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Tvrtko I of Bosnia

Stephen Tvrtko I was the first king of Bosnia. A member of the House of Kotromanić, he succeeded his uncle Stephen II as Ban of Bosnia in 1353; as he was a minor at the time, Tvrtko's father, Vladislav ruled as regent, followed by Tvrtko's mother, Jelena. Early in his personal rule, Tvrtko quarreled with his country's Roman Catholic clergy, but enjoyed cordial relations with all the religious communities in his realm. After initial difficulties – the loss of large parts of Bosnia to his overlord, King Louis I of Hungary, being deposed by his magnates – Tvrtko's power grew considerably, he conquered some remnants of the neighbouring Serbian Empire in 1373, after the death of its last ruler and his distant relative, Uroš the Weak. In 1377, he had himself crowned king of Bosnia and of Serbia, claiming to be the heir of Serbia's extinct Nemanjić dynasty; as the Kingdom of Bosnia continued to expand, Tvrtko's attention shifted to the Adriatic coast. He gained control of the entire Pomorje and the major maritime cities of the area, established new settlements and started building a navy, but never succeeded in subjugating the lords of the independent Serbian territories.

The death of King Louis and the accession of Queen Mary in 1382 allowed Tvrtko to take advantage of the ensuing succession crisis in Hungary and Croatia. After bitter fighting, from 1385 to 1390, Tvrtko succeeded in conquering large parts of Slavonia and Croatia proper. Following the Battle of Kosovo in 1389, his tenuous claim to Serbia became a mere fiction, as the Serbian rulers he sought to subdue became vassals of the victorious Ottoman Empire; the Ottoman Turks launched their first attacks on Bosnia during Tvrtko's reign, but his army was able to repel them. Tvrtko's sudden death in 1391 prevented him from solidifying the Kotromanić hold on Croatian lands. Tvrtko is considered one of Bosnia's greatest medieval rulers, having enlarged the country's borders to their greatest extent, left a strong economy, improved the living standards of his subjects, he was survived by at least one son, Tvrtko II, but was succeeded by Dabiša, under whom Tvrtko's burgeoning realm began to decay. Tvrtko was the elder son of Vladislav Kotromanić and Jelena Šubić, was born within a year of their marriage, celebrated in 1337.

His father was the brother of the Bosnian ban, Stephen II, his mother the daughter of the Croatian lord George II Šubić of Bribir. Tvrtko was most raised as a Roman Catholic. Stephen died in September 1353. Although Vladislav was still alive, Stephen's title passed directly to Tvrtko. Tvrtko, was only about fifteen years old at the time, so his father governed as regent. Soon after his accession, Tvrtko traveled with his father throughout the realm, to settle relations with his vassals. Jelena replaced Vladislav as regent upon his death in 1354, she traveled to Hungary to obtain consent to Tvrtko's accession from King Louis I, his overlord. Following her return, Jelena held an assembly in Mile, with mother and son confirming the possessions and privileges of the noblemen of "all of Bosnia, Donji Kraji and the Hum land"; the death of Tvrtko's maternal uncle Mladen III Šubić, in 1348, led to a decline of the Šubić noble family and a long conflict over their lands. In May 1355, Jelena and Tvrtko marched with an army to Duvno in order to claim Tvrtko's share of his uncle's patrimony.

An agreement was reached with the vice-Ban of Dalmatia by which Tvrtko was to inherit all the cities held by his maternal grandfather and a city which belonged to his aunt Katarina, but it is unknown whether he took possession of them. The state assembled by Tvrtko's uncle Stephen broke apart on Tvrtko's accession, much to the satisfaction of his overlord King Louis; the Hungarians were keen to encourage Stephen's vassals to act independently from Tvrtko, forcing Tvrtko to compete with Louis for their loyalty in order to rebuild the Bosnian state. Louis posed a more direct threat as well. Taking advantage of the precarious situation early in Tvrtko's reign, Louis moved to claim most of Donji Kraji and western Hum up to the river Neretva, including the prosperous customs town of Drijeva. In 1357, he succeeded in compelling Tvrtko to come to Hungary and surrender these territories as the dowry of Elizabeth, Stephen's daughter, married to Louis since 1353. In July, King Louis confirmed his younger brother Vuk as rulers of Bosnia and Usora.

Donji Kraji and Hum were purposely omitted from their title, with Usora having been granted as compensation. Two conditions were forced upon the Bosnians: one of the two Kotromanić brothers would be at Louis's court whenever the other was in Bosnia, they would make an effort to suppress the "heretical" Bosnian Church. Little is known about internal affairs in Bosnia between 1357, when Tvrtko started ruling on his own, 1363, his religious policy came into focus in this period, as the Avignon papacy became more insistent on curbing the Bosnian Church. This endangered Tvrtko, for although he was a Roman Catholic throughout his life, Louis now had a religious pretext for invading Bosnia; the death of the bishop of Bosnia—Peregrin Saxon, a supporter of both Stephen II and Tvrtko I and acknowledged by the latter as his "spiritual father"—led to the appointment of Peter Siklósi to the episcopal throne. Peter pr

Catch It Keep It

Catch It Keep It is an American game show and reality television series hosted by Zach Selwyn and Mike Senese. It was broadcast on the Science Channel and premiered on July 17, 2009. In each episode a three-member team had 48 hours to build a contraption that would save their prize from destruction. At the beginning of the competition, Mike Senese, the "Engineer of Destruction", demonstrated how he would attempt to destroy the prize; the team was given one hour to plan before spending the remaining time on construction. At checkpoints before the deadline, the design's integrity could be tested; the team won if the contraption prevented Senese from destroying the prize. On some episodes, Senese would work concurrently on his own design to save the prize using a different approach than the team. If the team failed the prize would be set up again for Senese to attempt his method. However, if Senese's design failed, the prize was awarded to the team. Scrapheap Challenge Catch It Keep It on IMDb Catch It Keep It at Interview of show's hosts at

Hokkaido 2nd district

Hokkaidō 2nd district is a single-member electoral district for the House of Representatives, the lower house of the National Diet of Japan. It is located in the prefecture of Hokkaidō and consists of two wards of the prefectural capital, the city of Sapporo: Kita and Higashi; as of 2013, 444,440 eligible voters were registered in the district. The current Representative from the district since 2012 is Liberal Democrat Takamori Yoshikawa who had lost the previous three elections to Democrat Wakio Mitsui. Yoshikawa has been the LDP candidate in the 2nd district since the initial election of 1996, but only won the district in 2000. Mitsui had contested the 3rd district for the NFP in 1996, but ranked third behind candidates from LDP and DPJ. Before the introduction of the current first-past-the-post/proportional representation parallel electoral system for the House of Representatives in the 1990s, Sapporo city had been part of the SNTV six-member 1st district

Francization of Brussels

The Francization of Brussels refers to the evolution, over the past two centuries, of this Dutch-speaking city into one where French has become the majority language and lingua franca. The main cause of this transition was the rapid, yet compulsory assimilation of the Flemish population, amplified by immigration from France and Wallonia; the rise of French in public life began by the end of the 18th century accelerating as the new capital saw a major increase in population following Belgian independence. Dutch — of which standardization in Belgium was still weak — could not compete with French, the exclusive language of the judiciary, the administration, the army, high culture and the media; the value and prestige of the French language was so universally acknowledged that after 1880, more after the turn of the century, proficiency in French among Dutch-speakers increased spectacularly. Although the majority of the population remained bilingual until the second half of the 20th century, the original Brabantian dialect was no longer passed on from one generation to another, leading to an increase of monolingual French-speakers from 1910 onwards.

This language shift weakened after the 1960s, as the language border was fixed, the status of Dutch as an official language was confirmed, the economic center of gravity shifted northward to Flanders. However, with the continuing arrival of immigrants and the post-war emergence of Brussels as a center of international politics, the relative position of Dutch continued to decline; as Brussels' urban area expanded, a further number of Dutch-speaking municipalities in the Brussels periphery became predominantly French-speaking. This cultural imperialism phenomenon of expanding Francization imbued with a condescending attitude of some unilingual French-speaking communities towards Dutch — dubbed "oil slick" by its opponents — is, together with the future of Brussels, one of the most controversial topics in Belgian politics. Around the year 1000, the County of Brussels became a part of the Duchy of Brabant with Brussels as one of the four capitals of the Duchy, along with Leuven, and's-Hertogenbosch.

Dutch was the sole language of Brussels. Not all of Brabant, was Dutch-speaking; the area south of Brussels, around the town of Nivelles, was a French-speaking area corresponding to the modern province of Walloon Brabant. In Brussels as well as other parts of Europe, Latin was used as an official language. From the late 13th century, people began to shift usage to the vernacular; this occurrence took place in Brussels and in other Brabantian cities, which had all transformed by the 16th century. Official city orders and proclamations were thenceforth written in Middle Dutch; until the late 18th century, Dutch remained the administrative language of the Brussels area of the Duchy of Brabant. As part of the Holy Roman Empire, Brabantian cities enjoyed many freedoms, including choice of language. Before 1500, there were no French documents in the Brussels city archives. By comparison the cities in the neighboring County of Flanders such as Bruges, Ghent and Ypres the percentage of French documents in city archives fluctuated between 30% and 60%.

Such high level of French influence had not yet developed in the Dutch-speaking areas of the Duchy of Brabant, including Brussels. After the death of Joanna, Duchess of Brabant, in 1406, the Duchy of Brabant became a part of the Duchy of Burgundy and the use of the French language increased in the region. In 1477, Burgundian duke Charles the Bold perished in the Battle of Nancy. Through the marriage of his daughter Mary of Burgundy to Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I, the Low Countries fell under Habsburg sovereignty. Brussels became the capital of the Burgundian Netherlands known as the Seventeen Provinces. After the death of Mary in 1482 her son Philip the Handsome succeeded as the Duke of Brabant. In 1506 he became the king of Castile, hence the period of the Spanish Netherlands began. After 1531, Brussels was known as the Princely Capital of the Netherlands. After the division of the Netherlands resulting from the Eighty Years' War and in particular from the fall of Antwerp to the Spanish forces, the economic and cultural centers of the Netherlands migrated to the northern Dutch Republic.

About 150,000 people stemming from the intellectual and economic elites, fled to the north. Brabant and Flanders were engulfed in the Counter-Reformation, the Catholic priests continued to perform the liturgy in Latin. Dutch was thus considered to be anti-Catholic. In the context of the Counter-Reformation, many clerics of the Low Countries had to be educated at the French-speaking University of Douai. However, Dutch was not utterly excluded in the religious domain. For instance, Ferdinand Brunot reported that, 1638 in Brussels, the Jesuits "preached three times a week in Flemish and twice in French". While Dutch became standardized by the Dutch Republic, dialects continued to be spoken in the south; as in other places in Europe during the 17th century, French grew as a language of the nobility and upper class of society. The languages used in the central administration during this time were both French and, to a lesser extent, Spanish; some French-speaking nobility established themselves in the hills of Brussels, bringing with them French-speaking Walloon personnel.

This attracted a considerable number of other Walloons to Brussels who came either in search of work. This Walloon presence led to the adoption of Walloon words in the Brussels flav

Antoine Deidier

Antoine Deidier was a French abbot and physician. He was born the son of a Montpellier surgeon, he was educated in the town, obtaining his medical doctorate in 1691, before becoming Professor of Chemistry there from 1697 to 1732. In 1720 he provided at the King's request medical assistance at a plague outbreak in Marseilles, was afterwards awarded the title of ""Conseiller-médecin du Roi" and made a Chevalier of the Order of St Michael, he was elected Fellow of the Royal Society in 1723. He was physician to the galleys in Marseilles from 1732 to his death. Deidier. Mesure des surfaces et des solides, par l'arithmetique des infinis et les centres de gravité. A Paris: Charles Antoine Jombert, Jacques Chardon. Deidier. Mechanique génerale. A Paris: chez Charles Antoine Jombert, rue sJacques, libraire du roy pour l'artillerie & le Génie, à l'image Nôtre-Dame. Deidier. Parfait ingenieur françois, ou La fortification offensive et défensive. A Paris: chez Charles-Antoine Jombert, libraire du Roy pour l'artillerie & le Génie, vis-à-vis la rue des Marthurins, à l'image Notre-Dame.

Deidier. Elemens généraux des principales necessaires a l'artillerie et au génie. 1. A Paris: Charles Antoine Jombert. Deidier. Elemens généraux des principales necessaires a l'artillerie et au génie. 2. A Paris: Charles Antoine Jombert. Deidier and the 1720 plague outbreak

Owari Asahi Station

Owari Asahi Station is a railway station in the city of Owariasahi, Aichi Prefecture, operated by Meitetsu. Owari Asahi Station is served by the Meitetsu Seto Line, is located 14.7 kilometers from the starting point of the line at Sakaemachi. The station has two island platforms connected by an elevated station building; the station is staffed. Owari Asahi Station was opened on April 2, 1905, as Arai Station on the operated Seto Electric Railway, its changed its name to Asahi-Arai Station on February 24, 1922. The Seto Electric Railway was absorbed into the Meitetsu group on September 1, 1939; the station was renamed to its present name on November 1, 1971. The station was relocated to its present location, new station building was completed in July 1994. In fiscal 2017, the station was used by an average of 7,796 passengers daily. Nagoya Sangyo University Owariasahi City Hall Meitetsu Owari Asahi Rail Yard List of Railway Stations in Japan Media related to Owari Asahi Station at Wikimedia Commons Official web page