Twenty20 International

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A Twenty20 International between England and Sri Lanka in June 2006

A Twenty20 International (T20I) is a form of cricket, played between two of the international members of the International Cricket Council (ICC), in which each team faces twenty overs. The matches have top-class status and are the highest T20 standard; the game is played under the rules of Twenty20 cricket. Starting from the format's inception in 2005, T20I status only applied to Full Members and some Associate Member teams. However, in April 2018, the ICC announced that it would grant T20I status to all its 105 members from 1 January 2019.

The shortened format was initially introduced to bolster crowds for the domestic game, and was not intended to be played internationally, but the first Twenty20 International took place on 17 February 2005 when Australia defeated New Zealand, and the first tournament was played two years later, with the introduction of the ICC T20 World Cup. In 2016, for the first time in a calendar year, more Twenty20 International matches (100) were played than ODI matches (99).[1] There remain limits on how many Twenty20 Internationals a team can play each year, in order to protect Test cricket and One Day Internationals.[citation needed] As of 3 May 2019, 80 nations feature in ICC T20I team rankings.[2][3]

Twenty20 International format also sees one mandatory powerplay taken in the first six overs; this shorter format of the game makes reaching the traditional milestones of scoring a century or taking five wickets in an innings more difficult, and few players have achieved these. The highest individual score in a Twenty20 International is 172, made by Australia's Aaron Finch against Zimbabwe in 2018, while Sri Lanka's Ajantha Mendis and India's Yuzvendra Chahal are the only bowlers to have taken two six wickets in an innings, and fewer than twenty players have taken five wickets in an innings.

Origins[edit]

Cricket itself was probably first played in England in the Late Middle Ages, but it did not rise to prominence until the eighteenth century. A set of laws were drawn up in 1744, and the game achieved a level of relative standardisation by the late nineteenth century.[4] One-day cricket was trialled in 1962, and the first domestic tournament played the following year,[5] and in 1971, England and Australia contested the first One Day International; the match consisted of one innings for each side, with 40 eight-ball overs.[6]

In the 1990s, a number of countries were exploring the possibility of a shorter game still: in New Zealand, Martin Crowe developed Cricket Max, in which each team bats for 10 eight-ball overs,[7] while in Australia they considered an eight-a-side contest they dubbed "Super 8s". At the same time, the England and Wales Cricket Board (ECB) conducted consumer research, and proposed the idea of a 20 overs-per-side contest, which would last for about three hours;[8] the first match was played in 2003 between Hampshire and Sussex.[9]

History[edit]

The first Twenty20 International match between two men's sides was played on 17 February 2005, involving Australia and New Zealand. Wisden Cricketers' Almanack reported that "neither side took the game especially seriously",[10] and it was noted by ESPNcricinfo that but for a large score for Ricky Ponting, "the concept would have shuddered".[11] However, Ponting himself said "if it does become an international game then I'm sure the novelty won't be there all the time".[12]

Two further matches were played that year; England beat Australia in June, and South Africa were defeated by New Zealand in October.[13] Early the following year, a contest between New Zealand and the West Indies finished as the first tied match, and a tiebreak was played for the first time in men's international cricket: the two sides took part in a bowl-out to determine a winner; New Zealand won 3–0.[14]

The game had initially been developed to boost the interest in domestic cricket, and to aid this the international teams were only allowed to host three T20Is each year; the cricket manager for the ICC, David Richardson, also commented that "Part of the success of Twenty20 cricket is making sure it can coexist with Test cricket and one-dayers."[15] Despite this, the first international tournament was held in 2007 in South Africa; the 2007 ICC World Twenty20;[15] that tournament was won by India, who defeated their close rivals Pakistan in the final. Writing for The Guardian, Dilip Premachandran suggested that the competition's success meant that "the format is here to stay";[16] the next tournament was scheduled for 2009, and it was decided that they would take place biannually (more frequently than the 50 over Cricket World Cup, which occurs once every four years).[17] In the opening match of the 2007 World Twenty20, Chris Gayle scored the first century in a T20I, the achievement being reached in the twentieth match of the format.[18]

The 500th T20I match was contested between Ireland and the United Arab Emirates at the Sheikh Zayed Stadium, Abu Dhabi on 16 February 2016.[19]

ICC decided to use Umpire Decision Review System (DRS) in Twenty20 Internationals from the end of September 2017,[20][21] with its first use in the India-Australia T20I series in October 2017.[22]

Current international rankings[edit]

Current ICC members by membership status:      Full members (12)
     Associate members with ODI status (8)
     Associate members (85)
     Former members (4)
     Non-members
ICC T20I Championship
Rank Team Matches Points Rating
1  Pakistan 26 7365 283
2  England 16 4253 266
3  South Africa 16 4196 262
4  India 31 8099 261
5  Australia 21 5471 261
6  New Zealand 17 4333 255
7  Afghanistan 16 3849 241
8  Sri Lanka 19 4297 226
9  West Indies 24 5378 224
10  Bangladesh 16 3525 220
11    Nepal 14 2818 201
12  Scotland 11 2185 199
13  United Arab Emirates 18 3453 192
14  Zimbabwe 13 2477 191
15  Ireland 21 3834 183
16  Papua New Guinea 22 3834 174
17  Netherlands 15 2607 174
18  Oman 5 774 155
19  Hong Kong 8 1213 152
20  Namibia 14 2038 146
21  Singapore 13 1707 131
22  Qatar 18 2262 126
23  Saudi Arabia 11 1331 121
24  Canada 10 1154 115
25  Jersey 16 1834 115
26  Italy 12 1326 111
27  Kuwait 13 1354 104
28  Denmark 14 1438 103
29  Kenya 12 1229 102
30  Bermuda 4 408 102
31  Germany 18 1527 85
32  United States 12 977 81
33  Botswana 17 1355 80
34  Ghana 10 773 77
35  Malaysia 21 1620 77
36  Uganda 14 1069 76
37  Austria 6 439 73
38  Norway 10 709 87
39  Nigeria 10 708 71
40  Guernsey 16 1127 70
41  Cayman Islands 5 305 61
42  Sweden 8 465 58
43  Tanzania 6 334 56
44  Luxembourg 6 328 55
45  Spain 12 602 50
46  Philippines 9 433 48
47  France 6 267 45
48  Belize 9 377 42
49  Peru 9 356 40
50  Bahrain 7 261 37
51  Mexico 12 426 36
52  Fiji 6 210 35
53  Panama 9 291 32
54  Belgium 9 290 32
55  Samoa 10 318 32
56  Japan 10 317 32
57  Costa Rica 8 252 32
58  Vanuatu 15 469 31
59  Argentina 12 370 31
60  Hungary 6 180 30
61  Mozambique 12 352 29
62  Thailand 14 369 26
63  Chile 10 249 25
64  Malawi 12 297 25
65  Israel 7 173 25
66  Finland 13 296 23
67  Bhutan 8 180 23
68  South Korea 10 217 22
69  Isle of Man 7 149 21
70  Malta 11 158 14
71  Bulgaria 5 68 14
72  Sierra Leone 5 61 12
73  Brazil 9 108 12
74  Maldives 11 114 10
75  Czech Republic 10 91 9
76  Saint Helena 12 109 9
77  Gibraltar 8 35 4
78  Myanmar 9 23 3
79  Indonesia 7 3 0
80  China 11 0 0
81  Gambia 6 0 0
82  Swaziland 6 0 0
83  Rwanda 6 0 0
84  Lesotho 6 0 0
Reference: ICC rankings for Tests, ODIs, Twenty20 & Women ICC page, 1 September 2019
"Matches" is the number of matches played in the 12-24 months since the May before last, plus half the number in the 24 months before that.

Teams with T20I status[edit]

Permanent T20I status[edit]

Prior to 2019, permanent T20I status was limited to the 12 Test-playing nations (which are also the 12 full members of the ICC); these nations are listed below, with the date of their first T20I after gaining permanent T20I status shown in brackets (Ireland and Afghanistan had played previous T20Is with Temporary status):

  1.  New Zealand (17 February 2005)
  2.  Australia (17 February 2005)
  3.  England (13 June 2005)
  4.  South Africa (21 October 2005)
  5.  West Indies (16 February 2006)
  6.  Sri Lanka (15 June 2006)
  7.  Pakistan (28 August 2006)
  8.  Bangladesh (28 November 2006)
  9.  Zimbabwe (28 November 2006)
  10.  India (1 December 2006)
  11.  Afghanistan (5 February 2018)
  12.  Ireland (12 June 2018)

Teams that played T20I after 1 January 2019[edit]

In April 2018, the ICC announced that it would grant T20I status to all of its 105 members from 1 January 2019, with the date of their first T20I after gaining T20I status shown in brackets:[23][2][24]

The following countries have now played T20 Internationals from 1 January 2019:

  1.  Bahrain (20 January 2019)
  2.  Saudi Arabia (20 January 2019)
  3.  Kuwait (20 January 2019)
  4.  Maldives (20 January 2019)
  5.  Qatar (21 January 2019)
  6.  United Arab Emirates (31 January 2019)
  7.    Nepal (31 January 2019)
  8.  Oman (13 February 2019)
  9.  Scotland (13 February 2019)
  10.  Netherlands (13 February 2019)
  11.  United States (15 March 2019)
  12.  Papua New Guinea (22 March 2019)
  13.  Philippines (22 March 2019)
  14.  Vanuatu (22 March 2019)
  15.  Spain (29 March 2019)
  16.  Malta (29 March 2019)
  17.  Mexico (25 April 2019)
  18.  Belize (25 April 2019)
  19.  Costa Rica (25 April 2019)
  20.  Panama (25 April 2019)
  21.  Belgium (11 May 2019)
  22.  Germany (11 May 2019)
  23.  Kenya (20 May 2019)
  24.  Nigeria (20 May 2019)
  25.  Ghana (20 May 2019)
  26.  Namibia (20 May 2019)
  27.  Botswana (20 May 2019)
  28.  Uganda (20 May 2019)
  29.  Italy (25 May 2019)
  30.  Guernsey (31 May 2019)
  31.  Jersey (31 May 2019)
  32.  Norway (15 June 2019)
  33.  Denmark (16 June 2019)
  34.  Malaysia (24 June 2019)
  35.  Thailand (24 June 2019)
  36.  Samoa (8 July 2019)
  37.  Finland (13 July 2019)
  38.  Singapore (22 July 2019)
  39.  Bermuda (18 August 2019)
  40.  Canada (18 August 2019)
  41.  Cayman Islands (18 August 2019)
  42.  Austria (29 August 2019)
  43.  Romania (29 August 2019)
  44.  Luxembourg (29 August 2019)
  45.  Turkey (29 August 2019)
  46.  Czech Republic (30 August 2019)
  47.  Argentina (3 October 2019)
  48.  Brazil (3 October 2019)
  49.  Chile (3 October 2019)
  50.  Peru (3 October 2019)
  51.  Hong Kong (5 October 2019)

Temporary T20I status[edit]

Between 2005 and 2018, the ICC granted temporary ODI and T20I status to a selection of other teams (known as Associate members). Teams earned this temporary status for a period of four years based on their performance in the quadrennial ICC World Cricket League – or, more specifically, based on the top six finishing positions at the ICC World Cup Qualifier, which is the final event of the World Cricket League.[25] Teams could also earn this status by qualifying for the ICC T20 World Cup.

Twelve nations held this temporary T20I status before being promoted to T20I status or relegated after underperforming at the World Cup Qualifier or World Twenty20 Qualifier:

The ICC has also given special T20I status to the ICC World XI team for:

Cricket at international multi-sport events[edit]

Ajantha Mendis was the first player to take six wickets in a T20I

Cricket was played as part of the 1900 Summer Olympics, when England and France contested a two-day match.[28] In 1998, cricket was played as part of the Commonwealth Games, on this occasion in the 50-over format. There was some talk about Twenty20 cricket being part of the 2010 Commonwealth Games, which were held in Delhi, but at the time the Board of Control for Cricket in India (BCCI), were not in favour of the short format of the game, and it was not included.[29]

Cricket was played in 2010 Asian Games in Guangzhou, China[30] and 2014 Asian Games in Incheon, South Korea.[31] India skipped both times.[32] There was further calls for subsequent Commonwealth Games and Olympic Games; the Commonwealth Games Federation asked the ICC to participate in the 2014 and 2018 Commonwealth Games, but the ICC turned down the invitation.[33] In 2010, the International Olympic Committee recognised the International Cricket Council as a governing body that complied to the requirements of the Olympic charter which in turn meant that cricket could apply to be included in the Olympic Games,[34] but in 2013 the ICC announced that it had no intentions to make such an application, primarily due to opposition from the BCCI. ESPNcricinfo suggested that the opposition might be based on the possible loss of income.[35] In April 2016, ICC chief executive David Richardson said that Twenty20 cricket can have a chance of getting in for the 2024 Summer Games, but there must be collective support shown by the ICC's membership base, in particular from BCCI, in order for there to be a chance of inclusion.[36]

Statistics[edit]

The highest team total in a T20I was made by Afghanistan versus Ireland when they scored 278/3;[37][38] the lowest total was recorded in 2019, when Czech Republic bowled out the Turkey for just 21 runs.[39] The highest successful chase was made in February 2018, when Australia scored 245 runs to overhaul New Zealand's target and win the match.[40]

Virat Kohli has accrued the most runs in the format with 2,450 runs.[41] Aaron Finch has made the highest individual score in T20Is, with his innings of 172 against Zimbabwe in 2018.[42] Sri Lankan bowler Lasith Malinga holds the records for the most wickets, having taken 104 wickets in 76 matches.[43] Sri Lanka's Ajantha Mendis has recorded the best two set of bowling figures in T20Is, and is the first bowler to have taken six wickets in a match, doing so against both Zimbabwe in 2012, and Australia in 2011.[44]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "More results, more Kohli runs, and more T20Is than ODIs". Cricinfo. 3 January 2017.
  2. ^ a b "T20s between all ICC members to have international status". ESPNcricinfo. 26 April 2018.
  3. ^ "ICC Ranking for T20 teams International Cricket Council". www.icc-cricket.com. Retrieved 1 June 2019.
  4. ^ Birley, Derek (2003) [1999]. A Social History of English Cricket. Aurum Press. pp. 3–107. ISBN 1-85410-941-3.
  5. ^ Williamson, Martin (9 April 2011). "The low-key birth of one-day cricket". ESPNcricinfo. Retrieved 3 February 2015.
  6. ^ Williamson, Martin. "The birth of the one-day international". ESPNcricinfo. Retrieved 3 February 2015.
  7. ^ "Cricket Max – The Game Invented By Martin Crowe". ESPNcricinfo. 2 February 1996. Retrieved 3 February 2015.
  8. ^ "History of Twenty20 cricket". England and Wales Cricket Board. Archived from the original on 3 February 2015. Retrieved 3 February 2015.
  9. ^ "Meet the man who invented Twenty20 cricket – the man missing out on millions". Daily Mail. London. 11 June 2008. Retrieved 3 February 2015.
  10. ^ Ramsay, Andrew (2006). "New Zealand v Australia". ESPNcricinfo. Retrieved 30 January 2015.
  11. ^ English, Peter (18 February 2005). "Saved by Private Ricky". ESPNcricinfo. Retrieved 30 January 2015.
  12. ^ "South Africa's Superman". ESPN Cricinfo. Retrieved 17 February 2017.
  13. ^ "Records / 2005 / Twenty20 Internationals / Match results". ESPNcricinfo. Retrieved 30 January 2015.
  14. ^ "WI beat NZ in historical tiebreaker". International Cricket Council. 26 December 2008. Retrieved 30 January 2015.
  15. ^ a b "Is twenty plenty?". ESPNcricinfo. 24 March 2007. Retrieved 30 January 2015.
  16. ^ Premachandran, Dileep (26 September 2007). "Great win, but easy on the chest-thumping". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 3 February 2015.
  17. ^ "Global Tournaments". International Cricket Council. Retrieved 3 February 2015.
  18. ^ Gopalakrishna, HR; Vaghese, Mathew (11 September 2007). "Gayle and Gibbs run riot". ESPNcricinfo. Retrieved 3 February 2015.
  19. ^ "(500) games of T20I cricket". cricket.com.au. Retrieved 18 February 2016.
  20. ^ "Uniform DRS likely from October". ESPNcricinfo. 6 February 2017.
  21. ^ "ICC takes a huge decision which may slow down T20s". DNA India. 4 February 2017.
  22. ^ "Australia denied advantage of new rules". ESPNcricinfo. 8 October 2017.
  23. ^ "All T20 matches between ICC members to get international status". International Cricket Council. Retrieved 26 April 2018.
  24. ^ "T20s between all ICC members to have international status". ESPNcricinfo. 27 April 2018. Archived from the original on 16 November 2018. Retrieved 26 February 2019.
  25. ^ "Nepal, Netherlands get T20 international status". Cricinfo. 28 June 2014. Retrieved 1 June 2019.
  26. ^ "ICC confirms plans for World XI tour to Pakistan for three-game T20 series in September". Firstpost. 24 June 2017. Retrieved 18 April 2018.
  27. ^ "West Indies, Rest of the World XI to play fundraising T20I". ESPN Cricinfo. Retrieved 21 April 2018.
  28. ^ Buchanan, Ian (1993). Mallon, Bill (ed.). "Cricket at the 1900 Games" (PDF). Journal of Olympic History. International Society of Olympic Historians. 1 (2): 4.
  29. ^ "Cricket unlikely at 2010 Games". ESPNcricinfo. 23 January 2006. Retrieved 3 February 2015.
  30. ^ "Asian Games Men's Cricket Competition". Cricinfo.
  31. ^ "Asian Games Men's Cricket Competition". Cricinfo.
  32. ^ "India to skip Asian Games again". Cricinfo. 1 August 2014.
  33. ^ "ICC rejects 2018 offer, cricket stays out of Commonwealth Games". Reuters. 24 July 2014. Retrieved 3 February 2015.
  34. ^ "Cricket gets Olympic approval". ESPNcricinfo. 12 February 2010. Retrieved 3 February 2015.
  35. ^ Qaiser Mohammad Ali (1 July 2013). "BCCI rejects plans to make cricket an Olympic sport due to 'conflict'". Daily Mail. London. Retrieved 3 February 2015.
  36. ^ "ICC's Richardson wants more teams in World T20". Cricinfo. 3 April 2016.
  37. ^ "Records / Twenty20 Internationals / Team records / Highest innings totals". ESPNcricinfo. Retrieved 3 February 2015.
  38. ^ "Records / Twenty20 Internationals / Team records / Largest margin of victory (by runs)". ESPNcricinfo. Retrieved 3 February 2015.
  39. ^ "Records / Twenty20 Internationals / Team records / Lowest innings totals". ESPNcricinfo. Retrieved 3 February 2015.
  40. ^ "Statistics / Statsguru / Twenty20 Internationals / Team records". ESPNcricinfo. Retrieved 20 March 2018.
  41. ^ "Records / Twenty20 Internationals / Batting records / Most runs in career". ESPNcricinfo. Retrieved 3 February 2015.
  42. ^ "Records / Twenty20 Internationals / Batting records / Most runs in an innings". ESPNcricinfo. Retrieved 3 February 2015.
  43. ^ "Records / Twenty20 Internationals / Bowling records / Most wickets in career". ESPNcricinfo. Retrieved 3 February 2015.
  44. ^ "Records / Twenty20 Internationals / Bowling records / Best figures in an innings". ESPNcricinfo. Retrieved 3 February 2015.