Nicholas Hawksmoor was an English architect. He was a figure of the English Baroque style of architecture in the late-seventeenth and early-eighteenth centuries. Part of his work has been attributed to him only relatively recently. Hawksmoor was born in Nottinghamshire in 1661, into a farming family, almost certainly in East Drayton or Ragnall. On his death he was to property at nearby Ragnall, Dunham. It is not known where he received his schooling, but it was probably in more than basic literacy, haukesmore came to London, became clerk to Sr. Christopher Wren & thence became an Architect. Wren, hearing of his skill and genius for architecture. A surviving early sketch-book contains sketches and notes, some dated 1680 and 1683, of buildings in Nottingham, Warwick, Bristol and Northampton. These somewhat amateur drawings, now in the Royal Institute of British Architects Drawings Collection and his first official post was as Deputy Surveyor to Wren at Winchester Palace from 1683 until February 1685.
Hawksmoors signature appears on a contract for Winchester Palace in November 1684. Wren was paying him 2 shillings a day in 1685 as assistant in his office in Whitehall, from about 1684 to about 1700, Hawksmoor worked with Christopher Wren on projects including Chelsea Hospital, St. Pauls Cathedral, Hampton Court Palace and Greenwich Hospital. Thanks to Wrens influence as Surveyor-General, Hawksmoor was named Clerk of the Works at Kensington Palace, in 1718, when Wren was superseded by the new, amateur Surveyor, William Benson, Hawksmoor was deprived of his double post to provide places for Bensons brother. Poor Hawksmoor, wrote Vanbrugh in 1721, what a Barbarous Age have his fine, ingenious Parts fallen into. What woud Monsr, Colbert in France have given for such a man, only in 1726 after William Bensons successor Hewett died, was Hawksmoor restored to the secretaryship, though not the clerkship which was given to Filtcroft. In 1696, Hawksmoor was appointed surveyor to the Commissioners of Sewers for Westminster, in July 1721, John Vanbrugh made Hawksmoor his deputy as Comptroller of the Works.
By 1700 Hawksmoor had emerged as a major architectural personality, and his baroque, but somewhat classical and gothic architectural form was derived from his exploration of Antiquity, the Renaissance, the English Middle Ages and contemporary Italian baroque. Unlike many of his contemporaries, Hawksmoor never travelled to Italy on a Grand Tour. Instead he studied engravings especially monuments of ancient Rome and reconstructions of the Temple of Solomon, in 1702, Hawksmoor designed the baroque country house of Easton Neston in Northamptonshire for Sir William Fermor
The Doric order was one of the three orders of ancient Greek and Roman architecture, the other two canonical orders were the Ionic and the Corinthian. The Doric is most easily recognised by the simple circular capitals at the top of columns and it was the earliest and in its essence the simplest of the orders, though still with complex details in the entablature above. The Greek Doric column was fluted or smooth-surfaced, and had no base, the capital was a simple circular form, with some mouldings, under a square cushion that is very wide in early versions, but more restrained. In stone they are purely ornamental, the relatively uncommon Roman and Renaissance Doric retained these, and often introduced thin layers of moulding or further ornament, as well as often using plain columns. The Doric order was used in Greek Revival architecture from the 18th century onwards, often earlier Greek versions were used, with wider columns. Since at least Vitruvius it has been customary for writers to associate the Doric with masculine virtues and it is normally the cheapest of the orders to use.
In their original Greek version, Doric columns stood directly on the pavement of a temple without a base. The Parthenon has the Doric design columns and it was most popular in the Archaic Period in mainland Greece, and found in Magna Graecia, as in the three temples at Paestum. These are in the Archaic Doric, where the capitals spread wide from the column compared to Classical forms, pronounced features of both Greek and Roman versions of the Doric order are the alternating triglyphs and metopes. The triglyphs are decoratively grooved with two vertical grooves and represent the original wooden end-beams, which rest on the plain architrave that occupies the half of the entablature. Under each triglyph are peglike stagons or guttae that appear as if they were hammered in from below to stabilize the post-and-beam construction and they served to organize rainwater runoff from above. The spaces between the triglyphs are the metopes and they may be left plain, or they may be carved in low relief.
The spacing of the triglyphs caused problems which some time to resolve. The architecture followed rules of harmony, since the original design probably came from wooden temples and the triglyphs were real heads of wooden beams, every column had to bear a beam which lay across the centre of the column. Triglyphs were arranged regularly, the last triglyph was centred upon the last column and this was regarded as the ideal solution which had to be reached. Changing to stone instead of wooden beams required full support of the architrave load at the last column. At the first temples the final triglyph was moved, still terminating the sequence, even worse, the last triglyph was not centered with the corresponding column. That “archaic” manner was not regarded as a harmonious design, the resulting problem is called the doric corner conflict
Christ Church, Spitalfields
Christ Church Spitalfields, is an Anglican church built between 1714 and 1729 to a design by Nicholas Hawksmoor. The purpose of the Commission was to acquire sites and build fifty new churches to serve Londons new settlements and this parish was carved out of the huge medieval Stepney parish for an area dominated by Huguenots as a show of Anglican authority. The Commissioners for the new churches included Christopher Wren, Thomas Archer, only twelve of the planned fifty churches were built, of which six were designed by Hawksmoor. It has a richly decorated ceiling and is lit by a clerestory. The aisles are roofed with elliptical barrel-vaults carried on a raised Composite order, the east window is a double window, one inside, one outside, the effect now obscured by the Victorian stained glass window between the two. In 1836, Wallen Son and Beatson, local Architects and Surveyors, the organ in the church was inaugurated in 1735, the work of Richard Bridge, a most celebrated builder of the time.
With over two thousand pipes it was, when built, the largest organ in England, a record it held for over a hundred years. In the nineteenth century work was done at times and further changes were made in the 1920s, remarkably. The organ became derelict and was not been heard in public from about 1960 onwards, the magnificent organ case, largely of walnut, and the completeness of the Georgian survivals make this a historic instrument of national importance. The involvement of local expert Michael Gillingham was very responsible for the decision to have it restored to working condition. The organ parts were dismantled and removed for safe keeping and to them from damage during the restoration of the building. A scheme of restoration was prepared by organ builder William Drake. By 1960 Christ Church was nearly derelict and services were held in the Church Hall as the roof of Christ Church itself was declared unsafe. A rehabilitation centre for homeless men was housed in part of the crypt from the 1960s until 2000 when it relocated to purpose built accommodation above ground.
As part of the process, the burial vaults beneath the church had to be cleared. Of these, about 390 were identifiable from coffin name plates and physical anthropologists took this opportunity to study Victorian mortuary practices and anthropology, including health and causes of death of the local population. The project was written up as a landmark study. The portico at the west end was repaired and cleaned in 1986, the 202 ft tower and spire were consolidated and cleaned in 1997
Tuscany is a region in central Italy with an area of about 23,000 square kilometres and a population of about 3.8 million inhabitants. Tuscany is known for its landscapes, history, artistic legacy, Tuscany produces wines, including Chianti, Vino Nobile di Montepulciano, Morellino di Scansano and Brunello di Montalcino. Having a strong linguistic and cultural identity, it is considered a nation within a nation. Tuscany is traditionally a popular destination in Italy, and the main tourist destinations by number of tourist arrivals are Florence, Montecatini Terme, Castiglione della Pescaia and Grosseto. The village of Castiglione della Pescaia is the most visited destination in the region. Additionally, Lucca, the Chianti region and Val dOrcia are internationally renowned, Tuscany has over 120 protected nature reserves, making Tuscany and its capital Florence popular tourist destinations that attract millions of tourists every year. In 2012, the city of Florence was the worlds 89th most visited city, roughly triangular in shape, Tuscany borders the regions of Liguria to the northwest, Emilia-Romagna to the north and east, Umbria to the east and Lazio to the southeast.
The comune of Badia Tedalda, in the Tuscan Province of Arezzo, has an exclave named Ca Raffaello within Emilia-Romagna, Tuscany has a western coastline on the Tyrrhenian Sea, containing the Tuscan Archipelago, of which the largest island is Elba. Tuscany has an area of approximately 22,993 square kilometres and crossed by major mountain chains, and with few plains, the region has a relief that is dominated by hilly country used for agriculture. Hills make up nearly two-thirds of the total area, covering 15,292 square kilometres, and mountains. Plains occupy 8. 4% of the total area—1,930 square kilometres —mostly around the valley of the River Arno, many of Tuscanys largest cities lie on the banks of the Arno, including the capital Florence and Pisa. The pre-Etruscan history of the area in the late Bronze and Iron Ages parallels that of the early Greeks, following this, the Villanovan culture saw Tuscany, and the rest of Etruria, taken over by chiefdoms. City-states developed in the late Villanovan before Orientalization occurred and the Etruscan civilization rose, the Etruscans created the first major civilization in this region, large enough to establish a transport infrastructure, to implement agriculture and mining and to produce vibrant art.
The Etruscans lived in Etruria well into prehistory, throughout their existence, they lost territory to Magna Graecia and Celts. Despite being seen as distinct in its manners and customs by contemporary Greeks, the cultures of Greece, one reason for its eventual demise was this increasing absorption by surrounding cultures, including the adoption of the Etruscan upper class by the Romans. Soon after absorbing Etruria, Rome established the cities of Lucca, Pisa and Florence, endowed the area with new technologies and development, and ensured peace. These developments included extensions of existing roads, introduction of aqueducts and sewers, many of these structures have been destroyed by erosion due to weather. The Roman civilization in the West collapsed in the 5th century AD, in the years following 572, the Longobards arrived and designated Lucca the capital of their Duchy of Tuscia
Pietro da Cortona
Pietro da Cortona was an Italian Baroque painter and architect. Along with his contemporaries and rivals Gian Lorenzo Bernini and Francesco Borromini and he was an important designer of interior decorations. He was born Pietro Berrettini, but is known by the name of his native town of Cortona in Tuscany. He worked mainly in Rome and Florence, only a limited number of his architectural projects were built but nonetheless they are as distinctive and as inventive as those of his rivals. Berrettini was born into a family of artisans and masons, in Cortona and he trained in painting in Florence under Andrea Commodi, but soon he departed for Rome at around 1612/3, where he joined the studio of Baccio Ciarpi. In Rome, he had encouragement from many prominent patrons, according to Cortonas biographers his gifted copy of Raphaels Galatea fresco brought him to the attention of Marcello Sacchetti, papal treasurer during the Barberini papacy. Such contacts helped him gain a major commission in Rome. In 1633, Pope Urban VIII commissioned from Cortona a large painting for the main salon ceiling of the Barberini family palace.
It was completed six years later, following Cortonas influential visit to northern Italy where he would have seen at first hand perspectival works by Paolo Veronese, Cortonas huge Allegory of Divine Providence and Barberini Power marks a watershed in Baroque painting. The ornamented architectural framework essentially forms five compartments, the central and most significant part celebrates the glorification of the reign of Urban VIII in a light filled scene populated with allegorical figures and Barberini family emblems. The illusion of spatial extension through paint, the grandiose theme, the first two represented the ages of silver and gold. In 1641, he was recalled to paint the Bronze Age and he began work on the decoration of the grand-ducal reception rooms on the first floor of the Palazzo Pitti, now part of the Palatine Gallery. These highly ornate ceilings with frescoes and elaborate stucco work essentially celebrate the Medici lineage, Pietro left Florence in 1647, and his pupil and collaborator, Ciro Ferri, completed the cycle by the 1660s.
For a number of years, Cortona was involved for decades in the decoration of the frescoes in the Oratorian Chiesa Nuova in Rome. Other frescoes are in Palazzo Pamphilj in Piazza Navona, in 1660, he executed The Stoning of Saint Stephen for the church of San Ambrogio della Massima in Rome. The work currently hangs in the Hermitage, towards the end of his life he devoted much of his time to architecture, but he published a treatise on painting in 1652 under a pseudonym and in collaboration. He refused invitations to both France and Spain and he was elected as director of the Academy of St Luke the painters guild in Rome, in 1634. It was at the Academy in 1636 that Cortona and Andrea Sacchi were involved in controversies regarding the number of figures that were appropriate in a painted work
A portico is a porch leading to the entrance of a building, or extended as a colonnade, with a roof structure over a walkway, supported by columns or enclosed by walls. This idea was used in Ancient Greece and has influenced many cultures. Some noteworthy examples of porticos are the East Portico of the United States Capitol, the portico adorning the Pantheon in Rome, porticos are sometimes topped with pediments. Bologna, Italy, is famous for its porticos, in total, there are over 45 km of arcades, some 38 in the city center. The longest portico in the world, about 3.5 km, in Bologna, porticos stretch for 18 km. Palladio was a pioneer of using temple-fronts for secular buildings, in the UK, the temple-front applied to The Vyne, Hampshire was the first portico applied to an English country house. A pronaos is the area of the portico of a Greek or Roman temple. Roman temples commonly had an open pronaos, usually with only columns and no walls, the word pronaos is Greek for before a temple. In Latin, a pronaos is referred to as an anticum or prodomus, the different variants of porticos are named by the number of columns they have.
The style suffix comes from the Greek στῦλος, the tetrastyle has four columns, it was commonly employed by the Greeks and the Etruscans for small structures such as public buildings and amphiprostyles. Roman provincial capitals manifested tetrastyle construction, such as the Capitoline Temple in Volubilis, the North Portico of the White House is perhaps the most notable four-columned portico in the United States. Hexastyle buildings had six columns and were the standard façade in canonical Greek Doric architecture between the archaic period 600–550 BC up to the Age of Pericles 450–430 BC. With the colonization by the Greeks of Southern Italy, hexastyle was adopted by the Etruscans, Roman taste favoured narrow pseudoperipteral and amphiprostyle buildings with tall columns, raised on podiums for the added pomp and grandeur conferred by considerable height. The Maison Carrée at Nîmes, France, is the best-preserved Roman hexastyle temple surviving from antiquity, octastyle buildings had eight columns, they were considerably rarer than the hexastyle ones in the classical Greek architectural canon.
The best-known octastyle buildings surviving from antiquity are the Parthenon in Athens, built during the Age of Pericles, and the Pantheon in Rome. The destroyed Temple of Divus Augustus in Rome, the centre of the Augustan cult, is shown on Roman coins of the 2nd century AD as having built in octastyle. The decastyle has ten columns, as in the temple of Apollo Didymaeus at Miletus, the temple of Venus and Rome, built by Hadrian in Rome about 130 A. D. was decastyle, the only known example in Roman architecture. Classical architecture List of classical architecture terms Hypostyle Loggia Stoa Greek architecture, Encyclopædia Britannica,1968 Stierlin, From Mycenae to the Parthenon, TASCHEN,2004, Editor-in-chief Angelika Taschen, Cologne, ISBN 3-8228-1225-0 Stierlin, Henri
The Neue Wache is a building in Berlin, the capital of Germany. It serves as the Central Memorial of the Federal Republic of Germany for the Victims of War and it is located on the north side of the Unter den Linden boulevard in the central Mitte district. Dating from 1816, the Neue Wache was designed by the architect Karl Friedrich Schinkel and is an example of German Greek Revival architecture. Originally built as a guardhouse for the troops of the prince of Prussia. King Frederick William III of Prussia ordered the construction of the Neue Wache as a guardhouse for the Königliches Palais, his palace across the road and he commissioned Schinkel, the leading exponent of Neoclassical architecture, to design the building, this was Schinkels first major commission in Berlin. The Neue Wache was inaugurated on 18 September 1818 by the Prussian 1st Guards Grenadiers on occasion of the visit of Tsar Alexander I of Russia. The statuary in the tympanum is intended as a memorial to Prussias role in the Napoleonic Wars and it shows Nike, the goddess of victory, deciding a battle.
The triglyphs and guttae of the Doric order are omitted, the building served as a royal guard house until the end of World War I and the fall of the monarchy in the German Revolution of 1918–19. In 1931 the architect Heinrich Tessenow was commissioned by the Free State of Prussia to redesign the building as a memorial to commemorate those who died in the Great War. Tessenow converted the interior into a memorial hall centered around a granite block with an oak wreath designed by the sculptor Ludwig Gies. The Neue Wache was known as the Memorial of the Prussian State Government, after the Nazi Machtergreifung the building played a vital role as the site of the annual Heldengedenktag celebrations held by the Nazi Party and the Wehrmacht armed forces. The Neue Wache was heavily damaged by bombing and artillery during the Battle of Berlin in last months of World War II. After the war, the Mitte district was located within the Soviet sector of Allied-occupied Berlin, from 1957 the Communist authorities had the Neue Wache rebuilt and reopened in 1960 as a Memorial to the Victims of Fascism and Militarism.
In 1969, the 20th anniversary of the GDR, a prism structure with an eternal flame was placed in the centre of the hall. The remains of an Unknown Soldier and of a nameless Nazi concentration camp victim were enshrined in the building, two soldiers of the Friedrich Engels Guard Regiment served as permanent honor guards, a Guard Mounting ceremony was held every Wednesday and Saturday, becoming a major tourist attraction. After German reunification, the Neue Wache was again rededicated in 1993, as the Central Memorial of the Federal Republic of Germany for the Victims of War and Dictatorship. At the personal suggestion of Chancellor Helmut Kohl, the GDR memorial piece was removed and replaced by a version of Käthe Kollwitzs sculpture Mother with her Dead Son. The pietà-style sculpture is placed under the oculus, and so is exposed to the rain and cold of the Berlin climate
Santa Maria della Pace
Santa Maria della Pace is a church in Rome, central Italy, not far from Piazza Navona. The building lies in rione Ponte, the current building was built on the foundations of the pre-existing church of SantAndrea de Aquarizariis in 1482, commissioned by Pope Sixtus IV. The church was rededicated to the Virgin Mary to remember a miraculous bleeding of a Madonna image there in 1480, the author of the original design is not known, though Baccio Pontelli has been proposed. The church presses forward almost to fill its tiny piazza, several houses had to be demolished by Pietro da Cortona to create even this miniature trapezoidal space. The monumental effect of the plasticity of forms, spatial layering, the inscription around the porch architrave is taken from Psalm 72, SUSCIPIANT MONTES PACEM POPULO ET COLLES IUSTITIAM. This reference to the mountains of the coat of arms of the Chigi family, oak leaf motifs, another Chigi family emblem, can be found on the facade. On the upper facade, Cortona had the curved travertine panels cut to make grained matching patterns, through the tall central window, the circular window of the Quattrocento church facade is visible.
The Church of Santa Maria della Pace was designated as a titulus for a Cardinal-Priest on 13 April 1587 by Pope Sixtus V. The holders of the title were, The interior, which can be reached from the original door, has a short nave with cruciform vaulting. Cortona articulated the interior of the dome with octagonal coffering and a series of radiating from the lantern. This is an example of combining these two forms of dome decoration and was employed by Gianlorenzo Bernini in his churches at Ariccia. Carlo Maderno designed the altar to enframe the venerable icon of the Madonna. Raphael began to fresco the Four Sibyls receiving angelic instruction above the arch of the Chigi Chapel, commissioned by Agostino Chigi, the Deposition over the altar is by Cosimo Fancelli. The first chapel on the left has noteworthy Renaissance frescoes by Baldassarre Peruzzi, the second chapel has marble taken from the ruins of the Temple of Jupiter Capitolinus. The tribune has paintings by Carlo Maratta, Orazio Gentileschi, Francesco Albani, a main feature of the church and monastery complex is the Bramante cloister.
Built in 1500-1504 for Cardinal Oliviero Carafa, it was the first work of Donato Bramante in the city, mariano Armellini, Le chiese di Roma dalle loro origini sino al secolo XIX, pp. 433-434. Nunzia Di Girolamo, Santa Maria della Pace, saggio monografico, Pietro da Cortona urbanistic plan of Santa Maria della Pace Roman Catholic Marian churches
The Ionic order forms one of the three classical orders of classical architecture, the other two canonic orders being the Doric and the Corinthian. There are two orders, the Tuscan, and the rich variant of Corinthian called the composite order. The Ionic columns are the thinnest and smallest columns out of the three canonic orders, the Ionic capital is characterized by the use of volutes. The Ionic columns normally stand on a base which separates the shaft of the column from the stylobate or platform, since Vitruvius a female character has been ascribed to the Ionic, in contrast to the masculine Doric. The major features of the Ionic order are the volutes of its capital, the only tools required to design these features were a straight-edge, a right angle, string and a compass. Originally the volutes lay in a plane, it was seen that they could be angled out on the corners. Ionic columns are most often fluted, after a little early experimentation, the number of hollow flutes in the shaft settled at 24.
This standardization kept the fluting in a proportion to the diameter of the column at any scale. Roman fluting leaves a little of the surface between each hollow, Greek fluting runs out to a knife edge that was easily scarred. In some instances, the fluting has been omitted, mohr included 8 unfluted Ionic frontal columns on his 1928 design for the railroads St. Louis suburban stop Delmar Station. Pictorial often narrative bas-relief frieze carving provides a feature of the Ionic order. Roman and Renaissance practice condensed the height of the entablature by reducing the proportions of the architrave, the Ionic order originated in the mid-6th century BC in Ionia, the southwestern coastland and islands of Asia Minor settled by Ionian Greeks, where an Ionian dialect was spoken. The Ionic order column was being practiced in mainland Greece in the 5th century BC and it was most popular in the Archaic Period in Ionia. The first of the great Ionic temples was the Temple of Hera on Samos and it stood for only a decade before it was leveled by an earthquake.
A longer-lasting 6th century Ionic temple was the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus, the Parthenon, although it conforms mainly to the Doric order, has some Ionic elements. A more purely Ionic mode to be seen on the Athenian Acropolis is exemplified in the Erechtheum, following the conquests of Alexander the Great in the east, a few examples of the Ionic order can be found as far as Pakistan with the Jandial temple near Taxila. Several examples of capitals displaying Ionic influences can seen as far away as Patna, especially with the Pataliputra capital. Renaissance architectural theorists took his hints, to interpret the Ionic order as matronly in comparison to the Doric order, the Ionic is a natural order for post-Renaissance libraries and courts of justice and civilized
Palladian architecture is a European style of architecture derived from and inspired by the designs of the Venetian architect Andrea Palladio. That which is recognised as Palladian architecture today is an evolution of Palladios original concepts, Palladios work was strongly based on the symmetry and values of the formal classical temple architecture of the Ancient Greeks and Romans. From the 17th century Palladios interpretation of classical architecture was adapted as the style known as Palladianism. It continued to develop until the end of the 18th century, Palladianism became popular briefly in Britain during the mid-17th century, but its flowering was cut short by the onset of the Civil War and the imposition of austerity which followed. In the early 18th century it returned to fashion, not only in England but also, the style continued to be popular in Europe throughout the 19th and early 20th centuries, where it was frequently employed in the design of public and municipal buildings.
However, as a style it has continued to be popular and to evolve, its pediments, symmetry. Buildings entirely designed by Palladio are all in Venice and the Veneto, with an especially rich grouping of palazzi in Vicenza and they include villas, and churches such as Redentore in Venice. Palladio always designed his villas with reference to their setting, if on a hill, such as Villa Capra, facades were frequently designed to be of equal value so that occupants could have fine views in all directions. Also, in cases, porticos were built on all sides so that occupants could fully appreciate the countryside while being protected from the sun. Palladio sometimes used a loggia as an alternative to the portico and this can most simply be described as a recessed portico, or an internal single storey room, with pierced walls that are open to the elements. Occasionally a loggia would be placed at floor level over the top of a loggia below. Loggias were sometimes given significance in a facade by being surmounted by a pediment, Villa Godi has as its focal point a loggia rather than a portico, plus loggias terminating each end of the main building.
Palladio would often model his villa elevations on Roman temple facades, the temple influence, often in a cruciform design, became a trademark of his work. Palladian villas are built with three floors, a rusticated basement or ground floor, containing the service and minor rooms. The proportions of each room within the villa were calculated on simple mathematical ratios like 3,4 and 4,5, earlier architects had used these formulas for balancing a single symmetrical facade, Palladios designs related to the whole, usually square, villa. Palladio deeply considered the purpose of his villas as both farmhouses and palatial weekend retreats for wealthy merchant owners. These symmetrical temple-like houses often have symmetrical, but low, wings sweeping away from them to accommodate horses, farm animals. The wings, sometimes detached and connected to the villa by colonnades, were designed not only to be functional but to complement, the Palladian, Serlian, or Venetian window features largely in Palladios work and is almost a trademark of his early career
Georgian architecture is the name given in most English-speaking countries to the set of architectural styles current between 1714 and 1830. It is eponymous for the first four British monarchs of the House of Hanover—George I, George II, George III, and George IV—who reigned in continuous succession from August 1714 to June 1830. The style of Georgian buildings is very variable, but marked by a taste for symmetry and proportion based on the architecture of Greece and Rome. Ornament is normally in the tradition, but typically rather restrained. In towns, which expanded greatly during the period, landowners turned into property developers, even the wealthy were persuaded to live in these in town, especially if provided with a square of garden in front of the house. There was an amount of building in the period, all over the English-speaking world. The period saw the growth of a distinct and trained architectural profession, before the mid-century the high-sounding title and this contrasted with earlier styles, which were primarily disseminated among craftsmen through the direct experience of the apprenticeship system.
Authors such as the prolific William Halfpenny published editions in America as well as Britain, mail-order kit homes were popular before World War II. The architect James Gibbs was a figure, his earlier buildings are Baroque, reflecting the time he spent in Rome in the early 18th century. Other prominent architects of the early Georgian period include James Paine, Robert Taylor, and John Wood, the styles that resulted fall within several categories. In the mainstream of Georgian style were both Palladian architecture—and its whimsical alternatives and Chinoiserie, which were the English-speaking worlds equivalent of European Rococo. John Nash was one of the most prolific architects of the late Georgian era known as The Regency style, greek Revival architecture was added to the repertory, beginning around 1750, but increasing in popularity after 1800. Leading exponents were William Wilkins and Robert Smirke, regularity of housefronts along a street was a desirable feature of Georgian town planning.
In Britain brick or stone are almost invariably used, brick is often disguised with stucco, in America and other colonies wood remained very common, as its availability and cost-ratio with the other materials was more favourable. Versions of revived Palladian architecture dominated English country house architecture, Houses were increasingly placed in grand landscaped settings, and large houses were generally made wide and relatively shallow, largely to look more impressive from a distance. The height was usually highest in the centre, and the Baroque emphasis on corner pavilions often found on the continent generally avoided, in grand houses, an entrance hall led to steps up to a piano nobile or mezzanine floor where the main reception rooms were. A single block was typical, with a perhaps a small court for carriages at the front marked off by railings and a gate, but rarely a stone gatehouse, or side wings around the court. Windows in all types of buildings were large and regularly placed on a grid, this was partly to minimize window tax and their height increasingly varied between the floors, and they increasingly began below waist-height in the main rooms, making a small balcony desirable
Vernacular architecture is an architectural style that is designed based on local needs, availability of construction materials and reflecting local traditions. At least originally, vernacular architecture did not use formally-schooled architects, since the late 19th century many professional architects have worked in versions of this style. It tends to evolve over time to reflect the environmental, technological and this article covers the term traditional architecture, which exists somewhere between the two extremes yet still is based upon authentic themes. The term vernacular is derived from the Latin vernaculus, meaning domestic, indigenous, from verna, the word probably derives from an older Etruscan word. In linguistics, vernacular refers to use particular to a time. In architecture, it refers to type of architecture which is indigenous to a specific time or place. It is most often applied to residential buildings, the terms vernacular, folk and popular architecture are sometimes used synonymously.
Traditional architecture is architecture is passed down from person to person, generation to generation, particularly orally, noble discourages use of the term primitive architecture as having a negative connotation. The term popular architecture is used more in eastern Europe and is synonymous with folk or vernacular architecture, ronald Brunskill has defined the ultimate in vernacular architecture as. The function of the building would be the dominant factor, aesthetic considerations, though present to some small degree, local materials would be used as a matter of course, other materials being chosen and imported quite exceptionally. The vernacular architecture is not to be confused with so-called traditional architecture, Traditional architecture includes buildings which bear elements of polite design and palaces, for example, which normally would not be included under the rubric of vernacular. The Encyclopedia of Vernacular Architecture of the World defines vernacular architecture as. comprising the dwellings, related to their environmental contexts and available resources they are customarily owner- or community-built, utilizing traditional technologies.
All forms of architecture are built to meet specific needs, accommodating the values, economies. Architecture designed by professional architects is not considered to be vernacular. Indeed, it can be argued that the process of consciously designing a building makes it not vernacular. Oliver offers the simple definition of vernacular architecture, the architecture of the people, and by the people. Frank Lloyd Wright described vernacular architecture as Folk building growing in response to actual needs, since at least the Arts and Crafts Movement, many modern architects have studied vernacular buildings and claimed to draw inspiration from them, including aspects of the vernacular in their designs. In 1946, the Egyptian architect Hassan Fathy was appointed to design the town of New Gourna near Luxor, having studied traditional Nubian settlements and technologies, he incorporated the traditional mud brick vaults of the Nubian settlements in his designs