The twenty-foot equivalent unit is an inexact unit of cargo capacity used to describe the capacity of container ships and container terminals. It is based on the volume of a 20-foot-long intermodal container, a standard-sized metal box which can be transferred between different modes of transportation, such as ships and trucks; the container is defined by its length though there is a lack of standardisation in regard to height, ranging between 4 feet 3 inches and 9 feet 6 inches, with the most common height being 8 feet 6 inches. It is common to designate 45-foot containers as 2 TEU, rather than 2.25 TEU. The standard intermodal container is designated as 8 feet wide. Additionally there is a standard container with the same width but a doubled length of forty feet called a 40-foot container, which equals one forty-foot equivalent unit in cargo transportation. In order to allow stacking of these types a forty-foot intermodal container has an exact length of 40 feet, while the standard twenty-foot intermodal container is shorter having an exact length of 19 feet 10.5 inches.
The twistlocks on a ship are put at a distance so that two standard twenty-foot containers have a gap of three inches which allows a single forty-foot container to be put on top. The forty-foot containers have found wider acceptance; the length of such a combination is within the limits of national road regulations in many countries, requiring no special permission. As some road regulations allow longer trucks, there are variations of the standard forty-foot container — in Europe and most other places a container of 45 feet may be pulled as a trailer. Containers with a length of 48 feet or 53 feet are restricted to road transport in the United States. Although longer than 40 feet, these variants are put in the same class of forty-foot equivalent units; as the TEU is an inexact unit, it cannot be converted into other units. The related unit forty-foot equivalent unit, however, is defined as two TEU; the most common dimensions for a 20-foot container are 20 feet long, 8 feet wide, 8 feet 6 inches high, for a volume of 1,360 cubic feet.
However, both 9-foot-6-inch-tall High cube and 4-foot-3-inch half height containers are reckoned as 1 TEU. This gives a volume range of 680 to 1,520 cubic feet for one TEU. While the TEU is not itself a measure of mass, some conclusions can be drawn about the maximum mass that a TEU can represent; the maximum gross mass for a 20-foot dry cargo container is 24,000 kilograms. Subtracting the tare mass of the container itself, the maximum amount of cargo per TEU is reduced to 21,600 kilograms; the maximum gross mass for a 40-foot dry cargo container is 30,480 kilograms. After correcting for tare weight, this gives a cargo capacity of 26,500 kilograms. Twenty-foot, "heavy tested" containers are available for heavy goods such as heavy machinery; these containers allow a maximum weight of 67,200 pounds, an empty weight of 5,290 pounds, a net load of 61,910 pounds. Container ship Container terminal Containerization List of unusual units of measurement Panama Canal toll system Shipping ton Maersk Shipping.
"Maersk Container Brochure". Maersk. Archived from the original on 2008-11-15. Retrieved 2008-10-25. CIRCA. "Glossary: TEU". The European Commission. Archived from the original on 2008-04-14. Retrieved 2008-03-20. Rowlett, Russ. "How Many? A Dictionary of Units of Measurement". University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Retrieved 2008-03-20. Bohlman, Michael. "ISO's container standards are nothing but good news". ISO Bulletin. International Organisation for Standardisation: 15. Archived from the original on 2014-10-16. Retrieved 2008-03-20. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. "Twenty Foot Equivalent Unit". Glossary of Statistical Terms. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Retrieved 2008-03-20
Svetlana Kalinkina is a Belarusian journalist known for her critical reporting of President Alexander Lukashenko. In 2003, she was editor of a popular business daily based in Minsk; the paper began to publish reports and features critical of Lukashenko's government, including articles covering the trials of Vikto Kazeko, former director of the state food company, Mikhail Leonov, former director of Minsk Tractor Works. One edition included a poll asking readers whether it was appropriate for Lukashenko to use his presidential plane for personal journeys. Soon the paper was subject to a campaign of official harassment, including "politically motivated tax inspections, death threats and detentions". Belarus's Information Ministry began to harass any printer that agreed to work with the paper, forcing BDG to print in Russia; the print edition of BDG had disappeared from Belarus by September 2004, leaving only the website. Kalinkina took a leave of absence from the paper to work against a national referendum that would eliminate presidential term limits, allowing Lukashenko to serve indefinitely.
The referendum passed. Kalinkina accepted an editorship at the independent newspaper Narodnaya Volya, Belarus's largest-circulation opposition daily. In October 2005, pressure from the Information Ministry prevented Belarusian printers from working with the paper, forcing Kalinkina again to contract with a printer in Smolensk, Russia. Beginning on 1 January 2006, the Belarusian post office refused to distribute the paper, an entire print run of 30,000 copies was confiscated by police on 9 January; when citizens of Salihorsk began a petition on the paper's behalf, police made visits to the homes of the signatories to interrogate them. On 13 March 2006, a week before the presidential election that would usher in Lukashenko's third term, Narodnaya Volya, BDG, Tovarishch had their print runs abruptly cancelled by their Smolensk supplier. Kalinkina told The New York Times that she believed Belarusian government pressure to be responsible, saying, "When, a week before the election, someone refuses to print three papers, it is clear there are political reasons."In April 2010, computers were seized from Kalinkina and fellow Narodnaya Volya reporter Marina Koktysh, as well as Charter 97 editor Natalya Radina and Novaya Gazeta journalist Irina Khalip as part of an investigation into a slander case filed by Ivan Korzh.
The four were brought to a police station for questioning. In September, Kalinkina wrote an article investigating the recent suspicious death of Charter 97 editor-in-chief Aleh Byabenin, received several death threats shortly after, prompting the human rights organization Norwegian Helsinki Committee to issue an alert on her behalf. On 29 April 2011, the Information Ministry again attempted to shut down Narodnaya Volya, filing a motion with the Supreme Economic Court of Belarus for the newspaper's closure. In 2004, the Committee to Protect Journalists awarded Kalinkina its International Press Freedom Award, "an annual recognition of courageous journalism"; the award citation praised her "critical reporting on various government abuses" in the face of "years of legal and bureaucratic harassment from Belarusian authorities"
Holt McCallany is an American actor and producer. He is known for portraying Bill Tench on the series Mindhunter and has had several supporting roles in various television series and films. McCallany was born September 3, 1963, to theatrical parents, his mother, Julie Wilson, was an American singer and actress, "widely regarded as the queen of cabaret." His father, Michael McAloney, was an Irish actor and producer best known for his Tony Award-winning production of Brendan Behan's Borstal Boy, an autobiographical play about a young member of the Irish Republican Army, the first Irish production to win top honors on Broadway. Because his father wanted a classical education for his two sons and his younger brother were sent to live with another family in Dublin, while his parents stayed in New York City, working. In Ireland, he attended the National School in Howth. However, following his parents' divorce the children moved back to the United States, he attended school first in New Jersey and was sent to live with his maternal grandparents in Omaha, where he had a troubled childhood and was expelled from the Jesuit Creighton Preparatory School.
At the age of 14, he ran away from home and took a Greyhound bus to Los Angeles to pursue his dream of becoming an actor but ended up with a job in a factory unloading trucks. His parents tracked him down and sent him back to Ireland to a boarding school in County Kildare that his father had attended forty years earlier, Newbridge College, he soon left Ireland and was allowed to return to Creighton Preparatory School and graduated in 1981. After high school, he went to France to continue his education, first to study French at the Sorbonne and art at the Paris American Academy, theater at L'École Marcel Marceau and L'École Jacques Lecoq. Holt spent a summer studying Shakespeare at Oxford University and went with a production of Twelfth Night to the Edinburgh Fringe Festival before moving to New York City to begin his professional acting career, his first job in the professional theater was as an apprentice actor at the Great Lakes Shakespeare Festival in Cleveland, Ohio, in the same apprenticeship once served by Tom Hanks, among others.
Subsequently, he returned to New York City and was cast as an understudy in the Broadway production of Biloxi Blues. Holt landed a series of supporting parts in such films as Casualties of War, Alien 3, Creepshow 2, The Search for One-eye Jimmy and The Rough Riders. After playing the legendary boxing trainer Teddy Atlas in the HBO telefilm Tyson, he became a supporter of the Atlas Foundation Charity, a grassroots organization dedicated to helping children and families with medical and financial hardships, he continued working in films and television throughout the nineties and 2000s with roles in films such as Fight Club, Three Kings, Men of Honor, Below, among others. He played a detective with psychological problems in CSI: Miami and a soldier with post-traumatic stress disorder on Criminal Minds, he appeared in The Losers, based on the graphic novel from DC Comics. Holt was the star of the 2011 FX television series, Lights Out, playing an aging boxer forced out of retirement and into a comeback bid to regain the heavyweight title, despite having pugilistic dementia.
He followed this with roles in films like Sully, Shot Caller, Blackhat, among many others. Since 2017, McCallany co-stars in the Netflix series Mindhunter for director David Fincher, he plays an FBI agent researching serial killers in the late 1970s. His first French language film will be released in September, 2019, an adaptation of the George Feydeau comedy Le Dindon. Official website Holt McCallany on Facebook Holt McCallany on Twitter Holt McCallany on Instagram Holt McCallany on IMDb Holt McCallany at the Internet Off-Broadway Database