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Town Hall
Town Hall
Flag of Twardogóra
Coat of arms of Twardogóra
Coat of arms
Twardogóra is located in Poland
Coordinates: 51°21′53″N 17°28′11″E / 51.36472°N 17.46972°E / 51.36472; 17.46972
Country  Poland
Voivodeship Lower Silesian
County Oleśnica
Gmina Twardogóra
 • Total 8.29 km2 (3.20 sq mi)
Population (2006)
 • Total 6,866
 • Density 830/km2 (2,100/sq mi)
Postal code 56-416

Twardogóra [tfardɔˈɡura] (formerly Old Polish: Twarda Góra (Hard Mountain), German: Festenberg) is a town in Oleśnica County, Lower Silesian Voivodeship, in south-western Poland. It is the seat of the administrative district (gmina) called Gmina Twardogóra.

The town was first mentioned as Vestenberg in a document dated 1 September 1293 as a trading place at the road from Wrocław to Poznań. In the 14th century, as part of the Duchy of Oels, it was transferred to the Kingdom of Bohemia, which became part of the Habsburg monarchy in 1526. The town adopted Lutheranism in 1538. In 1742 Silesia became Prussian and remained within Germany until 1945, when it was handled to Poland in accordance with the Potsdam Agreement.

It lies approximately 20 kilometres (12 mi) north of Oleśnica, and 40 kilometres (25 mi) north-east of the regional capital Wrocław.

As at 2006, the town has a population of 6,866.


The beginnings of Twardogora go back to the times of Polish rule in the first Piast dynasty. It was then a trade settlement connected to the trade route from Wrocław to Poznań. It was inhabited by descendants of the Slavonic Silesia, and from the 12th century also came from other countries, especially from Germany.[1] The modern name of the city is said to have been created during the invasion of the Tatars in Silesia in 1241. The inhabitants of the settlement gave them a hard resistance and hence the name, which means in Polish "Hardcore" .[2] Its name also covers terrain topography (Twarda Góra).[2] Urban rights were given to Twardogóra by Henry III, Duke of Głogów on August 1, 1293. From the beginning of the 14th century, Twardogóra was associated with Duchy of Oleśnicki under the rule of Piast, but dependent on the Czech kings. Residents of the city remembered the unpleasant experiences of the Hussite wars in the late 15th century building a defensive structure. A hundred years later a castle was built there.[1] In 1526, Twardogóra and the Duchy of Oels entered the Habsburg state. At that time, Jan Podbiebrad, who was in charge of the Duchy, introduced Lutheranism in 1538. It is presumed that at that time there was already a church (lower) in the city, which was thoroughly renovated in 1587.[3] The Duchy of Oels from 1647 began to rule as representatives of the Duchy of Württemberg. During its rule, Twardogóra flourished. Change in Twardogóra was foremost contributed to by the wife of Prince Sylvia Frederick (II) - Princess Eleonora Karolina Wirtemberska (1676 - 1712). She expanded the town's castle, which became a baroque palace. She also took care of the health of the people, the development of the craft, trade and education, as well as the development of charities.[1] In the years 1729 - 1738 the church was rebuilt giving it its present shape. Prussian rule began in Silesia in 1740. In 1743 Henryk L. von Reichenbach brought the town hardwood, and the town joined the newly created state in Goszcz a year later. In 1786 the town was inhabited by 1175 people, among whom the most prosperous at the time were the weavers.

At the beginning of the nineteenth century, two new cemeteries were set up outside the city, separate for Protestants and Catholics, and the old church was abolished. Catholics built a church in 1869 near the new market. In 1873, the fire destroyed the evangelical church, which was rebuilt three years later in neo-gothic style.[3] From the middle of the 19th century Twardogóra began to acquire industrial character. Henryk Piirschel founded a mechanical weaving factory in 1852, and Henry Lichtenberg began industrial furniture production. The demographic development of the city in the 19th century (in 1885 - 2202 people, and after the merger with the Old Twardogóra in 1910 - 3351 people) caused an increase in the city's infrastructure. Before the First World War, a credit bank (1901), a printing house (1907), a court and detention center (1902), a town hall, a cemetery chapel (1906), a town hall (1912) and a new water supply (1901) and electrification of the city was conducted (1910).[1] In 1944, the town was home to 4500 people, who primarily engaged in craft, trade and services. The city had, among other things, an agricultural and general school, two cinemas, a hospital, a child's home and extensive gastronomy. German government ended in Twardogóra on January 23, 1945. From that time until present, the period of Polish administration began.

Photo gallery[edit]


External links[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d "Twardogóra - oficjalna strona miasta i gminy - Historia". (in Polish). Retrieved 2017-03-30. 
  2. ^ a b Knie, Johann (1830). Alpabetisch, Statistisch, Topographische Uebersicht aller Dorfer, Flecken, Stadt und andern Orte der Konigl. Preus. Provinz Schliesen: Barth und Comp. p. 922. 
  3. ^ a b Register of immovable monuments of the province. Lower Silesian. National Institute of Heritage. 2012-01-11. p. 132. 

Coordinates: 51°21′53″N 17°28′11″E / 51.36472°N 17.46972°E / 51.36472; 17.46972