues Jahrbuch für Monatshefte. 4: 193–212. El Qot, G. M.. "Late Cretaceous macrofossils from Sinai, Egypt". Beringeria. 36: 3–163. Picture of The World's Largest Bivalve Upper Cretaceous Bivalvia of Alabama
In the geological timescale, the Tithonian is the latest age of the Late Jurassic epoch or the uppermost stage of the Upper Jurassic series. It spans the time between 152.1 ± 4 145.0 ± 4 Ma. It is followed by the Berriasian stage; the Tithonian was introduced in scientific literature by German stratigrapher Albert Oppel in 1865. The name Tithonian is unusual in geological stage names. Tithonus was the son of Laomedon of Troy, he fell in love with Eos, the Greek goddess of dawn and finds his place in the stratigraphy because this stage, the Tithonian, finds itself hand in hand with the dawn of the Cretaceous. The base of the Tithonian stage is at the base of the ammonite biozone of Hybonoticeras hybonotum. A global reference profile for the base of the Tithonian had in 2009 not yet been established; the top of the Tithonian stage is marked by the first appearance of small globular calpionellids of the species Calpionella alpina, at the base of the Alpina Subzone. The Tithonian is subdivided into Lower/Early and Upper/Late substages or subages.
The Late Tithonian is coeval with the Portlandian stage of British stratigraphy. The Tithonian stage contains seven ammonite biozones in the Tethys domain, from top to base: zone of Durangites zone of Micracanthoceras micranthum zone of Micracanthoceras ponti or Burckardticeras peroni zone of Semiformiceras fallauxi zone of Semiformiceras semiforme zone of Semiformiceras darwini zone of Hybonoticeras hybonotum In the ocean of Tethys, the Tithonian has a calcareous facies with a typical cephalopod fauna; the Solnhofen limestone of southern Germany, known for its fossils, is of Tithonian age. Gradstein, F. M.. G. & Smith, A. G.. Oppel, C. A.. GeoWhen Database - Tithonian Jurassic-Cretaceous timescale, at the website of the subcommission for stratigraphic information of the ICS Stratigraphic chart of the Upper Jurassic, at the website of Norges Network of offshore records of geology and stratigraphy
Mollusca is the second largest phylum of invertebrate animals. The members are known as mollusks. Around 85,000 extant species of molluscs are recognized; the number of fossil species is estimated between 100,000 additional species. Molluscs are the largest marine phylum, comprising about 23% of all the named marine organisms. Numerous molluscs live in freshwater and terrestrial habitats, they are diverse, not just in size and in anatomical structure, but in behaviour and in habitat. The phylum is divided into 8 or 9 taxonomic classes, of which two are extinct. Cephalopod molluscs, such as squid and octopus, are among the most neurologically advanced of all invertebrates—and either the giant squid or the colossal squid is the largest known invertebrate species; the gastropods are by far the most numerous molluscs and account for 80% of the total classified species. The three most universal features defining modern molluscs are a mantle with a significant cavity used for breathing and excretion, the presence of a radula, the structure of the nervous system.
Other than these common elements, molluscs express great morphological diversity, so many textbooks base their descriptions on a "hypothetical ancestral mollusc". This has a single, "limpet-like" shell on top, made of proteins and chitin reinforced with calcium carbonate, is secreted by a mantle covering the whole upper surface; the underside of the animal consists of a single muscular "foot". Although molluscs are coelomates, the coelom tends to be small; the main body cavity is a hemocoel. The "generalized" mollusc's feeding system consists of a rasping "tongue", the radula, a complex digestive system in which exuded mucus and microscopic, muscle-powered "hairs" called cilia play various important roles; the generalized mollusc has three in bivalves. The brain, in species that have one, encircles the esophagus. Most molluscs have eyes, all have sensors to detect chemicals and touch; the simplest type of molluscan reproductive system relies on external fertilization, but more complex variations occur.
All produce eggs, from which may emerge trochophore larvae, more complex veliger larvae, or miniature adults. The coelomic cavity is reduced, they have kidney-like organs for excretion. Good evidence exists for the appearance of gastropods and bivalves in the Cambrian period, 541 to 485.4 million years ago. However, the evolutionary history both of molluscs' emergence from the ancestral Lophotrochozoa and of their diversification into the well-known living and fossil forms are still subjects of vigorous debate among scientists. Molluscs still are an important food source for anatomically modern humans. There is a risk of food poisoning from toxins which can accumulate in certain molluscs under specific conditions and because of this, many countries have regulations to reduce this risk. Molluscs have, for centuries been the source of important luxury goods, notably pearls, mother of pearl, Tyrian purple dye, sea silk, their shells have been used as money in some preindustrial societies. Mollusc species can represent hazards or pests for human activities.
The bite of the blue-ringed octopus is fatal, that of Octopus apollyon causes inflammation that can last for over a month. Stings from a few species of large tropical cone shells can kill, but their sophisticated, though produced, venoms have become important tools in neurological research. Schistosomiasis is transmitted to humans via water snail hosts, affects about 200 million people. Snails and slugs can be serious agricultural pests, accidental or deliberate introduction of some snail species into new environments has damaged some ecosystems; the words mollusc and mollusk are both derived from the French mollusque, which originated from the Latin molluscus, from mollis, soft. Molluscus was itself an adaptation of Aristotle's τὰ μαλάκια ta malákia, which he applied inter alia to cuttlefish; the scientific study of molluscs is accordingly called malacology. The name Molluscoida was used to denote a division of the animal kingdom containing the brachiopods and tunicates, the members of the three groups having been supposed to somewhat resemble the molluscs.
As it is now known these groups have no relation to molluscs, little to one another, the name Molluscoida has been abandoned. The most universal features of the body structure of molluscs are a mantle with a significant cavity used for breathing and excretion, the organization of the nervous system. Many have a calcareous shell. Molluscs have developed such a varied range of body structures, it is difficult to find synapomorphies to apply to all modern groups; the most general characteristic of molluscs is they are bilaterally symmetrical. The following are present in all modern molluscs: The dorsal part of the body wall is a mantle which secretes calcareous spicules, plates or shells, it overlaps the body with enough spare room to form a mantle cavity. The anus and genitals open into the mantle cavity. There are two pairs of main nerve cords. Other characteristics that appear in textbooks have significant exceptions: Estimates of accepted described living species of molluscs vary from 50,000 to a maximum of 120,000 species.
In 1969 David Nicol estimated the probable total number of living mollusc species at 107,000 of which were ab
Global Boundary Stratotype Section and Point
A Global Boundary Stratotype Section and Point, abbreviated GSSP, is an internationally agreed upon reference point on a stratigraphic section which defines the lower boundary of a stage on the geologic time scale. The effort to define GSSPs is conducted by the International Commission on Stratigraphy, a part of the International Union of Geological Sciences. Most, but not all, GSSPs are based on paleontological changes. Hence GSSPs are described in terms of transitions between different faunal stages, though far more faunal stages have been described than GSSPs; the GSSP definition effort commenced in 1977. As of 2012, 64 of the 101 stages that need a GSSP have been formally defined. A geologic section has to fulfill a set of criteria to be adapted as a GSSP by the ICS; the following list summarizes the criteria: A GSSP has to define the lower boundary of a geologic stage. The lower boundary has to be defined using a primary marker. There should be secondary markers; the horizon in which the marker appears should have minerals.
The marker has to have regional and global correlation in outcrops of the same age The marker should be independent of facies. The outcrop has to have an adequate thickness Sedimentation has to be continuous without any changes in facies The outcrop should be unaffected by tectonic and sedimentary movements, metamorphism The outcrop has to be accessible to research and free to access; this includes that the outcrop has to be located where it can be visited has to be kept in good condition, in accessible terrain, extensive enough to allow repeated sampling and open to researchers of all nationalities. The Precambrian-Cambrian boundary GSSP at Fortune Head, Newfoundland is a typical GSSP, it is set aside as a nature preserve. A continuous section is available from beds that are Precambrian into beds that are Cambrian; the boundary is set at the first appearance of a complex trace fossil Treptichnus pedum, found worldwide. The Fortune Head GSSP is unlikely to be built over. Nonetheless, Treptichnus pedum is less than ideal as a marker fossil as it is not found in every Cambrian sequence, it is not assured that it is found at the same level in every exposure.
In fact, further eroding its value as a boundary marker, it has since been identified in strata 4m below the GSSP! However, no other fossil is known. There is no radiometrically datable bed at the boundary at Fortune Head, but there is one above the boundary in similar beds nearby; these factors have led some geologists to suggest. Once a GSSP boundary has been agreed upon, a "golden spike" is driven into the geologic section to mark the precise boundary for future geologists; the first stratigraphic boundary was defined in 1977 by identifying the Silurian-Devonian boundary with a bronze plaque at a locality called Klonk, northeast of the village of Suchomasty in the Czech Republic. GSSPs are sometimes referred to as Golden Spikes; because defining a GSSP depends on finding well-preserved geologic sections and identifying key events, this task becomes more difficult as one goes farther back in time. Before 630 million years ago, boundaries on the geologic timescale are defined by reference to fixed dates, known as "Global Standard Stratigraphic Ages".
Body form European Mammal Neogene Fauna Geologic time scale New Zealand geologic time scale List of GSSPs North American Land Mammal Age Type locality Hedberg, H. D. International stratigraphic guide: A guide to stratigraphic classification and procedure, New York, John Wiley and Sons, 1976 International Stratigraphic Chart from the International Commission on Stratigraphy GSSP table with pages on each ratified GSSP from the ICS Subcommission for Stratigraphic Information USA National Park Service Washington State University Web Geological Time Machine Eon or Aeon, Math Words - An alphabetical index The Global Boundary Stratotype Section and Point: overview Chart of The Global Boundary Stratotype Sections and Points: chart Table of Global Boundary Stratotype Sections and Points with links to summary pages for each one: chart GSSPs and Continental drift 3D views Geotime chart displaying geologic time periods compared to the fossil record - Deals with chronology and classifications for laymen
Jerusalem stone is a name applied to various types of pale limestone and dolomitic limestone, common in and around Jerusalem that have been used in building since ancient times. One of these limestones, has been used in many of the region's most celebrated structures, including the Western Wall. Jerusalem stone continues to be used in construction and incorporated in Jewish ceremonial art such as menorahs and seder plates; the highlands of Israel are underlain by sedimentary limestone and dolomitic limestone. The stone quarried for building purposes, ranging in color from white to pink and tawny, is known collectively as Jerusalem stone. Soft Senonian limestone is found to the east of Jerusalem, has long been used as an inexpensive building material. Stone of the Cenomanian layers, known in Arabic as mizzi ahmar and mizzi yahudi, is far more durable than Senonian limestone, but is hard and was expensive to quarry using pre-modern methods. Turonian layers yield meleke, the most prized building stones.
The thin layered mizzi hilu is quarried and worked. Meleke is soft and easy to chisel, yet hardens with exposure to the atmosphere and becomes durable, it was used for the great public buildings of antiquity, for the construction of the Islamic period city walls and buildings. The mountains in and around Jerusalem offer limestone and related types of rock; the names in common use today have been adopted from the Arab masons of the 20th centuries. The varieties used for building throughout history are: Meleke, the "royal" stone, a white, coarse crystalline limestone used for representative buildings like the Western Wall and other parts of the Herodian Temple, it is easy to quarry. Mizzi hilu is a hard whitish micritic limestone covering beds of meleke, it is a high quality building stone, but in times when the "royal stone" was preferred, the mizzi hilu was left as a roof over the cavities created by quarrying the meleke. Mizzi ahmar, a hard dolomitic limestone, light-colored with reddish bands.
In Jerusalem it was used for ablaq-style multi-colored masonry by the Mamluks. Mizzi yahudi, a dark grey or yellow crystalline dolomite or dolomitic limestone, appreciated for its hardness which makes it an excellent building material. Deir yassini is a variety of mizzi named after the village of Deir Yassin. A reddish dolomitic limestone, it is quarried in slabs used for roof tiles. Mizzi akhdar is a decorative green limestone quarried on a smaller scale, its high density means. At the beginning of the 20th century it was five times more expensive than other varieties of mizzi. Kakuleh or kakula, a soft and light chalky limestone found on the Mount of Olives. Due to its softness it was favoured during the Late Second Temple Period for carving box-shaped ossuaries for secondary burials as well as for producing stone vessels, using a procedure similar to the potter's wheel; these vessels were considered by observant Jews to always be ritually pure. Nari is the other softer type of stone used in the Jerusalem area.
It is the whitish caliche crust which develops through chemical processes on top of marl. Light and far from homogeneous, it is not a resilient building material, but these qualities attracted masons of the early Kingdom of Judah who cut it into ashlars; the setting sun reflected on the cream-colored limestone facade of both ancient and modern structures gives them a golden hue, giving rise to the term "Jerusalem of Gold". According to Israeli geologist Ithamar Perath, residents of Jerusalem in antiquity built their homes from Jerusalem stone quarried in the city and used the pit that remained as a cistern to collect rainwater beneath the home. Ancient quarries around Jerusalem include the site of the bus station in East Jerusalem, Rehov Hamadregot in Nahlaot and the Garden Tomb; the remains of ancient quarries can be seen near Yemin Moshe, in the Sanhedria neighborhood, elsewhere. Municipal laws in Jerusalem require; the ordinance dates back to the British Mandate and the governorship of Sir Ronald Storrs and was part of a master plan for the city drawn up in 1918 by Sir William McLean city engineer of Alexandria.
In 1923, Aharon Grebelsky established the country's first Jewish-owned "marble" quarry in Jerusalem. Grebelsky's son Yechiel expanded the business, employing over 100 workers, including quarriers, stonemasons and installers; the company inaugurated a new factory in Mitzpe Ramon in January 2000. In 2000, there were 650 stone-cutting enterprises run by Palestinians in the West Bank, producing a varied range of pink, sand and off-white bricks and tiles; the various "Jerusalem stones" are employed abroad in Jewish buildings as a symbol of Jewish identity. It has been used this way in many Jewish community centers, including the one in San Jose, Costa Rica. Jerusalem stone is used in contemporary synagogue design, to create a simulation of the Western Wall or as a backdrop for the Holy Ark. A Pentecostal church in São Paulo, ordered $8 million worth of Jerusalem stone to construct a replica of the Temple of Solomon, or Templo de Salomão that stands 180 feet tall. List of types of limestone Sydney sandstone Tennessee marble Media related to Meleke at Wikimedia Commons
The Hauterivian is, in the geologic timescale, an age in the Early Cretaceous epoch or a stage in the Lower Cretaceous series. It spans the time between 132.9 ± 2 Ma and 129.4 ± 1.5 Ma. The Hauterivian is succeeded by the Barremian; the Hauterivian was introduced in scientific literature by Swiss geologist Eugène Renevier in 1873. It is named after the Swiss town of Hauterive at the shore of Lake Neuchâtel; the base of the Hauterivian is defined as the place in the stratigraphic column where the ammonite genus Acanthodiscus first appears. A reference profile for the base had in 2009 not yet been established; the top of the Hauterivian is at the first appearance of ammonite species Spitidiscus hugii. In the ammonite biostratigraphy of the Tethys domain, the Hauterivian contains seven ammonite biozones: zone of Pseudothurmannia ohmi zone of Balearites balearis zone of Plesiospitidiscus ligatus zone of Subsaynella sayni zone of Lyticoceras nodosoplicatus zone of Crioceratites loryi zone of Acanthodiscus radiatus Gradstein, F.
M.. G. & Smith, A. G.. GeoWhen Database - Hauterivian Mid-Cretaceous timescale, at the website of the subcommission for stratigraphic information of the ICS Stratigraphic chart of the Lower Cretaceous, at the website of Norges Network of offshore records of geology and stratigraphy Hauterivian Microfossils: 25+ images of Foraminifera