Lawrence Welk was an American musician, accordionist and television impresario, who hosted the television program The Lawrence Welk Show from 1951 to 1982. His style came to be known to his large audience of radio and live-performance fans as "champagne music". Welk was born in the German-speaking community of North Dakota, he was sixth of the eight children of Ludwig and Christiana Welk, Roman Catholic ethnic Germans who immigrated in 1892 from Odessa, Russian Empire. Welk was a first cousin, once removed, of former Montana governor Brian Schweitzer. Welk's paternal grandparents and Magdalena Welk, emigrated in 1808 from Germanophone Alsace-Lorraine to Ukraine; the family lived on a homestead, now a tourist attraction. They spent the cold North Dakota winter of their first year inside an upturned wagon covered in sod. Growing up speaking German and English, Welk left school during fourth grade to work full-time on the family farm. Welk decided on a career in music and persuaded his father to buy a mail-order accordion for $400 He promised his father that he would work on the farm until he was 21, in repayment for the accordion.
Any money he made elsewhere during that time, would go to his family. On his 21st birthday, fulfilling his promise to his father, Welk left the family farm to pursue a career in music. During the 1920s, he performed with various bands before forming an orchestra, he led big bands in North Dakota and eastern South Dakota, including the Hotsy Totsy Boys and the Honolulu Fruit Gum Orchestra. His band was the station band for the popular radio programming WNAX in Yankton, South Dakota. In 1927, he graduated from the MacPhail School of Music in Minnesota. Although many associate Welk's music with a style quite-separate from jazz, he recorded one notable song in a ragtime style in November 1928 for Gennett Records, based in Richmond, Indiana: "Spiked Beer", featuring Welk and his Novelty Orchestra. During the 1930s, Welk led a traveling big band specializing in "sweet" music; the band traveled around the country by car. They were too poor to rent rooms, so they slept and changed clothes in their cars.
The term champagne music was derived from an engagement at the William Penn Hotel in Pittsburgh, after a dancer referred to his band's sound as "light and bubbly as champagne." The hotel lays claim to the original "bubble machine," a prop left over from a 1920s movie premiere. Welk described his band's sound, saying, "We still play music with the champagne style, which means light and rhythmic. We place the stress on melody. We play with a steady beat so dancers can follow it."Welk's big band performed across the country, but in the Chicago and Milwaukee areas. In the early 1940s, the band began a 10-year stint at the Trianon Ballroom in Chicago drawing crowds of several thousand, his orchestra performed at the Roosevelt Hotel in New York City during the late 1940s. In 1944 and 1945, Welk led his orchestra in many motion picture "Soundies," considered to be the early pioneers of music videos. Welk collaborated with Western artist Red Foley to record a version of Spade Cooley's "Shame on You" in 1945.
The record was number 4 to Cooley's number 5 on Billboard's September 15 "Most Played Juke Box Folk Records" listing. From 1949 through 1951, the band had radio programming on ABC, sponsored by Miller High Life, "The Champagne of Bottle Beer". In addition to the above-mentioned "Spiked Beer", Welk's territory band made occasional trips to Richmond, Indiana and to Grafton, Wisconsin to record a handful of sessions for the Gennett and Paramount companies. In November 1928 he recorded four sides for Gennett spread over two days, in 1931 he recorded eight sides for Paramount that were issued on the Broadway and Lyric labels; these records are rare and valued. From 1938 to 1940, he recorded in New York and Chicago for Vocalion Records, he signed with Decca Records in 1941 recorded for Mercury Records and Coral Records for short periods of time before moving to Dot Records in 1959. In 1967, Welk left Dot Records and joined its former executive Randy Wood in creating Ranwood Records. Welk bought back all his masters from Dot and Coral, Ranwood became the outlet for all of Welk's many artists.
They started with a huge reissue of old Dot albums in 1968 to get them started on the right foot. Wood's interest was sold to Welk in 1979. In 2015, Welk Music Group sold the Vanguard and Sugar Hill labels to Concord Bicycle Music while retaining ownership of the Ranwood catalog. Welk's estate licensed the Ranwood catalogue to Concord Music Group for 10 years. In 1951, Welk settled in Los Angeles; the same year, he began producing The Lawrence Welk Show on KTLA in Los Angeles, where it was broadcast from the Aragon Ballroom in Venice Beach. The show became a local hit and was picked up by ABC in June 1955. During its first year on the air, the Welk hour instituted several regular features. To make Welk's "Champagne Music" tagline visual, the production crew engineered a "bubble machine" that spouted streams of large bubbles across the bandstand. While the bubble machine was engineered to produce soap bubbles, complaints from the band members about soapy build-ups on their instrume
A light table is a viewing device, used to review photographic film or artwork placed on top of it. A horizontal form of a self-standing lightbox, it provides illumination of the subject from below through a translucent cover and fluorescent lights that emit little heat; some light tables may be like big light boxes horizontally standing on some type of support allowing to lay sheets of paper or films on their work surface to view or trace them while being comfortably seated on an office chair, but others are big complicated affairs with stereoscopes integrated as an autosupported unit. That kind is used by Tomcat TARPS squadrons for interpreting aerial photographs, they are used in the trades of graphics to trace designs in the world of cartoon or comics. Another use is for example to review film negatives, photoliths or any kind artwork that can be placed on top of a table for working with it. In general: professional tracing, cartoons and drawing creation, architecture, interior design, fashion, in hospitals for viewing radiographs Tactical Airborne Reconnaissance Pod System squadrons were staffed with Navy photographer's mates that maintained the cameras and worked with the carrier to process the imagery.
TARPS squadrons included an extra Intelligence officer and Intelligence Specialists to help plan TARPS missions and exploit the imagery afterwards. The TARPS shop maintained the cameras and removed or loaded the pod when and if needed. Wet film processing was conducted in a processing room connected to the ship's Intelligence Center where the Intelligence Specialists has a dedicated space with a light table for analyzing the hundreds of feet of film and exploiting the data. Mimeoscope Light box Exposure unit A2 Ultra Thin Artcraft Tracing LED Light Pad Active Area 12.60" X 20.47" Making a lightbox light box monitor table-of-light-with-a-old-monitor
Warner Archive Collection
The Warner Archive Collection is a manufactured-on-demand DVD series started by Warner Home Video on March 23, 2009, with the intention of putting unreleased catalog films on DVD for the first time. In November 2012, Warner announced that the Archive collection would begin releasing some titles on Blu-ray, with all discs being pressed, unlike the DVD series. Using recordable DVDs, they custom burn discs for each order sold directly to the consumer, rather than the traditional business model of pressing batches of discs that ship to "brick and mortar" retailers; this saves on the costs of storing unsold stock in a warehouse and mitigates the risk of a retailer holding unsold merchandise since the majority of the films in the archive do not have widespread public demand. Some Warner Archives releases had a pressed DVD release but have lapsed out of print before since being re-released on MOD DVD discs. In addition, Warner Archive sell films and television shows as downloadable Windows Media files, operated a subscription-based streaming video service, Warner Archive Instant, which allowed members to stream many of the Warner Archive properties in a format similar to Netflix.
In 2018, Warner Archive Instant merged with its sister service FilmStruck. The collection consists of theatrical films, television shows, television films from the libraries of Warner Bros. Pictures, Turner Entertainment Co. HBO, Lorimar Productions, Warner Bros. Television, post-1947 Allied Artists Pictures, Monogram Pictures, Largo Entertainment and New Line Cinema/Castle Rock Entertainment. Sony Pictures, MGM, Disney, 20th Century Fox have started MOD services after the success of Warner Archives, their services are named Sony Pictures Choice Collection, MGM Limited Edition Collection, Universal Vault Series, Disney Generations Collection, Fox Cinema Archives, respectively. Including Warner, this encompasses five of the six major film studios with Paramount as the lone exception. Lionsgate, CBS, MTV, Nickelodeon have started to offer MOD discs of catalog titles through Amazon CreateSpace. On April 13, 2011, Warner Bros. Home Entertainment Group and Sony Pictures Home Entertainment announced that Warner Archive will offer on-demand titles from Sony.
MGM Limited Edition titles are sold through Warner Archive. In November 2012, the Archive collection began releasing titles on Blu-ray, with the first two releases being Deathtrap and Gypsy. Paramount signed an agreement with Warner Bros. in June 2013 allowing select Paramount titles to be released under the Warner Archive moniker. By July 12, 2016, Warner Archive's Blu-ray releases included season sets of current television series, such as iZombie, The 100, The Originals and Lucifer. Expanding their films availability to Internet streaming, in July 2014 Warner Archive introduced the Warner Archive Instant service. Similar to Netflix, Warner Archive Instant allows its members access to various Warner Archive library titles via their website, in addition to apps for Roku and iOS-based devices; as of June 2015, the service was presently limited to serving customers who are located in the United States. In February 2018, Warner Archive retired its online streaming service, transferring several of its films to FilmStruck.
It was discontinued as of November 29, 2018. The Criterion Collection Mill Creek Entertainment Shout! Factory Hanna-Barbera Classics Collection List of works produced by Hanna-Barbera Productions Official website
Bruce Randall Hornsby is an American singer-songwriter and pianist. He draws from classical, bluegrass, Motown, rock and jam band musical traditions. Hornsby's recordings have been recognized on a number of occasions with industry awards, including the 1987 Grammy Award for Best New Artist with Bruce Hornsby and the Range, the 1990 Grammy Award for Best Bluegrass Album, the 1994 Grammy Award for Best Pop Instrumental Performance. Hornsby has worked with his touring band Bruce Hornsby and the Noisemakers and his bluegrass project with Ricky Skaggs and has worked as a session and guest musician, he was a member of the Grateful Dead from September 1990 to March 1992, playing over 100 shows during that period. His 21st album, Absolute Zero, will be released in April 2019 and features collaborations with Justin Vernon and Sean Carey of Bon Iver, Jack DeJohnette, Blake Mills, yMusic, The Staves, Brad Cook. Bruce Randall Hornsby was born in Williamsburg, Virginia, a son of Robert Stanley Hornsby, an attorney, real-estate developer and former musician, his wife, née Lois Saunier.
Raised a Christian Scientist, he has two siblings: Robert Saunier "Bobby" Hornsby, a realtor with Hornsby Realty and locally known musician, Jonathan Bigelow Hornsby, an engineer who has collaborated in songwriting. He graduated from James Blair High School in Williamsburg, Virginia, in 1973, where he played on the basketball team, he studied music at the University of Richmond, as well as Berklee College of Music and the University of Miami, from which he graduated in 1977. In the spring of 1974 Hornsby's older brother Bobby, who attended the University of Virginia, formed the band "Bobby Hi-Test and the Octane Kids" to play fraternity parties, featuring Bruce on Fender Rhodes and vocals; the band, listed in Skeleton Key: A Dictionary for Deadheads, performed covers of Allman Brothers Band, The Band, predominantly Grateful Dead songs. Although Hornsby's collaboration with Bobby Hornsby would be short-lived, Bobby's son R. S. periodically toured with his uncle. His performances were looked forward to by fans.
R. S. Hornsby died on January 2009 in a car accident near Crozet, Virginia, he was 28. Following his graduation from the University of Miami, in 1977, Hornsby returned to his hometown of Williamsburg, played in local clubs and hotel bars. In 1980, he and his younger brother John Hornsby moved to Los Angeles, where they spent three years writing for 20th Century Fox. Before moving back to his native Hampton Roads, he spent time in Los Angeles as a session musician. In 1982 Hornsby joined the band Ambrosia for their last album Road Island and can be seen in the band's video for the album's single "How Can You Love Me." After Ambrosia disbanded, he and bassist Joe Puerta performed as members of the touring band for pop star Sheena Easton. Hornsby can be seen in the music video for Easton's 1984 hit single “Strut." In 1984 he formed Bruce Hornsby and the Range, who were signed to RCA Records in 1985. Besides Hornsby, Range members were David Mansfield, George Marinelli, former Ambrosia member Joe Puerta, John Molo.
Hornsby's recording career started with the biggest hit he has had to date, "The Way It Is". It topped the American music charts in 1986; the song described aspects of homelessness, the American civil rights movement and institutional racism. It has since been sampled by at least six rap artists, including Tupac Shakur, E-40, Mase. With the success of the single, the album The Way It Is went multi-platinum and produced another top five hit with "Mandolin Rain". "Every Little Kiss" did respectably well. Other tracks on the album helped establish what some labeled the "Virginia sound", a mixture of rock and bluegrass. Bruce Hornsby and the Range went on to win the Grammy Award for Best New Artist in 1987, beating out Glass Tiger, Nu Shooz, Simply Red and Timbuk3. Hornsby and the Range's sound was distinctive for its use of syncopation in Hornsby's piano solos, a bright piano sound and an extensive use of synthesizers as background for Hornsby's solos. John Molo's drumbeats were looped throughout the recorded versions of songs.
They are typical double-time beats, which allowed Hornsby and the rest of the band to do more with their solos. Hornsby and the Range's second album, Scenes From The Southside was released in 1988, it included "Look Out Any Window" and "The Valley Road" which many critics noted for their "more spacious" musical arrangements, allowing for "more expressive" piano solos from Hornsby. It included "Jacob's Ladder," which the Hornsby brothers wrote for musician friend Huey Lewis. Scenes offered further slices of "Americana" and "small-town nostalgia," but it was the band's last album to perform well in the singles market. In 1988, Hornsby first appeared on stage with the Grateful Dead, a recurring collaboration that continued until the band's dissolution. Hornsby went on to appear on stage as a guest before becoming a regular fixture in the touring lineup for the Dead a few years later. During the late 1980s and early 1990s Hornsby worked extensively as a producer and sideman, notably producing a comeback album for Leon Russell.
In 1989 Hornsby co-wrote and played piano on Don Henley's hit "The End of the Innocence", in 1991 played piano on Bonnie Raitt's hit "I Can't Make You Love Me". Hornsby continues to feature both of these songs in his own concerts
George Walton Lucas Jr. is an American filmmaker and entrepreneur. Lucas is known for creating the Star Wars and Indiana Jones franchises and founding Lucasfilm, LucasArts and Industrial Light & Magic, he was the chairman and CEO of Lucasfilm before selling it to The Walt Disney Company in 2012. After graduating from the University of Southern California in 1967, Lucas co-founded American Zoetrope with filmmaker Francis Ford Coppola. Lucas wrote and directed THX 1138, based on his earlier student short Electronic Labyrinth: THX 1138 4EB, a critical success but a financial failure, his next work as a writer-director was the film American Graffiti, inspired by his youth in early 1960s Modesto and produced through the newly founded Lucasfilm. The film was critically and commercially successful, received five Academy Award nominations including Best Picture. Lucas' next film, the epic space opera Star Wars, had a troubled production but was a surprise hit, becoming the highest-grossing film at the time, winning six Academy Awards and sparking a cultural phenomenon.
Lucas cowrote the sequels The Empire Strikes Back and Return of the Jedi. With director Steven Spielberg, he created the Indiana Jones films Raiders of the Lost Ark, Temple of Doom, The Last Crusade, he produced and wrote a variety of films through Lucasfilm in the 1980s and 1990s and during this same period Lucas' LucasArts developed high-impact video games, including Maniac Mansion, The Secret of Monkey Island and Grim Fandango alongside many video games based on the Star Wars universe. In 1997, Lucas rereleased the Star Wars trilogy as part of a Special Edition, featuring several alterations, he returned to directing with the Star Wars prequel trilogy, comprising The Phantom Menace, Attack of the Clones, Revenge of the Sith. He collaborated on served as executive producer for the war film Red Tails and wrote the CGI film Strange Magic. Lucas is one of the American film industry's most financially successful filmmakers and has been nominated for four Academy Awards, his films are among the 100 highest-grossing movies at the North American box office, adjusted for ticket-price inflation.
Lucas is considered a significant figure in the New Hollywood era. Lucas was born and raised in Modesto, the son of Dorothy Ellinore Lucas and George Walton Lucas Sr. and is of German, Swiss-German, English and distant Dutch and French descent. He was interested including TV shows such as Flash Gordon. Long before Lucas began making films, he yearned to be a racecar driver, he spent most of his high school years racing on the underground circuit at fairgrounds and hanging out at garages. On June 12, 1962, at age eighteen, while driving his souped-up Autobianchi Bianchina, another driver broadsided him, flipping over his car, nearly killing him, causing him to lose interest in racing as a career. Lucas's father owned a stationery store, wanted George to work for him when he turned 18. Lucas had been planning to go to art school, declared upon leaving home that he would be a millionaire by the age of 30, he attended Modesto Junior College, where he studied anthropology and literature, amongst other subjects.
He began shooting with an 8 mm camera, including filming car races. At this time and his friend John Plummer became interested in Canyon Cinema: screenings of underground, avant-garde 16 mm filmmakers like Jordan Belson, Stan Brakhage, Bruce Conner. Lucas and Plummer saw classic European films of the time, including Jean-Luc Godard's Breathless, François Truffaut's Jules et Jim, Federico Fellini's 8½. "That's when George started exploring," Plummer said. Through his interest in autocross racing, Lucas met renowned cinematographer Haskell Wexler, another race enthusiast. Wexler to work with Lucas on several occasions, was impressed by Lucas' talent. "George had a good eye, he thought visually," he recalled. Lucas transferred to the University of Southern California School of Cinematic Arts. USC was one of the earliest universities to have a school devoted to motion picture film. During the years at USC, Lucas shared a dorm room with Randal Kleiser. Along with classmates such as Walter Murch, Hal Barwood, John Milius, they became a clique of film students known as The Dirty Dozen.
He became good friends with fellow acclaimed student filmmaker and future Indiana Jones collaborator, Steven Spielberg. Lucas was influenced by the Filmic Expression course taught at the school by filmmaker Lester Novros which concentrated on the non-narrative elements of Film Form like color, movement and time. Another inspiration was the Serbian montagist Slavko Vorkapić, a film theoretician who made stunning montage sequences for Hollywood studio features at MGM, RKO, Paramount. Vorkapich taught the autonomous nature of the cinematic art form, emphasizing kinetic energy inherent in motion pictures. Lucas saw many inspiring films in class the visual films coming out of the National Film Board of Canada like Arthur Lipsett's 21-87, the French-Canadian cameraman Jean-Claude Labrecque's cinéma vérité 60 Cycles, the work of Norman McLaren, the documentaries of Claude Jutra. Lucas fell madly in love with pure cinema and became prolific at making 16 mm nonstory noncharacter visual tone poems and cinéma vérité with such titles as Look at Life, Herbie, 1:42.08, The Emperor, Anyone Lived in a Pretty Town, 6-18-67.
He was passionate and interested in camerawork an
Improvisational theatre called improvisation or improv, is the form of theatre comedy, in which most or all of what is performed is unplanned or unscripted: created spontaneously by the performers. In its purest form, the dialogue, action and characters are created collaboratively by the players as the improvisation unfolds in present time, without use of an prepared, written script. Improvisational theatre exists in performance as a range of styles of improvisational comedy as well as some non-comedic theatrical performances, it is sometimes used in film and television, both to develop characters and scripts and as part of the final product. Improvisational techniques are used extensively in drama programs to train actors for stage and television and can be an important part of the rehearsal process. However, the skills and processes of improvisation are used outside the context of performing arts - Applied Improvisation, it is used in classrooms as an educational tool and in businesses as a way to develop communication skills, creative problem solving, supportive team-work abilities that are used by improvisational, ensemble players.
It is sometimes used in psychotherapy as a tool to gain insight into a person's thoughts and relationships. The earliest well documented use of improvisational theatre in Western history is found in the Atellan Farce of 391 BC. From the 16th to the 18th centuries, commedia dell'arte performers improvised based on a broad outline in the streets of Italy. In the 1890s, theatrical theorists and directors such as the Russian Konstantin Stanislavski and the French Jacques Copeau, founders of two major streams of acting theory, both utilized improvisation in acting training and rehearsal. Modern theatrical improvisation games began as drama exercises for children, which were a staple of drama education in the early 20th century thanks in part to the progressive education movement initiated by John Dewey in 1916; some people credit American Dudley Riggs as the first vaudevillian to use audience suggestions to create improvised sketches on stage. Improvisation exercises were developed further by Viola Spolin in the 1940s, 50s, 60s, codified in her book Improvisation For The Theater, the first book that gave specific techniques for learning to do and teach improvisational theater.
In the 1970s in Canada, British playwright and director Keith Johnstone wrote Impro: Improvisation and the Theatre, a book outlining his ideas on improvisation, invented Theatresports, which has become a staple of modern improvisational comedy and is the inspiration for the popular television show Whose Line Is It Anyway? Spolin influenced the first generation of modern American improvisers at The Compass Players in Chicago, which led to The Second City, her son, Paul Sills, along with David Shepherd, started The Compass Players. Following the demise of the Compass Players, Paul Sills began The Second City, they were the first organized troupes in Chicago, the modern Chicago improvisational comedy movement grew from their success. Many of the current "rules" of comedic improv were first formalized in Chicago in the late 1950s and early 1960s among The Compass Players troupe, directed by Paul Sills. From most accounts, David Shepherd provided the philosophical vision of the Compass Players, while Elaine May was central to the development of the premises for its improvisations.
Mike Nichols, Ted Flicker, Del Close were her most frequent collaborators in this regard. When The Second City opened its doors on December 16, 1959, directed by Paul Sills, his mother Viola Spolin began training new improvisers through a series of classes and exercises which became the cornerstone of modern improv training. By the mid-1960s, Viola Spolin's classes were handed over to her protégé, Jo Forsberg, who further developed Spolin's methods into a one-year course, which became The Players Workshop, the first official school of improvisation in the USA. During this time, Forsberg trained many of the performers who went on to star on The Second City stage. Many of the original cast of Saturday Night Live came from The Second City, the franchise has produced such comedy stars as Mike Myers, Tina Fey, Bob Odenkirk, Amy Sedaris, Stephen Colbert, Eugene Levy, Jack McBrayer, Steve Carell, Chris Farley, Dan Aykroyd, John Belushi. Keith Johnstone's group The Theatre Machine, which originated in London, was touring Europe.
This work gave birth to Theatresports, at first secretly in Johnstone's workshops, in public when he moved to Canada. Toronto has been home to a rich improv tradition. In 1984, Dick Chudnow founded ComedySportz in Milwaukee, WI. Expansion began with the addition of ComedySportz-Madison, in 1985; the first Comedy League of America National Tournament was held in 1988, with 10 teams participating. The league boasts a roster of 29 international cities. In San Francisco, The Committee theater was active in North Beach during the 1960s, it was founded by Alan Myerson and his wife Jessica. When The Committee disbanded in 1972, three major companies were formed: The Pitchell Players, The Wing, Improvisation Inc; the only company that continued to perform Close's Harold was the latter one. Its two former members, Michael Bossier and John Elk, formed Spaghetti Jam in San Francisco's Old Spaghetti Factory in 1976, where shortform improv and Harolds were performed through 1983. Stand-up comedians performing down the street at the Intersection for the Arts would drop by and sit in.
In 1979, Elk brought shortform to England, teaching workshops at Jacksons Lane Theatre, he was the first American to perform at The Comedy Store, above
In fairy tales, a fairy godmother is a fairy with magical powers who acts as a mentor or parent to someone, in the role that an actual godparent was expected to play in many societies. In Perrault's Cinderella, he concludes the tale with the cynical moral that no personal advantages will suffice without proper connections; the fairy godmother is a special case of the donor. Actual fairy godmothers are rare in fairy tales, but became familiar figures because of the popularity of the literary fairy tales of Madame d'Aulnoy and other précieuses, Charles Perrault. Many other supernatural patrons feature in fairy tales; the fairy godmother has her roots in the figures of the Fates. In the tales of précieuses and successors, the fairy godmother acts in a manner atypical of fairies in actual folklore belief; the fairy godmother's protégé is a prince or princess and the hero of the story, the godparent uses her magic to help or otherwise support them. The most well-known example is the fairy godmother in Charles Perrault's Cinderella.
Eight fairy godmothers appear in Sleeping Beauty, of Charles Perrault's and in the Grimm Brothers' version titled Little Briar Rose the thirteen so-called godmothers are called Wise Women. The popularity of these versions of these tales led to this being regarded as a common fairy-tale motif, although they are less common in other tales. Indeed, the fairy godmothers were added to The Sleeping Beauty by Perrault. A great variety of other figures may take this place, she is portrayed as kind and loving. In the works of the précieuses, French literary fairy tales, fairy godmothers act much as actual godmothers did among their social circles, exerting their benefits for their godchildren, but expecting respect in return. Madame d'Aulnoy created a fairy godmother for the evil stepsister in her fairy tale The Blue Bird. In her The White Doe, the fairy godmother helps the evil princess get revenge on the heroine. In Finette Cendron, the fairy godmother is the heroine's, but after helping her in the early portion of the tale, she is offended when Finette Cendron does not take her advice, Finette must work through the second part with little assistance from her.
In Henriette-Julie de Murat's Bearskin, the heroine has a fairy godmother, but she is offended that the heroine's marriage was arranged without consulting her, refuses to assist. Fairy godmothers appear in fairytale fantasy comic versions and retellings of Cinderella and Sleeping Beauty. Mercedes Lackey presents a lampooned version of the concept in her Tales of the Five Hundred Kingdoms series, in which Fairy Godmothers are magically-gifted women who monitor magical forces across the kingdoms. Whenever events are right for a fairy tale to recur, the relevant Fairy Godmother steps in to make sure that the tale in question runs its course with as few fatalities as possible. In William Makepeace Thackeray's The Rose and the Ring, the fairy Blackstick concludes that her gifts have not done her godchildren good. In C. S. Lewis's The Magician's Nephew, when Uncle Andrew explains how he made the magical rings from dust left to him by his godmother, he points out that she may have had fairy blood, so he might have been the last man to have a fairy godmother.
In the television animated Halloween special Witch's Night Out, the witch is mistaken for a "fairy godmother" by the two children and Tender. Their sitter, Bazooey corrects them by addressing the fairy godmother as a "wicked witch"; the Fairly OddParents is a humorous animated TV Series where the fairies Cosmo and Wanda are godparents. In Shrek 2, the fairy godmother who appears is an evil twin sister of Cinderella's fairy godmother, she is a conniving, crooked businesswoman, quite willing to resort to blackmail and/or murder to further her own interests. The pure reason for helping princesses gain a ever after with Prince Charming is the fact that Prince Charming is the Fairy Godmother's son, through the marriage he will gain the throne; the Discworld novel Witches Abroad features a plotting fairy godmother, Lady Lilith de Tempscire, who uses the power of stories to control the city of Genua. During the book Magrat Garlick takes on the role, but throws away the magic wand at the end. In The Dresden Files novels, the main character, a modern wizard named Harry Dresden is revealed to have a faerie godmother by the name of Leanansidhe who enjoys ensnaring Harry in one-sided deals.
Once Upon a Midnight features the character of Angelica, the Blue Fairy, an overzealous fairy godmother. Fairy Godmother plays, she is portrayed by Portal voice actress Ellen McLain. The first King's Quest game features a fairy godmother of the main char