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Tuscarora people

The Tuscarora are a Native American tribe and First Nations band government of the Iroquoian-language family, with members today in North Carolina, New York, Ontario. They coalesced as a people around the Great Lakes about the same time as the rise of the Five Nations of the historic Iroquois Confederacy Iroquoian-speaking and based in present-day New York. Well before the arrival of Europeans in North America, the Tuscarora had migrated south and settled in the region now known as Eastern Carolina; the most numerous indigenous people in the area, they lived along the Roanoke, Neuse and Pamlico rivers. They first encountered European explorers and settlers in the colonies of North Carolina and Virginia. After the 18th-century wars of 1711–1713 against English colonists and their Indian allies, most of the surviving Tuscarora left North Carolina and migrated north to Pennsylvania and New York, over a period of 90 years, they aligned with the Iroquois in New York, because of their ancestral linguistic and cultural connections.

Sponsored by the Oneida, they were accepted in 1722 as the Sixth Nation of the Iroquois. After the American Revolution, in which they and the Oneida allied with the colonists, the Tuscarora shared reservation land with the Oneida before gaining their own; the Tuscarora Nation of New York is federally recognized. Those Tuscarora who allied with the British in the American Revolution resettled with other Iroquois tribes in present-day Ontario, where they are part of the Six Nations of the Grand River First Nation. Only the tribes in New York and Ontario have been recognized by the respective national governments. After the migration was completed in the early 18th century, the Tuscarora in New York no longer considered those remaining in North Carolina as members of the tribal nation. Since the late 20th century, some North Carolina persons claiming Tuscarora ancestry had formed bands in which they identify as Tuscarora; as of 2010, several bands in Robeson County have united on an interim basis as the Tuscarora Nation One Fire Council.

See Tuscarora War The historic nation encountered by Europeans in North Carolina had three tribes: Kǎ'tě’nu'ā'kā', Katenuaka, Ga-te-no-wah-ga, or Kautanohakau, Akawěñtc'ākā', Akawenchaka, Ag-wan-te-ga known as Kauwetsaka, Kauwetseka or Cauwintch-AAga Skarū'ren', Skuarureaka or Sca-ru-re-ah-ga, today better known as Tuscarora. These affiliations continued to be active as independent groups after the tribe migrated to New York and Ontario. F. W. Hodge, an early 19th-century historian, wrote that the Tuscarora in North Carolina traditionally were said to occupy the "country lying between the sea shores and the mountains, which divide the Atlantic states," in which they had 24 large towns and could muster about 6,000 warriors meaning persons. In late 17th and early 18th-century North Carolina, European colonists reported two primary branches of the Tuscarora: a northern group led by Chief Tom Blunt, a southern group led by Chief Hancock. Varying accounts c. 1708 – 1710 estimated the number of Tuscarora warriors as from 1200 to 2000.

Historians estimate. Chief Blunt occupied the area around what is present-day Bertie County, North Carolina, on the Roanoke River. Chief Hancock lived closer to present-day New Bern. Chief Blunt became close friends with the colonial English Blount family of the Bertie region and lived peacefully. By contrast, Chief Hancock had to deal with more numerous colonists encroaching on his community, they kidnapped people to sell into slavery. The colonists transported some Tuscarora to Pennsylvania to sell into slavery. Both groups of Tuscarora suffered substantial population losses after exposure to Eurasian infectious diseases endemic to Europeans. Both suffered territorial encroachment. By 1711 Chief Hancock believed. Chief Tom Blunt did not join him in the war; the southern Tuscarora collaborated with the Pamlico, the Cothechney, the Coree, the Mattamuskeet and the Matchepungoe nations to attack the settlers in a wide range of locations within a short time period. Their principal targets were against the planters on the Roanoke and Trent rivers, as well as the city of Bath.

They attacked on September 1711, beginning the Tuscarora War. The allied Indian tribes killed hundreds of settlers, including several key political figures among the colonists. Governor Edward Hyde called out the North Carolina militia and secured the assistance of South Carolina, which provided 600 militia and 360 allied Native Americans commanded by Col. John Barnwell. In 1712, this force attacked the southern Tuscarora and other nations in Craven County at Fort Narhontes, on the banks of the Neuse River; the Tuscarora were "defeated with great slaughter. Blunt succeeded in capturing Hancock, tried and executed by North Carolina officials. In 1713 the Southern Tuscarora were defeated at their Fort Neoheroka, with 900 killed or captured in the battle. After the defeat in the battle of 1713, about 1500 Tuscarora fled north to New York to join the Iroquois Confederacy, while as many as 1500 additional Tuscarora sought refuge in the colony of Virginia. Although s

Advanced Direct Connect

Advanced Direct Connect is a peer-to-peer file sharing and chat protocol, using the same network topology and terminology as the Direct Connect protocol. "ADC" unofficially an acronym for "Advanced Direct Connect". ADC was created to allow an extensible protocol and to address some shortcomings of the Direct Connect protocol, it was initiated under the influence of Jan Vidar Krey's DCTNG draft. The first revision of ADC came in 2004 and the first official version in 2007-12-01. ADC is structured around clients that connect to a central hub, where the clients can chat and download files from other clients; the hub provides routing between clients for chat and requests for connections. The actual file transfers are between clients; the protocol itself is split in two parts: a base protocol that every client and hub must follow and extensions that are optional. The protocols allow signalling of protocol features, messages can be constructed to only be routed to those who support that particular feature.

Each hub has their own rules and are governed by hub operators. Hubs may define different capabilities for hub operators; the hubs themselves do not regulate the hub operators. The hub regulate minimum maximum amount of simultaneous hubs. Lists of hubs exist where a hub's name, description and rules are specified. With the hub list, users can choose hubs that are similar according to the user's liking of discussion topics and files; the peer-to-peer part of the protocol is based on a concept of "slots". These slots denote the number of people; the slots are controlled by the user of respective client. ADC require that all text must be sent in UTF-8, which means that users with different system encoding are able to chat with respective native characters; the protocol natively supports IPv6. There are two modes a user can be in: "active" or "passive". Clients in active mode can download from anyone else on the network. Passive mode users can only download from active users. Passive clients will be sent search results through the hub, while active clients will receive the results directly.

An active searcher will receive 10 results per user and a passive searcher will receive 5 results per user. NAT traversal exist as a protocol extension, which allow passive users to connect to other passive users; the base protocol does not require encryption, but extensions exist to provide encryption with TLS. Files in client connections are identified by their hash, most the Tiger Tree Hash; the hash algorithm is negotiated with the hub and used throughout the client-hub session, as well as subsequent client-client connections. The ADC protocol is a text-based protocol, where commands and their information are sent in clear text, except during password negotiation; the client-server aspect of the protocol stipulates that the client speak first when a connection has been made. For example, when a client connects to a hub's socket, the client is the first to talk to the hub; the protocol requires that all text must be sent as UTF-8 encoded Unicode, normalized in form C. There are no port defaults, for clients.

Hub addresses are in the following form: adc: / / 411. During hub-client protocol information exchange, the client offers a set of hashes; the hub will select one of these hashes, that hash will be used throughout the hub-client session. If the hub deems that the client doesn't support an appropriate hash set, an error is raised; the global identification scheme is based on the hash set producing two end-hashes, where one of them depends on the output of the other. During hub-client information exchange, the client will send these end-hashes, encoded with base32, which the hub will confirm to match. One of these base32 encoded hashes will be further sent to other clients in the network; the global identification scheme is this last string. The client may change its end-hashes on a hub-to-hub basis; each user, during a hub session, is assigned a hash. This hash will be used for all client references in that hub. There is no dependency on nicks; each client information notification is incrementally sent.

An incoming request for a client-client connection is linked to an actual connection, with the use of a token. Searches use a token, as well. There is no out-of-the-box ability for a client to redirect another client from a hub; the hub, can kick and redirect arbitrarily. The hub can require that all other clients in the hub must terminate their transfers with the kicked/redirected client. If a client is redirected to another hub, the redirecting client must use a referrer, similar to the HTTP referrer; the kicked/redirected client is not required to receive a notification message. The peer-to-peer part of the protocol is based on a concept of "slots"; these slots denote the number of people. These slots are controlled by the client. Automatic slot allocation is supported by the protocol; the token in the client-client connection decides. Downloads are transported using TCP. Searches can be transported using TCP or UDP. An active client has a listening port for TCP and another for UDP, though the ports don't depend on each other.

Protocol delimiters are'\n' and". The

David McLintock

David Robert McLintock was a British academic and translator. A pre-eminent scholar of Old High German language and literature, who taught in Oxford and London, he became a prize-winning translator, noted for helping to establish the reputation of the Austrian writer Thomas Bernhard in the English-speaking world, he was born in Yorkshire. He attended Scarborough High School for Boys and won a scholarship to study at Queen's College, gaining a First in French and German in 1952, he obtained a Diploma in Comparative Philology under Leonard Palmer and C. L. Wrenn, he went on to study in Münster with Jost Trier, in Munich under Wilhelm Wissmann. Returning to Oxford, he became a university lecturer in Germanic philology and mediaeval German literature, attached first to Mansfield College and to the newly founded Wolfson College. One of his Oxford pupils was John le Carré and McLintock "liked to think that George Smiley's affectionate references to German studies owed something to his tutorials". In A Perfect Spy, le Carré describes his protagonist Pym's dedication to McLintock's disciplines: By the end of his first term he was an enthusiastic student of Middle and Old High German.

By the end of his second he could recite the Hildebrandslied and intone Bishop Ulfila's Gothic translation of the Bible in his college bar to the delight of his modest court. By the middle of his third he was romping in the Parnassian fields of comparative and putative philology. In 1967 he moved to London to become Reader in German at Royal Holloway College in the department headed by Ralph Tymms. McLintock was regarded as "one of the foremost comparative Germanic philologists of his generation in Britain" and his major scholarly achievement was to complete the revision of J. Knight Bostock's A Handbook of Old High German Literature, which he undertook after the death of his colleague Kenneth King; the book remains "the most comprehensive guide to the field in any language". He was the author of many scholarly articles on early German language and literature, with notable contributions on the Nibelungenlied and the Hildebrandslied, as well as several articles on Old High German texts in the standard reference work the Verfasserlexikon des deutschen Mittelalters.

In 1983, the University of London recognized his contribution to scholarship by awarding him the degree of Doctor of Letters. In 1982, at the age of 51, he took early retirement from university life and started afresh as a freelance translator. While he translated a number of important non-literary texts, such as Christian Meier's The Greek Discovery of Politics and Sigmund Freud's Civilisation and its Discontents, his reputation as a translator rests on the success of his literary translations. In 1986 he received the Austrian State Prize for Literary Translation, he twice won the Schlegel-Tieck Prize — in 1990 for Heinrich Böll's Women in a River Landscape and in 1996 for Thomas Bernhard's Extinction and Christian Meier's Caesar, he translated many of Bernhard's works and is credited with introducing this controversial author to English readers: It was only when David McLintock took on the translations of his works, starting with his memoir Gathering Evidence to his last work Extinction, that Bernhard finds his voice in the English language.

His translations of Bernhard include Concrete, Wittgenstein's Nephew and the multi-volume autobiography Gathering Evidence. He died in 2003, at the age of 72; the University of Oxford offers three prizes and grants in the area of Germanic Philology in his memory. Bostock, J. Knight. King, K. C.. A Handbook on Old High German Literature. Oxford. ISBN 0-19-815392-9. McLintock, D. R.. "The Negatives of the Wessobrunn Prayer". The Modern Language Review. 52: 397–398. Doi:10.2307/3719491. ———. "The Language of the Hildebrandslied". Oxford German Studies. 1: 1–9. Doi:10.1179/ogs.1966.1.1.1. ———. "'TO FORGET' IN GERMANIC". Transactions of the Philological Society. 71: 79–93. Doi:10.1111/j.1467-968X.1972.tb01150.x. ———. "Metre and Rhythm in the Hildebrandslied". The Modern Language Review. 71: 565–576. Doi:10.2307/3725749. ———. "The Politics of the Hildebrandslied". New German Studies. 2: 61–81. ———. "Tense and narrative perspective in two works by Thomas Bernhard". Oxford German Studies. 11: 1–26. Doi:10.1179/ogs.1980.11.1.1. Bernhard, Thomas.

Concrete. Translated by David McLintock. London: J. M. Dent. ISBN 978-0460046107. ———. Woodcutters. Translated by David McLintock. New York: Knopf. ISBN 9780394551524. ———. Wittgenstein's Nephew. Translated by David McLintock. New York: Knopf. ISBN 039456376X. ———. Extinction. Translated by David McLintock. New York: Knopf. ISBN 9780394572536. ———. Gathering Evidence. Translated by David McLintock. New York: Knopf. ISBN 9780394547077. Böll, Heinrich. Women in a river landscape. Translated by David McLintock. London: Secker & Warburg. ISBN 9780436054600. Freud, Sigmund. Civilization and Its Discontents. Translated by David McLintock. London: Penguin. ISBN 978-0141018997. ———. The Uncanny. Translated by David McLintock. London: Penguin. ISBN 978-0141182377. Meier, Christian; the Greek Discovery of Politics. Translated by David McLintock. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-36232-2. ———. Caesar: A Biography. Translated by David McLintock. London: Basic Books. ISBN 9780465008940. Warnke, Martin; the Court Artist

Mount Asgard

Mount Asgard is a twin peaked mountain with two flat-topped, rock towers, separated by a saddle. It is located in Auyuittuq National Park, on the Cumberland Peninsula of Baffin Island, Canada; the peak is named after the realm of the gods in Norse mythology. Mount Asgard is the most famous of the Baffin Mountains. Asgard's higher North Peak was first ascended in 1953 by J. Weber, J. Marmet, H. Röthlisberger, Swiss scientists on the Arctic Institute Baffin Island Expedition, led by the Canadian P. Baird, their route ascended the east side of the north peak, using a climbing traverse across snowfields and rock ribs, to reach the saddle between the two peaks, thence to the top of the North Peak. The route is graded VI, 5.8/5.9 A1. It is still the most-traveled route and is the standard descent route for climbers making harder ascents on other faces; the South Peak was first climbed in 1971 by G. Lee, R. Wood, P. Clanky, J. Pavur, Y. Kamisawa and P. Koch. Since at least 13 routes have been put up on the two peaks, most involving technical free and aid climbing, with lengths varying from 800 m to 1,200 m.

One of the most notable routes was put up in 1975 by Charlie Porter as a solo climb. This was "the first Baffin modern, multi-day, big-wall climb", with 40 pitches rated at Grade VII, 5.10, A4 and it was followed by "a 10-day walk-out to the fjord-head without food". The fact that this was all done solo was "a remarkable achievement". In 1976, stuntman Rick Sylvester performed a BASE jump, skiing off the mountain with a Union Flag parachute for the opening sequence of the James Bond film The Spy Who Loved Me, although the fictional setting was the Austrian Alps; the stunt team and film crew had reached the summit by helicopter. List of mountains of Canada Peakware World Mountain Encyclopedia: Mount Asgard

Delayed Entry Program

The Delayed Entry Program called the Delayed Enlistment Program, is a program whereby individuals going into active duty in the United States Armed Forces enlist first in the DEP before they ship out to Basic Training, or "boot camp." While those who join the DEP have signed an enlistment agreement to report on a certain date for training, they are not yet members of the United States Armed Forces until they enlist in the regular component of their selected branches on their ship dates. DEP members who change their mind and decide not to enter the military before they begin active duty will be separated with no adverse consequences; the Army DEP regulation, as an example, states that "under no circumstances will any member of threaten, manipulate, or intimidate FSs, nor may they obstruct separation requests". While the DEP enlistment agreement states that the military can technically order any DEP recruit to active duty in the event that they do not fulfill their commitment by reporting to training on their specified date, no recruit has been involuntarily ordered to active duty in decades.

While Marine Corps, Air Force, Army recruits are in the DEP, they will be encouraged to spend a significant amount of time at their local recruiting offices with their recruiter who will begin to train them in military fundamentals such as drill and ceremony, first aid, chain of command, rank structure prior to leaving for recruit training and active duty service. About the DEP


Hostilian was Roman emperor from July to November 251. Hostilian was born to Decius and Herennia Etruscilla at an unknown date and elevated to Caesar in May 251 by Decius, the same month as his older brother, Herennius Etruscus, was raised to co-emperor. After Decius and Herennius Etruscus were killed at the Battle of Abritus, an ambush by the Goths, Trebonianus Gallus was proclaimed emperor by the legions, he elevated Hostilian to co-emperor and his son, Volusianus, to Caesar. Hostilian died in November 251, either due to being murdered by Trebonianus Gallus. Hostilian was born at an unknown date, to Decius, a Roman general who became Emperor, his wife Herennia Etruscilla. Decius became emperor after being sent to lead troops in the provinces of Pannonia and Moesia, where he was declared emperor by his troops in September 249, in opposition to Philip the Arab, he led his troops against their forces meeting in September 249, near Verona, Italy. Philip was killed in battle, after which the Roman Senate declared Decius emperor and honored him with the name Traianus, a reference to Emperor Trajan.

Hostilian was elevated to caesar by his father Decius. The elevation came after the promotion of his older brother, Herennius Etruscus, to augustus in the same month, making Herennius Etruscus co-emperor, with Hostilian as the heir of either or both of them. After Decius and Herennius Etruscus were killed by the Goths at the Battle of Abritus, an ambush in July 251, Trebonianus Gallus was declared emperor. To placate the public, Trebonianus Gallus elevated Hostilian to augustus immediately, making him co-emperor. Hostilian was co-emperor until his death in November 251. Aurelius Victor and the author of the Epitome de Caesaribus say. Zosimus claims. After his death, Trebonianus Gallus made his son, co-emperor; the aurei of Hostilian fall into four types bearing the bust of Hostilian on the obverse, with the reverse showing: Mars walking to the right. Adkins, Lesley. Handbook to Life in Ancient Rome. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195123326. Bunson, Matthew. Encyclopedia of the Roman Empire. Facts On File.

ISBN 9781438110271. Chrystal, Paul. Roman Women: The Women who influenced the History of Rome. Fonthill Media. ISBN 978-1781552872. Friedberg, Arthur L.. Gold Coins of the World - 9th edition: From Ancient Times to the Present. An Illustrated Standard Catlaog with Valuations. Coin & Currency Institute. ISBN 9780871840097. Haas, Christopher J.. "Imperial Religious Policy and Valerian's Persecution of the Church, A. D. 257-260". Church History. 52. JSTOR 3166947. Manders, Erika. Coining Images of Power: Patterns in the Representation of Roman Emperors on Imperial Coinage, A. D. 193 - 284. Brill. ISBN 9789004189706. Salisbury, F. S.. "The Reign of Trajan Decius". The Journal of Roman Studies. 14. Doi:10.2307/296323. JSTOR 296323. Varner, Eric R.. Mutilation and Transformation: Damnatio Memoriae and Roman Imperial Portraiture. Brill. ISBN 978-9004135772