Lackland Air Force Base
Lackland Air Force Base is a United States Air Force base located in Bexar County, Texas. The base is under the jurisdiction of the 802d Mission Support Group, Air Education and Training Command and an enclave of the city of San Antonio, it is the only entry processing station for Air Force enlisted Basic Military Training. Lackland AFB is part of Joint Base San Antonio, an amalgamation of the Fort Sam Houston, the Randolph Air Force Base and Lackland Air Force Base, which were merged on 1 October 2010. Joint Base San Antonio, which includes Lackland Air Force Base, was established in accordance with congressional legislation implementing the recommendations of the 2005 Base Realignment and Closure Commission; the legislation ordered the consolidation of the three facilities which were adjoining, but separate military installations, into a single joint base – one of 12 joint bases formed in the United States as a result of the law. 502d Installation Support GroupA unit of the JBSA 502d Air Base Wing, the 502d ISG is the focal point for all base activities and supporting the 37th and 737th Training Groups and all of its mission partners as well as the more than 24,000 retirees living in the local area.37th Training Wing37th Training Group Provides professional and technical training in the knowledge and skills needed for graduates to perform their jobs worldwide.
Joint service training for Air Force, Army and Marine personnel is provided in numerous courses, such as the military working dog program and security and law enforcement 737th Training Group Provides Air Force Basic Military Training for all enlisted people entering the Air Force, Air Force Reserve and Air National Guard, earning Lackland the nickname, "Gateway to the Air Force."Inter-American Air Forces AcademyFostering enduring Inter-American engagement through education and training. Teaches 37 technical courses, in Spanish and in English, to students from more than 22 countries every year. Defense Language InstitutePrimary mission was to teach English to Allied pilot candidates. In 1966, its mission expanded to include other career fields, the school moved under the DoD with the U. S. Army as the executive agent. Twenty-Fifth Air ForceOrganizes, trains and presents assigned forces and capabilities to conduct intelligence and reconnaissance for combatant commanders and the nation, it implements and oversees the execution of Air Force policies intended to expand ISR capabilities.
Twenty-Fourth Air ForceExtends and defends the Air Force portion of the Department of Defense network and provide full spectrum capabilities for the Joint warfighter in, from cyberspace. 624th Operations CenterInterfaces with theater and functional Air Operations Centers to establish, direct, coordinate and command & control cyber operations in support of AF and Joint warfighting requirements. Lackland AFB hosts a collection of vintage military aircraft on static display on its parade grounds, including a Boeing B-52 Stratofortress, McDonnell Douglas F-4 Phantom II, Lockheed SR-71 Blackbird, B-29 Superfortress, C-121 Constellation, Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress and a B-25 Mitchell. Lackland Air Force Base is home to the 37th Training Wing which operates a variety of training squadrons. Within the 37th TRW is the 37th Training Group which oversees the 5 technical training schools on the base, the 737 TRG which oversees the Basic Military Training squadrons. Lackland is best known for its role in being the sole location for U.
S. Air Force enlisted Basic Military Training for the active duty Regular Air Force, Air Force Reserve and Air National Guard. BMT is organized into each with their own training site on the base; each squadron is equipped with either a medical clinic. Some BMT squadrons share dining facilities if they are located close enough together and the same is true for medical clinics; each squadron has a specific exercise area where basic trainees conduct physical readiness training. AFOSI anti-terrorism teams are trained here. In October 2008 the BMT was expanded an extra two weeks to implement more air base defense training as well as other rudimentary skills; the BMT course of training is at 8 1⁄2 weeks. Prior to 22 September 1993, Lackland AFB's Medina Annex was home to Air Force Officer Training School, one of three USAF officer accession and commissioning sources in addition to the U. S. Air Force Academy and Air Force ROTC. On 25 September 1993, OTS permanently relocated to Alabama. Lackland, like many other Air Education and Training Command bases, trains enlisted airmen out of basic training in a specific specialty via various "tech schools."
Lackland has six technical training squadrons on base training multiple airmen in various Air Force Specialty Codes. The 37th Training Group supports the following five training squadrons and trains technical training instructors, military training instructors and military training leaders; the 341st Training Squadron trains military working dogs and handlers for the entire Department of Defense and several federal agencies. The 342nd Training Squadron teaches Pararescuemen, Combat Controllers, Special Operations Weathermen, Tactical Air Control Party members, Evasion and Escape Specialists, a variety of advanced Security Forces courses; the 343rd TRS trains airmen to become Security Forces members in a 13-week academy. The 344th TRS provides technical training for more than 10,000 active duty, Guard and civilian students annually in Career Enlisted Aviator, Vehicle Maintenance, Logistics Readiness Officer, Logistics Plans, Materiel Management
181st Intelligence Wing
The 181st Intelligence Wing is a unit of the Indiana Air National Guard, stationed at Terre Haute Air National Guard Base, Indiana. If activated to federal service, the Wing is gained by the United States Air Force Intelligence and Reconnaissance Agency; the Wing's 113th Air Support Operations Squadron is a descendant organization of the World War I 113th Aero Squadron, established on 26 August 1917. It was reformed on 1 August 1921, as the 113th Observation Squadron, is one of the 29 original National Guard Observation Squadrons of the United States Army National Guard formed before World War II; the 181st Intelligence Wing is one of three Air National Guard Wings that work with the Air Force Intelligence and Reconnaissance Agency. Intelligence Analysts of the 181st Intelligence Wing monitor data from manned and unmanned assets throughout the world producing actionable intelligence in support of worldwide contingency operation and senior government officials; the 181st Intelligence Wing consists of the following units: 181st Mission Support Group 181st Intelligence Group 181st Medical Group 113th Air Support Operations Squadron On 1 October 1962, the Indiana Air National Guard 113th Tactical Fighter Squadron was authorized to expand to a group level, the 181st Tactical Fighter Group was established by the National Guard Bureau.
The 113th TFS becoming the group's flying squadron. Other squadrons assigned into the group were the 181st Headquarters, 181st Material Squadron, 181st Combat Support Squadron, the 181st USAF Dispensary; the 113th TFS was temporarily equipped with RF-84F Thunderstreaks photo-reconnaissance aircraft to allow its pilots to maintain proficiency. In 1964, the squadron received F-84F Thunderstreak tactical fighter-bombers. Re-equipped with F-84Fs, in 1965, the 181st TFG deployed to Hickam AFB, Hawaii for Tropic Lighting I, an exercise designed to assist in the training of Army ground units prior to their deployment to South Vietnam; this deployment required two over-water air refuelings in either direction. In addition, the 113th deployed to Vincent AFB, Arizona for extensive gunnery and special weapons delivery training; the F-84F remained with the 181st until December 1971, when they were retired to AMARC and replaced by North American F-100C/D Super Sabres following their withdrawal from the Vietnam War.
The F-100 remained with the squadron until 1979 and participated in numerous deployments and exercises. In April 1976, the squadron deployed to RAF Lakenheath, England as part of Cornet Prize, was awarded an Air Force Outstanding Unit Award for the period October 1975 to May 1976; the unit had the honor to fly the last active United States Military F-100 mission when it flew F-100D 56-2979 to MASDC, Davis-Monthan AFB, Arizona, in November 1979. In the summer of 1979 the unit had begun conversion to the F-4C Phantom II. By 1 April 1988 the unit had completed its conversion to more the advanced F-4E version of the Phantom II. However, the squadron was not assigned the specialized Wild Weasel mission, it operated its F-4Cs in the conventional strike role. With the receipt of the Phantoms in 1979, the 113th began using Tactical Air Command Tail Code "HF" on their aircraft; the 113th operated the F-4Cs in a tactical role. In addition, they served in the air defense role as part of the Air National Guard taking over the mission of the inactivated Aerospace Defense Command for continental air defense.
In the air defense role, the squadron operated under Air Defense, Tactical Air Command, a named unit that operated at the numbered air force level of TAC. Beginning in April 1991 the unit started its conversion to ex USAFE 50th Tactical Fighter Wing Block 25 F-16C/Ds and completed this on 1 July 1992 when the last F-16 left Hahn Air Base prior to its closure. With the changeover to the F-16, the squadron changed its Tail Code to "TH". In 1992, the unit designation changed to 113th Fighter Squadron, 181st Fighter Group and in June its gaining command changed from Tactical Air Command to Air Combat Command. On 1 October 1995 the 181st Fighter Group was changed in status to a Wing, this being part of the Air Force's One-Base, One-Wing requirement. In mid-1996, the Air Force, in response to budget cuts, changing world situations, began experimenting with Air Expeditionary organizations; the Air Expeditionary Force concept was developed that would mix Active-Duty and Air National Guard elements into a combined force.
Instead of entire permanent units deploying as "Provisional" as in the 1991 Gulf War, Expeditionary units are composed of "aviation packages" from several wings, including active-duty Air Force, the Air Force Reserve Command and the Air National Guard, would be married together to carry out the assigned deployment rotation. Since equipping with F-16s the Racers have participated in a humanitarian deployment to Romania, provided security for the 1996 Summer Olympic Games and have deployed in support of Operation Southern Watch and Operation Northern Watch. Additionally, the Unit received exceptional ratings on a number of higher headquarters evaluations; the 113th swapped their Block 25 F-16C/Ds for Block 30s in July/August 1995 and flew those aircraft until 2008. The unit's "vipers" were equipped with the LITENING targeting pod, a precision targeting pod system designed for Air Force R
Air Force Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance Agency
For the current active air force, see Twenty-Fifth Air ForceThe Air Force Intelligence and Reconnaissance Agency was until 29 September 2014 a field operating agency of the United States Air Force headquartered at Lackland Air Force Base, Texas. On that date it was redesignated Twenty-Fifth Air Force and aligned as a numbered air force of the Air Combat Command, its primary mission was to provide intelligence and reconnaissance products, applications and resources, to include cyber and geospatial forces and expertise. Additionally, it was the service cryptologic component responsible to the National Security Agency and Central Security Service for Air Force cryptographic activities. Called the United States Air Force Security Service, the Air Force ISR Agency was activated on 20 October 1948, at Arlington Hall, Washington, D. C. with a mission of cryptology and communications security. AFISRA was last commanded by Major General John Shanahan, its Command Chief Master Sergeant was Chief Master Sergeant Arleen Heath.
Both continued in their positions upon the creation of 25 AF. The agency organizes, equips and deploys assigned forces and capabilities to conduct intelligence and reconnaissance for combatant commanders and the nation, it implements and oversees the execution of Air Force policies intended to expand ISR capabilities. The agency's 17,000 people serve at about 65 locations worldwide. On 14 July 2014, the Secretary and Chief of Staff of the Air Force announced that the Air Force ISR Agency would be reorganized into the Twenty-Fifth Air Force, a numbered air force assigned to Air Combat Command, on 1 October 2014. Two active duty wings, one group, two centers are assigned to the Air Force ISR Agency. 70th Intelligence and Reconnaissance Wing, Fort George G. Meade, Maryland 480th Intelligence and Reconnaissance Wing, Langley Field, Virginia 361st Intelligence and Reconnaissance Group, Hurlburt Field, Florida Air Force Technical Applications Center, Patrick Air Force Base, Florida National Air and Space Intelligence Center, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio AFISRA is responsible for mission management and support of signals intelligence operations for one Numbered Air Force and three wings.
Twenty-Fifth Air Force, Lackland Air Force Base, Texas 9th Reconnaissance Wing, Beale Air Force Base, California 55th Wing, Offutt Air Force Base, Nebraska 432d Wing, Creech Air Force Base, Nevada 102d Intelligence Wing, Otis Air National Guard Base, Massachusetts 181st Intelligence Wing, Terre Haute Air National Guard Base, Indiana 184th Intelligence Wing, McConnell Air Force Base, Kansas The Air Force ISR Agency was established as the United States Air Force Security Service on 20 October 1948. The service was headquartered at Arlington Hall, a former girls' school and the headquarters of the United States Army's Signals Intelligence Service cryptography effort during World War II; the USAFSS was tasked with the cryptology and communications security missions of the newly formed United States Air Force. The USAFSS moved to Brooks Air Force Base, in San Antonio, Texas, in April 1949, to "Security Hill" at nearby Kelly Air Force Base in August 1953. During the Korean War, the USAFSS personnel provided United Nations Command units with intelligence on the movements of major Korean People's Army forces from Manchuria to Wonsan.
USAFSS personnel received Korean Language training at Yale University, flew on the Douglas C-47 Skytrain to relay communications to allied ground forces on the Korean Peninsula. During the early days of the Cold War, USAFSS crews flew missions on several aircraft converted for intelligence missions, including the Boeing B-29 Superfortress, the Lockheed C-130A-II Combat Talon, the Strategic Air Command's Boeing RB-50 Superfortress and Boeing RC-135; the USAFSS established communications stations in Germany, the Philippines, Scotland, installed AN/FLR-9 "Elephant Cage" radar sites in Alaska, Italy, the Philippines, Turkey. The USAFSS became involved in the Vietnam War when the Pacific Air Forces asked it to establish an Air Force Special Security Office at Tan Son Nhut Airport near Saigon in 1961. By the following year, a USAFSS squadron and three subordinate detachments were operating in Vietnam and Thailand, USAFSS personnel supported College Eye threat warning operations. USAFSS crews flew on Douglas EC-47 Skytrain missions to search for aircrew shot down in North Vietnam and additional SAC RC-135s deployed to Kadena Air Base, Japan.
On 1 August 1979, the Air Force redesignated the USAFSS as the Electronic Security Command, reflecting the organization's additional mission of improving the Air Force's use of electronic warfare technology in combat. In 1985, the Air Force tasked ESC with computer security, in addition to its intelligence and electronic warfare missions. ESC provided intelligence support to the United States invasion of Panama in 1989 and were among the first U. S. military personnel to arrive in Saudi Arabia for the Gulf War. During that conflict, ESC personnel operated at three different locations in Saudi Arabia and Turkey. On 1 October 1991, the Air Force redesignated ESC as the Air Force Intelligence Command and consolidated Air Force intelligence functions and resources into a single command. AFIC merged ESC with the Air Force Foreign Technology Center at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, the Air Special Activities Center at Fort Belvoir and elements of the Air Force Intelligence Agency, Washington D. C.
With the combined missions, AFIC was tasked with intelligence, electronic combat, foreign technology, treaty monitoring. Th
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
Beale Air Force Base
Beale Air Force Base is a United States Air Force base located 8 miles east of Marysville, California. The host unit at Beale is the 9th Reconnaissance Wing assigned to the Air Combat Command and part of Twenty-Fifth Air Force; the 9 RW collects intelligence essential for Presidential and Congressional decisions critical to the national defense. To accomplish this mission, the wing is equipped with the nation's fleet of U-2 Dragon Lady and RQ-4 Global Hawk unmanned aircraft and associated support equipment; the wing maintains a high state of readiness in its combat support and combat service support forces for potential deployment in response to theater contingencies. The 940th Air Refueling Wing is a tenant Air Force Reserve Command wing at Beale AFB flying the KC-135 Stratotanker and operationally-gained by the Air Mobility Command. Beale AFB was established in 1942 as Camp Beale and is named for Edward Fitzgerald Beale, a former Lieutenant in the U. S. Navy and a Brigadier General in the California Militia, an explorer and frontiersman in California.
Camp Beale became a United States Air Force installation on 1 April 1951 and was renamed Beale Air Force Base. Beale AFB is the home of the 9th Reconnaissance Wing, which serves as the host wing for the base; the installation is located outside of Linda, about 10 miles east of the towns of Marysville and Yuba City and about 40 miles north of Sacramento. Beale has five gates providing access on all sides of the base. Visitors enter the base through a main gate that local merchants and the Beale Military Liaison Committee donated $100,000 to construct; the base is home for 4,000 military personnel. Beale Air Force Base covers nearly 23,000 acres of rolling hills in northern California; the base's natural resources are as rich as its significant historical heritage. Native Americans lived on this land. German prisoners of war were held captive on the base during World War II. To preserve these and other historic areas, the base proudly maintains 38 Native American sites, 45 homestead sites, 41 World War II sites.
The 9th Reconnaissance Wing is composed of four groups at Beale AFB and various overseas operating locations. 9th Operations GroupConsists of multiple squadrons and detachments. The 9th Operations Group trains and equips U-2 Dragon Lady and RQ-4 Global Hawk for worldwide employment to include peacetime intelligence gathering, contingency operations, conventional warfighting and Emergency War Order support. Squadrons located at Beale include: the 1st Reconnaissance Squadron, 99th Reconnaissance Squadron, 9th Operations Support Squadron, the 12th Reconnaissance Squadron.9th Maintenance GroupConsists of the 9th Maintenance Operations Squadron, the 9th Maintenance Squadron, the 9th Aircraft Maintenance Squadron and the 9th Munitions Squadron. The group provides flight line maintenance, shop maintenance and quality assurance in support of U-2 high altitude reconnaissance aircraft, T-38 companion trainers and Global Hawk Unmanned Air Vehicles; the group is responsible for a $5.8 million annual budget.
The group is the Air Force's single focal point for providing mass ammunition production training.9th Mission Support GroupProvides trained combat support forces to theater commanders- in-chief worldwide. Additionally, the group provides Beale AFB with facilities and infrastructure, security, personnel support and logistical support functions enabling home station sustainment and global expeditionary operations. Eight squadrons comprise the group: 9thCivil Engineer Squadron, 9th Communications Squadron, 9th Contracting Squadron, 9th Mission Support Squadron, 9th Security Forces Squadron, 9th Force Support Squadron, 9th Support Division and 9th Logistics Readiness Squadron. 9th Medical GroupConsists of three squadrons: 9th Medical Operations, 9th Medical Support and 9th Physiological Support Squadrons. They provide for the medical needs of Beale AFB beneficiaries and support Beale's high-altitude flyers in the U-2 aircraft; the Beale Clinic is located at 15301 Warren Shingle Road on a gentle hillside near base housing.
The clinic's primary mission is to support the worldwide operational readiness and high altitude mission of the 9th Reconnaissance Wing. They provide comprehensive health care and environmental support and promote health education and wellness to the Beale AFB community; the Beale Clinic is accredited by the Joint Commission on the Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations and is dedicated to providing support to active duty members of base tenant organizations and their family members. This outpatient clinic consists of both the 9th Medical Operations and 9th Medical Support Squadrons that provide primary care services with aerospace medicine and limited ancillary capabilities. No inpatient or emergency services are available and minimal specialty services exist. However, ambulance services are available by calling 634-4444 on base. All other care is arranged through referrals to neighboring military hospitals or the TRICARE network; the clinic's range of services include Family Practice/Primary Care, Women's Health, Flight Medicine, Life Skills Support, Family Advocacy, Pharmacy, Physical Therapy, Public Health, Radiology and Wellness and Immunizations.
The 940th Air Refueling Wing is compose
Signal Intelligence Service
The Signal Intelligence Service was the United States Army codebreaking division through World War II. It was founded in 1930 to compile codes for the Army, it was renamed the Signal Security Agency in 1943, in September 1945, became the Army Security Agency. For most of the war it was headquartered at Arlington Hall, on Arlington Boulevard in Arlington, across the Potomac River from Washington. During World War II, it became known as the Army Security Agency, its resources were reassigned to the newly established National Security Agency; the Signal Intelligence Service was a part of the U. S. Army Signal Corps so secret that outside the office of the Chief Signal officer, it did not exist. SIS was an early predecessor to the modern NSA, it was appropriated by the National Security Council who reassigned the resources into the modern NSA. William Friedman began the division with three "junior cryptanalysts" in April 1930, their names were Frank Rowlett, Abraham Sinkov, Solomon Kullback. Before this, all three had been mathematics teachers and none had a cryptanalysis background.
Friedman was a geneticist who developed his expertise in cryptology at George Fabyan's Riverbank Laboratories Cipher Department during 1915 to 1917, prior to World War I. Besides breaking foreign codes, they were responsible for just about anything to do with the U. S. Department of War's code systems; the SIS worked on an limited budget, lacking the equipment it needed so that the analysts could intercept messages to practice decrypting. The organization grew and organized efforts were made to recruit bright women. By the end of the war, most of the SIS staff, some 7000 out of a total 10,500, were female. Ann Z. Caracristi, who would become Deputy Director of the National Security Agency, started her career there and was a prolific breaker of Japanese army codes; the unit she worked in staffed and led by women, produced a flow of intercepts from the "2468" shipping code system that resulted in the sinking of two-thirds of the Japanese merchant marine. Midway through World War II, in 1943, the Army Signal Intelligence Service began intercepting Soviet intelligence traffic sent from New York City.
Although the United States had become allies with the Soviet Union in 1941, many officials were suspicious of the communist government and society. By 1945, some 200,000 messages had been transcribed, a measure of Soviet activity. On 20 December 1946, after the war and at a time of increasing US tensions with the Soviet Union, Meredith Gardner made the first break into the Venona code. Decrypted messages revealed the existence of Soviet espionage at the Los Alamos National Laboratory work on the top-secret Manhattan Project, where the atomic bomb had been developed and research continued; the Venona project was so classified, that the government never introduced evidence from these messages into court proceedings in prosecution of alleged espionage agents. The Army intercept network during WWII had six fixed stations, which concentrated on Japanese military signals and Axis diplomatic traffic. Vint Hill Farms Station, Virginia Two Rock Ranch, California Fort Shafter, Territory of Hawaii Fairbanks, Alaska New Delhi, India Asmara, Eritrea Signals intelligence National Defence Radio Establishment Pearl Harbor Review.
Signal Intelligence Service, National Security Agency/Central Security Service. Nsa.gov. Bernard A. Weisberger "Eavesdropping on the Rising Sun", American Heritage magazine. Budiansky, Battle of Wits: The Complete Story of Codebreaking in World War II, Free Press, 2000. Стр.357 ISBN 978-0-684-85932-3. William F. Friedman, "A Brief History of the Signal Intelligence Service," 29 June 1942, SRH 029, CCH Files. Anon. "Centralized Control of U. S. Army Signal Intelligence Activities," SRH-276, CCH Files. Anon. "Memorandum" re O. C. S. O Conference, 19 July 1929. Anon. "The Second Signal Service Battalion," CCH Files. U. S. Army Signals intelligence in World WaR II. A documentary history. Edited by James L. Gilbert and John P. Finnegan, Center of Military History, United States Army. Washington, D. C. 1993. 265 pp. ISBN 0-16-037816-8. Robert J. Hanyok. Eavesdropping on Hell: Historical Guide to Western Communications Intelligence and the Holocaust, 1939-1945, Series IV, Volume 9. Center cryptologie history. National Security Agence.
2004. 174 pp
9th Reconnaissance Wing
The 9th Reconnaissance Wing is a United States Air Force unit assigned to the Air Combat Command Twenty-Fifth Air Force. It is stationed at California; the wing is the host unit at Beale. Its mission is to organize and equip the Air Force's fleet of U-2R Dragon Lady, RQ-4 Global Hawk aircraft for peacetime intelligence gathering, contingency operations, conventional war fighting and Emergency War Order support, it is assigned T-38 Talons for U-2 pilots to maintain flight hours. Its 9th Operations Group is a descendant organization of the 9th Group, one of the 13 original combat air groups formed by the Army before World War II. During World War II, the 9th Bombardment Group was an air combat unit of the United States Army Air Forces. Active for over 60 years, the 9 RW was a component wing of Strategic Air Command's deterrent force throughout the Cold War, performing strategic reconnaissance on a worldwide basis. For additional history and lineage, see 9th Operations Group see also: Robert F. TravisOn 1 May 1949 the 9th Strategic Reconnaissance Wing was activated at Fairfield-Suisun Air Force Base, renamed Travis Air Force Base in 1951.
The Air Force activated the re-designated 9th Strategic Reconnaissance Group and the 1st, 5th, 99th Strategic Reconnaissance Squadrons. The 9th SRW's mission was to obtain complete data through visual, photographic and weather reconnaissance operations. To carry out this mission, the wing flew a few RB-36 Peacemakers; the 9th Reconnaissance Technical Squadron joined the 9th Strategic Reconnaissance Wing on 1 May 1949. It performed its mission with components of 5th Strategic Reconnaissance Wing, from November 1949 – February 1951; the reconnaissance mission continued for only eleven months. On 1 April 1950, the Air Force redesignated the 9th SRW as the 9th Bombardment Wing, with similar redesignations of the 9th Group and the 1st, 5th, 99th Squadrons. Seven months on 2 November, the wing and subordinate units were again re-designated to Bombardment, Medium with the transfer of the RB-36s, leaving the wing at B-29 Superfortress unit. In early February 1951, the Air Force realigned its flying operation and placed the flying squadrons directly under control of the wings.
The Air Force, placed the 9th Bombardment Group in Records Unit status inactivated the group on 16 June 1952. On 4 January 1955, the Air Force bestowed upon the 9th Wing the honors of the inactive 9th Group, the operational headquarters unit before and during World War II; the 9th Bombardment Wing remained at Fairfield-Suisun AFB flying B-29s until 1 May 1953. On 1 May, the Strategic Air Command assumed jurisdiction of Mountain Home Air Force Base, from the Military Air Transport Service and transferred the 9th Bomb Wing to the base. Developed for bomber training during the war, Mountain Home AFB had been an Air Resupply And Communications Service special operations base for MATS, had phased down its operations. MATS wanted to use Fairfield-Suisun as a West Coast aerial port. SAC could expand Mountain Home for a large bomber base and its relative isolation was desirable away from the inherent problems of stationing jet bombers in the urban areas halfway between Sacramento and San Francisco, California.
Although some personnel began arriving at Mountain Home early in April, the Wing and its B-29s moved in May. The 2d Air Refueling Squadron at Davis-Monthan AFB, became the 9th Air Refueling Squadron and transferred to the 9th Bombardment Wing at Mountain Home AFB. With the arrival of the 9th Bomb Wing at Mountain Home, the base planned a vast construction program not only to accommodate the wing's personnel and offices, but in anticipation of the acquisition of B-47s to replace the World War II-era obsolete B‑29s. On 15 September 1954, Colonel William C. Kingsbury, commander of the 9th Bomb Wing, landed at Mountain Home in the wing's first B-47 "Stratojet", The remainder of the planes arrived over the next few months. By June 1955, the 9th BW was ready for a mobility test. Early that month and crews spanned the continent and the Atlantic Ocean for a 60-day temporary duty assignment to a REFLEX base in England to test the wing's mobility training concept. In November 1955, the 9th Bomb Wing's B-47Es flew from MHAFB to New Zealand, a distance of 8,300 miles, nonstop with the aid of aerial refueling.
This was the longest point-to-point flight for any Strategic Air Command aircraft or unit up to that time. In the decade after World War II, the development of faster aircraft and missiles reduced reaction time. With the arrival of the missile age, SAC had to be ready to launch its armada of nuclear bombers within 15 minutes for a retaliatory strike. After two years of planning, SAC developed a new organization. Nicknamed FRESH APPROACH and designed to ensure a 15-minute response time, the new organization required extensive testing for practicality and economy before command leaders were willing to discard the proven structure. On 1 July 1957, the 9th Bomb Wing was one of three SAC units to begin "service-testing" the new deputy commander system of management. From July through December 1957, the 9th Wing implemented FRESH APPROACH and worked out the "kinks" of the new organization; the test came during overseas deployment exercise. The 9th BW was the only participating unit with the deputy-commander organizational structure.
Between October 1957 and January 1958, elements of the 9th Bombardment Wing and 9th Air Refueling Squadron scattered from Elmendorf AFB, Alaska to Andersen AFB, Guam. Although some problems occurred during the overseas mobility test, the 9th Wing Com