Vanilla is a flavoring derived from orchids of the genus Vanilla from the Mexican species, flat-leaved vanilla. The word vanilla, derived from vainilla, the diminutive of the Spanish word vaina, is translated as "little pod". Pre-Columbian Mesoamerican people cultivated the vine of the vanilla orchid, called tlīlxochitl by the Aztecs. Spanish conquistador Hernán Cortés is credited with introducing both vanilla and chocolate to Europe in the 1520s. Pollination is required to set the vanilla fruit from. In 1837, Belgian botanist Charles François Antoine Morren discovered this fact and pioneered a method of artificially pollinating the plant; the method was not deployed commercially. In 1841, Edmond Albius, a slave who lived on the French island of Réunion in the Indian Ocean, discovered at the age of 12 that the plant could be hand-pollinated. Hand-pollination allowed global cultivation of the plant. Three major species of vanilla are grown globally, all of which derive from a species found in Mesoamerica, including parts of modern-day Mexico.
They are V. planifolia, grown on Madagascar, Réunion, other tropical areas along the Indian Ocean. The majority of the world's vanilla is the V. planifolia species, more known as Bourbon vanilla or Madagascar vanilla, produced in Madagascar and neighboring islands in the southwestern Indian Ocean, in Indonesia. Combined and Indonesia produce two-thirds of the world's supply of vanilla. Vanilla is the second-most expensive spice after saffron because growing the vanilla seed pods is labor-intensive. Despite the expense, vanilla is valued for its flavor; as a result, vanilla is used in both commercial and domestic baking, perfume manufacture, aromatherapy. According to other popular belief, the Totonac Aztec-age people, who inhabit the east coast of Mexico in the present-day state of Veracruz, were among the first people to cultivate vanilla in the 15th century. Aztecs invading from the central highlands of Mexico conquered the Totonacs, developed a taste for the vanilla pods, they named the fruit tlilxochitl, or "black flower", after the matured fruit, which shrivels and turns black shortly after it is picked.
Until the mid-19th century, Mexico was the chief producer of vanilla. In 1819, French entrepreneurs shipped vanilla fruits to the islands of Réunion and Mauritius in hopes of producing vanilla there. After Edmond Albius discovered how to pollinate the flowers by hand, the pods began to thrive. Soon, the tropical orchids were sent from Réunion to the Comoros Islands and Madagascar, along with instructions for pollinating them. By 1898, Madagascar, Réunion, the Comoros Islands produced 200 metric tons of vanilla beans, about 80% of world production. According to the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Indonesia is responsible for the vast majority of the world's Bourbon vanilla production and 58% of the world total vanilla fruit production; the market price of vanilla rose in the late 1970s after a tropical cyclone ravaged key croplands. Prices remained high through the early 1980s despite the introduction of Indonesian vanilla. In the mid-1980s, the cartel that had controlled vanilla prices and distribution since its creation in 1930 disbanded.
Prices dropped 70 % to nearly US$20 per kilogram. The cyclone, political instability, poor weather in the third year drove vanilla prices to an astonishing US$500/kg in 2004, bringing new countries into the vanilla industry. A good crop, coupled with decreased demand caused by the production of imitation vanilla, pushed the market price down to the $40/kg range in the middle of 2005. By 2010, prices were down to $20/kg. Cyclone Enawo caused in similar spike to $500/kg in 2017. Madagascar accounts for much of the global production of vanilla. Mexico, once the leading producer of natural vanilla with an annual yield of 500 tons of cured beans, produced only 10 tons in 2006. An estimated 95% of "vanilla" products are artificially flavored with vanillin derived from lignin instead of vanilla fruits. Vanilla was unknown in the Old World before Cortés. Spanish explorers arriving on the Gulf Coast of Mexico in the early 16th century gave vanilla its current name. Portuguese sailors and explorers brought vanilla into Africa and Asia that century.
They called it vainilla, or "little pod". The word vanilla entered the English language in 1754, when the botanist Philip Miller wrote about the genus in his Gardener’s Dictionary. Vainilla is from the Latin vagina to describe the shape of the pods; the main species harvested for vanilla is V. planifolia. Although it is native to Mexico, it is now grown throughout the tropics. Indonesia and Madagascar are the world's largest producers. Additional sources include V. pompona and V. tahitiensis, although the vanillin content of these species is much less than V. planifolia. Vanilla grows as a vine, climbing up pole, or other support, it can be grown in a plantation, or in a "shader", in increasing orders of productivity. Its growth environment is referred to as its terroir, includes not only the adjacent plants, but the climate and local geology. Left alone, it will grow as h
Confectionery is the art of making confections, which are food items that are rich in sugar and carbohydrates. Exact definitions are difficult. In general, confectionery is divided into two broad and somewhat overlapping categories, bakers' confections and sugar confections. Bakers' confectionery called flour confections, includes principally sweet pastries and similar baked goods. Sugar confectionery includes candies, candied nuts, chewing gum, bubble gum and other confections that are made of sugar. In some cases, chocolate confections are treated as a separate category, as are sugar-free versions of sugar confections; the words candy and lollies are common words for the most common varieties of sugar confectionery. The confectionery industry includes specialized training schools and extensive historical records. Traditional confectionery goes back to ancient times and continued to be eaten through the Middle Ages into the modern era. Before sugar was available in the ancient western world, confectionery was based on honey.
Honey was used in Ancient China, Ancient India, Ancient Egypt, Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome to coat fruits and flowers to preserve them or to create sweetmeats. Between the 6th and 4th centuries BC, the Persians, followed by the Greeks, made contact with the Indian subcontinent and its "reeds that produce honey without bees", they adopted and spread sugar and sugarcane agriculture. Sugarcane is indigenous to Southeast Asia. In the early history of sugar usage in Europe, it was the apothecary who had the most important role in the production of sugar-based preparations. Medieval European physicians learned the medicinal uses of the material from the Arabs and Byzantine Greeks. One Middle Eastern remedy for rheums and fevers were little, twisted sticks of pulled sugar called in Arabic al fänäd or al pänäd; these became known in England as alphenics, or more as penidia, pennet or pan sugar. They were the precursors of barley sugar and modern cough drops. In 1390, the Earl of Derby paid "two shillings for two pounds of penydes."
As the non-medicinal applications of sugar developed, the comfitmaker, or confectioner came into being as a separate trade. In the late medieval period the words confyt, comfect or cumfitt were generic terms for all kinds of sweetmeats made from fruits, roots, or flowers preserved with sugar. By the 16th century, a cumfit was more a seed, nut or small piece of spice enclosed in a round or ovoid mass of sugar; the production of comfits was a core skill of the early confectioner, known more in 16th and 17th century England as a comfitmaker. Reflecting their original medicinal purpose, comfits were produced by apothecaries and directions on how to make them appear in dispensatories as well as cookery texts. An early medieval Latin name for an apothecary was confectionarius, it was in this sort of sugar work that the activities of the two trades overlapped and that the word "confectionery" originated. In 1847, the candy bar was invented by Joseph Fry, who discovered a way to mix melted cacao butter back into cocoa powder along with sugar by creating a paste that could press into a mold.
Confections are defined by the presence of sweeteners. These are sugars, but it is possible to buy sugar-free candies, such as sugar-free peppermints; the most common sweetener for home cooking is table sugar, chemically a disaccharide containing both glucose and fructose. Hydrolysis of sucrose gives a mixture called invert sugar, sweeter and is a common commercial ingredient. Confections commercial ones, are sweetened by a variety of syrups obtained by hydrolysis of starch; these sweeteners include all types of corn syrup. Bakers' confectionery includes sweet baked goods those that are served for the dessert course. Bakers' confections are sweet foods that are baked. Major categories include cakes, sweet pastries, doughnuts and cookies. In the Middle East and Asia, flour-based confections predominate. Cakes have a somewhat bread-like texture, many earlier cakes, such as the centuries-old stollen, or the older king cake, were rich yeast breads; the variety of styles and presentations extends from simple to elaborate.
Major categories include butter cakes and foam cakes. Confusingly, some desserts that have the word cake in their names, such as cheesecake, are not technically cakes, while others, such as Boston cream pie are cakes despite seeming to be named something else. Pastry is a large and diverse category of baked goods, united by the flour-based doughs used as the base for the product; these doughs are not always sweet, the sweetness may come from the sugar, chocolate, cream, or other fillings that are added to the finished confection. Pastries can be elaborately decorated. Doughnuts may be baked. Scones and related sweet quick breads, such as bannock, are similar to baking powder biscuits and, in sweeter, less traditional interpretations, can seem like a cupcake. Cookies are small, sweet baked treats, they originated as small cakes, some traditional cookies have a soft, cake-like texture. Others are hard. Sugar confections include sweet, sugar-based foods, which are eaten as snack food; this includes sugar candies, candied fruits and nuts, chewing gum, sometimes ice cream.
In some cases, chocolate confections are treated as a separate category, as are sugar-free versions of sugar confections. Different
Peruvian cuisine reflects local practices and ingredients—including influences from the indigenous population including the Inca, cuisines brought in with colonizers and immigrants from Europe and West Africa. Without the familiar ingredients from their home countries, immigrants modified their traditional cuisines by using ingredients available in Peru; the four traditional staples of Peruvian cuisine are corn and other tubers and legumes. Staples brought by the Spanish include rice and meats. Many traditional foods—such as quinoa, chili peppers, several roots and tubers have increased in popularity in recent decades, reflecting a revival of interest in native Peruvian foods and culinary techniques. Chef Gaston Acurio has become well known for raising awareness of local ingredients; the US food critic Eric Asimov has described it as one of the world's most important cuisines and as an exemplar of fusion cuisine, due to its long multicultural history. Peru is considered an important center for the genetic diversity of the world's crops: Potatoes, many varieties of potato are native to the Andes mountains.
Over 99% of all cultivated potatoes worldwide are descendants of a single subspecies, namely Solanum tuberosum. This subspecies has developed into thousands of varieties that vary by size, shape and other sensory characteristics. Quinoa, three varieties Kaniwa Tarwi, a legume native to the Andes, similar to the Lupin bean Lima bean Maca Oca, a potato-like tuber Mashua, a potato-like tuber Ulluco, a potato-like tuber Caigua, a vegetable with a cucumber like taste Capsicum baccatum chile peppers, including Ají Amarillo and Ají Limón Capsicum pubescens, Rocoto chile Capsicum chinense, Ají Panca and Ají Mochero/Limo Fruits—Peru has about 20 native fruits that are used in cooking or eaten freshThe sweet potato is native to America and was domesticated there at least 5,000 years ago; the much lower molecular diversity found in Ecuador. Only two varieties of sweet potato are available for sale in the markets, but there are more varieties around the country. One tastes sweet; the other has purple skin, is white and brown inside, is only moderately sweet.
Another variety, characterized by small tubers and dark skin, is available. Potatoes are available in a big variety. Peru has around more than 5000 varieties of the biggest on the world; the two most common potatoes are a more expensive yellow flesh type. The only commercially available native fruits native to the Andes region in general are lucuma, camu camu, prickly pear, cape gooseberry, pacay, dragon fruit, papaya, mammee apple, banana passionfruit, granadilla, moriche palm fruit, tamarillo. Yacon, although an underground tuber, is used as a fruit. None of the other native fruits are commercially available. From Peru, the Spanish brought back to Europe several foods that would become staples for many peoples around the world. Potatoes: Potatoes were introduced to Europe from Latin America, they were considered livestock feed in Europe until French chemist Antoine-Augustin Parmentier began serving dishes made from the tubers at his lavish banquets. His guests were convinced that potatoes were fit for human consumption.
The varieties used in Europe and most of the world, derive from a subspecies indigenous to Peruvian andes, namely Solanum tuberosum. Beans: Several varieties of the common bean are native to Latin America including the lima bean; the varieties of chili peppers, potatoes and maize that the Spanish brought back to Europe, were native to Peru: Peppers: Chili peppers are native to America. The varieties most used around the world, derive from Mexico and Central America. Sweet Peppers are native to Central America. Peruvian Ají peppers are unknown outside of the Andean region of South America. Maize: Maize, is native to Mesoamerica and Peru, The varieties used in Europe and most of the world are from Central America; the corn grown in Peru is so sweet and unique in the world cause the characteristics it has and has large grains and is not popular outside of Latin America. Tomatoes: The tomato is native to Peru; this is evidenced by the great number of varieties available in that region. In contrast, Mesoamerica only has two varieties that are available commercially, namely the common Globe and Plum Tomato.
Many foods from Spain are now considered Peruvian staples, including wheat, oats, lentils, broad beans, cabbage, cauliflower, onions, carrots, lettuce, wine, olives, pork, numerous spices, quince, oranges, apricots, plums, melons, pomegranates, white sugar, walnuts, hen eggs, cow's milk, etc. Many food plants popular in Europe, were imported to Peru. During the colonial period, continuing up until the time of the Second World War, Peruvian cuisine focused on Spanish models and ignored anything that could be regarded as native or Indian. Traditional food plants, which the indigenous people continued to eat, were regarded as "peasant food" to be avoided; these colo
Cooking bananas are banana cultivars in the genus Musa whose fruits are used in cooking. They may be eaten ripe or unripe and are starchy. Many cooking bananas are referred to as plantains or green bananas, although not all of them are true plantains. Bananas are treated as a starchy fruit with a neutral flavour and soft texture when cooked. Bananas fruit all year round. Cooking bananas are a major food staple in West and Central Africa, the Caribbean islands, Central America, northern, coastal parts of South America. Members of the genus Musa are indigenous to the tropical regions of Southeast Asia and Oceania, including the Malay Archipelago and Northern Australia. Africa is considered a second centre of diversity for Musa cultivars: West Africa for some plantains and the central highlands for East African Highland bananas, most of which are cooked, although some are used to make beer; the term "plantain" is loosely applied to any banana cultivar, cooked before it is eaten. However, there is no botanical distinction between plantains.
Cooking is a matter of custom, rather than necessity, for many bananas. In fact, ripe plantains can be eaten raw. In some countries, where only a few cultivars of banana are consumed, there may be a clear distinction between plantains and bananas. In other countries, where many cultivars are consumed, there is no distinction in the common names used. In botanical usage, the term "plantain" is used only for true plantains, while other starchy cultivars used for cooking are called "cooking bananas". All modern true plantains have three sets of chromosomes. Many are hybrids derived from the cross of Musa acuminata and Musa balbisiana; the accepted scientific name for all such crosses is Musa × paradisiaca. Using Simmonds and Shepherds' 1955 genome-based nomenclature system, cultivars which are cooked belong to the AAB Group, although some belong to the AAA Group, others belong to the ABB Group. Fe'i bananas from the Pacific Islands are eaten roasted or boiled, thus informally referred to as "mountain plantains."
However, they do not belong to either of the two species that all modern banana cultivars are descended from. Plantains contain more starch and less sugar than dessert bananas, therefore they are cooked or otherwise processed before being eaten, they are always fried when eaten green. At this stage, the pulp is hard and the peel so stiff that it has to be cut with a knife to be removed. Mature, yellow plantains can be peeled like typical dessert bananas, they can be eaten raw, but are not as flavourful as dessert bananas, so are cooked. When mature, yellow plantains are fried, they tend to caramelize, they can be boiled, microwaved or grilled over charcoal, either peeled or unpeeled. Plantains are a staple food in the tropical regions of the world, ranking as the tenth most important staple food in the world; as a staple, plantains are treated in much the same way as potatoes and with a similar neutral flavour and texture when the unripe fruit is cooked by steaming, boiling or frying. Since they fruit all year round, plantains are a reliable all-season staple food in developing countries with inadequate food storage and transportation technologies.
In Africa and bananas provide more than 25 percent of the carbohydrate requirements for over 70 million people. Musa spp. Do not stand high winds well, however, so plantain plantations are liable to destruction by hurricanes. An average plantain is a good source of potassium and dietary fiber; the sap from the fruit peel, as well as the entire plant, can stain clothing and hands, can be difficult to remove. Linnaeus classified bananas into two species based only on their uses as food: Musa paradisiaca for plantains and Musa sapientum for dessert bananas. Both are now known to be hybrids between the species Musa Musa balbisiana; the earlier published name, Musa × paradisiaca, is now used as the scientific name for all such hybrids. Most modern plantains are sterile triploids belonging to the AAB Group, sometimes known as the "Plantain group". Other economically important cooking banana groups include the East African Highland bananas of the AAA Group and the Pacific plantains of the AAB Group. In countries in Central America and the Caribbean, the plantain is either fried, boiled or made into plantain soup.
In Ghana, West Africa, boiled plantain is eaten with kontomire stew, cabbage stew or fante-fante stew. The boiled plantain can be mixed with groundnut paste, pepper and palm oil to make eto, eaten with avocado. Ripe plantains can be fried and eaten with black eyed beans cooked in palm oil – a popular breakfast dish. Kelewele, a Ghanaian snack, is spiced ripe plantain deep fried in vegetable oil. In Nigeria, plantain is eaten fried or roasted. In Guatemala, ripe plantains are eaten boiled, fried, or in a special combination where they are boiled and stuffed with sweetened black beans. Afterwards, they are deep fried in corn oil; the dish is call
Alicante, or Alacant, both the Spanish and Valencian being official names, is a city and port in Spain on the Costa Blanca, the capital of the province of Alicante and of the comarca of Alacantí, in the south of the Valencian Community. It is a historic Mediterranean port; the population of the city of Alicante proper was 330,525, estimated as of 2016, ranking as the second-largest Valencian city. Including nearby municipalities, the Alicante conurbation had 452,462 residents; the population of the metropolitan area was 757,085 as of 2014 estimates, ranking as the eighth-largest metropolitan area of Spain. The name of the city echoes the Arabic name Laqant or Al-Laqant, which in turn reflects the Latin Lucentum; the area around Alicante has been inhabited for over 7000 years. The first tribes of hunter-gatherers moved down from Central Europe between 5000 and 3000 BC; some of the earliest settlements were made on the slopes of Mount Benacantil. By 1000 BC Greek and Phoenician traders had begun to visit the eastern coast of Spain, establishing small trading ports and introducing the native Iberian tribes to the alphabet and the pottery wheel.
The Carthaginian general Hamilcar Barca established the fortified settlement of Akra Leuka, in the mid-230s BC, presumed to have been on the site of modern Alicante. Although the Carthaginians conquered much of the land around Alicante, the Romans would rule Hispania Tarraconensis for over 700 years. By the 5th century AD, Rome was in decline and the Roman predecessor town of Alicante, known as Lucentum, was more or less under the control of the Visigothic warlord Theudimer and thereafter under Visigothic rule from 400 to 700 A. D; the Goths did not put up much resistance to the Arab conquest of Medina Laqant in the beginning of the 8th century. The Moors ruled eastern Spain until the 13th century Reconquista. Alicante was taken in 1247 by the Castilian king Alfonso X, but it passed soon and definitively to the Kingdom of Valencia in 1296 with King James II of Aragon, it gained the status of Royal Village with representation in the medieval Valencian Parliament. After several decades of being the battlefield where the Kingdom of Castile and the Crown of Aragon clashed, Alicante became a major Mediterranean trading station exporting rice, olive oil and wool.
But between 1609 and 1614 King Felipe III expelled thousands of Moriscos who had remained in Valencia after the Reconquista, due to their cooperation with Barbary pirates who continually attacked coastal cities and caused much harm to trade. This act cost the region dearly. Things got worse in the early 18th century; the end of the 19th century witnessed a sharp recovery of the local economy with increasing international trade and the growth of the city harbour leading to increased exports of several products. During the early 20th century, Alicante was a minor capital that enjoyed the benefit of Spain's neutrality during World War I, that provided new opportunities for local industry and agriculture; the Rif War in the 1920s saw numerous alicantinos drafted to fight in the long and bloody campaigns in the former Spanish protectorate against the Rif rebels. The political unrest of the late 1920s led to the victory of Republican candidates in local council elections throughout the country, the abdication of King Alfonso XIII.
The proclamation of the Second Spanish Republic was much celebrated in the city on 14 April 1931. The Spanish Civil War broke out on 17 July 1936. Alicante was the last city loyal to the Republican government to be occupied by General Franco's troops on 1 April 1939, its harbour saw the last Republican government officials fleeing the country. Vicious air bombings were targeted on Alicante during the three years of civil conflict, most notably the bombing by the Italian Aviazione Legionaria of the Mercado de Abastos on 25 May 1938 in which more than 300 civilians perished; the late 1950s and early 1960s saw the onset of a lasting transformation of the city by the tourist industry. Large buildings and complexes rose in nearby Albufereta and Playa de San Juan, with the benign climate being the biggest draw to attract prospective buyers and tourists who kept the hotels reasonably busy. New construction benefited the whole economy, as the development of the tourism sector spawned new businesses such as restaurants and other tourist-oriented enterprises.
The old airfield at Rabassa was closed and air traffic moved to the new El Altet Airport, which made a more convenient and modern facility for charter flights bringing tourists from northern European countries. When Franco died in 1975, his successor Juan Carlos I played his part as the living symbol of the transition of Spain to a democratic constitutional monarchy; the governments of regional communities were given constitutional status as nationalities, their governments were given more autonomy, including that of the Valencian region, the Generalitat Valenciana. The Port of Alicante has been reinventing itself since the industrial decline the city suffered in the 1980s. In recent years
A macaroon is a small biscuit/cookie made from ground almonds, and/or other nuts or potato, with sugar and sometimes flavorings, food coloring, glace cherries, and/or a chocolate coating. Some recipes call for sweetened condensed milk. Macaroons are baked on edible rice paper placed on a baking tray; the name of the cake comes from the Italian maccarone or maccherone meaning "paste", referring to the original almond paste ingredient. Culinary historians write that macaroons can be traced to an Italian monastery of the 8th or 9th century; the monks came to France in 1533, joined by the pastry chefs of Catherine de Medici, wife of King Henri II. Two Benedictine nuns, Sister Marguerite and Sister Marie-Elisabeth, came to Nancy seeking asylum during the French Revolution; the two women paid for their housing by baking and selling macaroon cookies, thus became known as the "Macaroon Sisters". Italian Jews adopted the cookie because it has no flour or leavening and can be eaten during the eight-day observation of Passover.
It became popular as a year-round sweet. Recipes for macaroons appear in recipe books at least as early as 1725, use egg whites and almond paste. Mrs Beeton's Book of Household Management includes a typical traditional recipe. Over time, coconut was added to the ground almonds and, in certain recipes, replaced them. Potato starch is sometimes included in the recipe, to give the macaroons more body. Macaroons in the Dominican Republic are dark. Grated coconut is mixed with cinnamon; the coconut macaroon is known as the "Congolais", or "le rocher à la noix de coco". Thoothukudi and Mangalore have their own varieties of macaroon made with cashews and egg whites, adapted from those introduced in colonial times. A macaroon chocolate bar is made by Wilton Candy in Co. Kildare, Ireland; the description on the packaging is "macaroon pieces in Irish milk chocolate." It was first made in 1937. Cleeve's Irish Confectionery make a macaroon chocolate bar - ingredients include cocoa butter, milk powder and desiccated coconut.
Ricciarelli are a soft almond variety originating from Siena. Amaretti di Saronno are a crunchy variety from Saronno. Both are served on special occasions such as Christmas. Philippine coconut macaroons are uniquely cake-like in texture, they are crunchy on the outside and soft and chewy on the inside. They are baked into colorful tiny cupcake wrappers and topped with a raisin, they are popular during special occasions. In Puerto Rico, coconut macaroons are called besitos de coco. A few variations of besitos de coco can be found on the island, the most popular ones including lemon zest and vanilla as additional ingredients. Macaroon chocolate bars are popular in Scotland. Buchanan's toasted coconut, they are a long-established family business based in Greenock. The carajito is a macaroon variant made with hazelnuts and honey from the town of Salas, Asturias in northern Spain. A larger size version is known as sultana or suspiros del moro. Acıbadem kurabiyesi is a traditional Turkish variety made of almonds and egg whites.
The traditional recipes include a small amount of bitter almonds. Because bitter almonds are not available, almond extract is used as a substitute; these cookies are part of the stock-in trade of every bakery in Turkey, as they are made at home. In Britain the traditional almond macaroon includes almond essence to strengthen the flavour, is topped with an almond flake. Coconut macaroons are popular. In Scotland, the Scottish macaroon has a dense, sugary centre and is covered in chocolate and roasted coconut. Traditionally they were made with cold leftovers of sugar loaf; when the macaroon bar became commercial the recipe no longer used mashed potato because of shelf life limitations. The modern macaroon is made from a combination of sugar, glucose and egg white; these ingredients make a fondant centre. This recipe was discovered by accident in 1931, when confectioner John Justice Lees was said to have botched the formula for making a chocolate fondant bar and threw coconut over it in disgust, producing the first macaroon bar.
Coconut macaroon is the best known variety in America. Commercially made coconut macaroons are dense and sweet, dipped in chocolate. Homemade macaroons and varieties produced by smaller bakeries are light and fluffy. Macaroons made with coconuts are piped out with a star shaped tip, whereas macaroons made with nuts are more shaped individually due to the stiffness of the dough; because of their lack of wheat and leavening ingredients, macaroons are consumed during Passover in many Jewish homes. Almond biscuit - similar to macaroons Cocadas - confectionery similar to small coconut macaroons Besitos de Coco Recipe
Anise called aniseed, is a flowering plant in the family Apiaceae native to the eastern Mediterranean region and Southwest Asia. Its flavor has similarities with some other spices, such as star anise and liquorice, it is cultivated and used to flavor food and alcoholic drinks around the Mediterranean. It served as a carminative in herbal medicine; the name "anise" is derived via Old French from the Latin word, anisum, or Greek, referring to dill. Anise is an herbaceous annual plant growing to 3 ft or more tall; the leaves at the base of the plant are simple, 3⁄8–2 in long and shallowly lobed, while leaves higher on the stems are feathery pinnate, divided into numerous small leaflets. The flowers are white 1⁄8 inch in diameter, produced in dense umbels; the fruit is an oblong dry schizocarp, 1⁄8–1⁄4 in long called "aniseed". Anise is a food plant for the larvae of some Lepidoptera species, including the lime-speck pug and wormwood pug. Anise was first cultivated in Egypt and the Middle East, was brought to Europe for its medicinal value.
Anise plants grow best in light, well-drained soil. The seeds should be planted as soon; because the plants have a taproot, they do not transplant well after being established, so they should either be started in their final location or be transplanted while the seedlings are still small. Western cuisines have long used anise to flavor dishes and candies; the word is used for both the species of its licorice-like flavor. The most powerful flavor component of the essential oil of anise, anethole, is found in both anise and an unrelated spice indigenous to northern China called star anise used in South Asian, Southeast Asian, East Asian dishes. Star anise is less expensive to produce, has displaced P. anisum in Western markets. While produced in larger quantities, by 1999 world production of the essential oil of anise was only 8 tons, compared to 400 tons of star anise; as with all spices, the composition of anise varies with origin and cultivation method. These are typical values for the main constituents.
Moisture: 9–13% Protein: 18% Fatty oil: 8–23% Essential oil: 2–7% Starch: 5% N-free extract: 22–28% Crude fibre: 12–25%In particular, the anise seeds products should contain more than 0.2 milliliter volatile oil per 100 grams of spice. Anise essential oil can be obtained from the fruits by either steam distillation or extraction using supercritical carbon dioxide; the yield of essential oil is influenced by the growing conditions and extraction process, with supercritical extraction being more efficient. Regardless of the method of isolation the main component of the oil is anethole, with minor components including 4-anisaldehyde and pseudoisoeugenyl-2-methylbutyrates, amongst others. Anise is sweet and aromatic, distinguished by its characteristic flavour; the seeds, whole or ground, are used for preparation of teas and tisanes, as well as in a wide variety of regional and ethnic confectioneries, including black jelly beans, British aniseed balls and "troach" drops, Australian humbugs, New Zealand aniseed wheels, Italian pizzelle, German Pfeffernüsse and Springerle, Austrian Anisbögen, Dutch muisjes, New Mexican bizcochitos, Peruvian picarones.
It is a key ingredient in Mexican atole de anís and champurrado, similar to hot chocolate, it is taken as a digestive after meals in Pakistan and India. The Ancient Romans served spiced cakes with aniseed called mustaceoe at the end of feasts as a digestive; this tradition of serving cake at the end of festivities is the basis for the tradition of serving cake at weddings. Anise is used to flavor Greek ouzo. Outside the Mediterranean region, it is found in Mexican Xtabentún; these liquors are clear, but on addition of water become cloudy, a phenomenon known as the ouzo effect. Anise is used together with other herbs and spices in some root beers, such as Virgil's in the United States; the main use of anise in traditional European herbal medicine was for its carminative effect, as noted by John Gerard in his Great Herball, an early encyclopedia of herbal medicine: The seed wasteth and consumeth winde, is good against belchings and upbraidings of the stomacke, alaieth gripings of the belly, provoketh urine maketh abundance of milke, stirreth up bodily lust: it staieth the laske, the white flux in women.
In Turkish folk medicine, its seeds have been used as appetizer and diuretic drug. Anise has been thought a treatment for menstrual cramps and colic. In the 1860s, American Civil War nurse Maureen Hellstrom used anise seeds as an early form of antiseptic; this method was found to have caused high levels of toxicity in the blood and was discontinued shortly thereafter. According to Pliny the Elder, anise was used as a cure for sleeplessness, chewed with alexanders and a little honey in the morning to freshen the breath, when mixed with wine, as a remedy for asp bites. In 19th-century medicine, anise was prepared as aqua anisi in doses of an ounce or more and as spiritus anisi in doses of 5–20 minims. Builders of steam locomotives in Britain incorporated capsules of aniseed oil into white metal plain bearings, so