The Shelby CSX was a limited-production high performance automobile based on the turbocharged intercooled Dodge Shadow and Plymouth Sundance. These cars were offered by Shelby Automobiles Inc. from 1987 through 1989. The first Shelby CSX appeared in 1987. Power came with 175 hp and 175 ft · lbf. Performance was good with a 0 to 60 mph time of 6.8 s. Shock absorbers and springs were replaced, Daytona Shelby Z rear discs were added. Once again, Shelby used his own wheels. Outside badging was more restrained than other Shelby offerings. Black was the only color available. 750 of the 1987 CSX's were sold, priced at $13,495. There was no optional equipment. In 1966, Shelby created a special line of Shelby Mustangs for the Hertz car rental company. Shelby repeated this method in 1988 with the creation of the CSX-T for the Thrifty rental company; the CSX-T was only sold to Thrifty. All 1,001 units produced were white with blue trim; the CSX-T was mechanically similar to the 1987 CSX, except the non-intercooled Turbo I engine was used.
Two variations were made, an intercooled version given to the president of Thrifty and a version with a factory sunroof given to the president's daughter. The final CSX was 1989's CSX-VNT; this would be the final Shelby Dodge, marked two notable technological advances: the introduction of a Garrett variable-nozzle turbo and the application of composite wheels. Designed by Shelby and produced by Motor Wheel Corporation, known as "Fiberrides" lighter than contemporary wheels; the engine was Chrysler's new intercooled Turbo IV equipped with a Getrag A555 5-speed transmission. The variable geometry turbo vanes were computer needed no wastegate. Instead, they adjusted the flow of exhaust gases to spool up and provide strong power. Chrysler kept the horsepower rating at 175 hp, but upped the torque rating to 205 ft·lbs at an unheard of 2100 rpm. Full torque was available from this low rpm to well past redline. Turbo lag was eliminated, with full boost available at 2100 rpm; the intense powerband, coupled with the car's low weight, made the CSX-VNT fast on the street.
Car and Driver magazine called it "a high-tech hot rod" and "a technological showcase" and were impressed with the engine's flexibility and top-gear acceleration. Synthetic oil and premium fuel were specified for use with this car, those who neglected this would regret it as they are needed to prevent turbo overheating and prolong engine life. Mechanics overwhelmed by such a complex turbo setup began rumors of carbon deposits and sticking vanes in the turbos. Rather than a proper tune-up, replacing the VNT with the simple but lag-prone turbo II was common. Examples with the VNT system intact are today considered more valuable to collectors. Time has proven them to be quite reliable, unlike the 16-valve as used in the Spirit R/T. Shelby installed emblems in the engine compartment specifying Mobil 1 synthetic oil only, as he did on other Shelby Dodges; these are missing on long running examples. A ground effects package produced by Kaminari Aerodynamics gave the CSX-VNT a ground hugging appearance.
The suspension was modified, as the alignment specs are radically different from the other Shelby Dodges. Drivers praised the neutral handling. Shelby chose Exotic Red, a mix of bright red and maroon, with gold wheels and trim to finish this car; the MSRP price was $15,995. Production was limited to 500 vehicles and with the completion of cars, Carroll Shelby's direct involvement with Dodge was complete; the 89 Shelby CSX production figures can be broken down into the following: 15 were equipped as'two option', coming factory with 225 wide tire option as well as RECARO bucket seats. The remaining were either RECARO or non-RECARO equipped cars with regular size tires; the 1989 Shelby CSX-VNT proved to be a true domestic exotic, showcasing technologies not seen in a gasoline application until 2006 when Porsche utilized variable vane turbos for their 997. The front air dams and rear wing can still be purchased from Kaminari Aerodynamics; the wing is now equipped with an LED brake light built into it.
The front air dams are different than the original factory piece
The Maserati Biturbo was a family of executive grand tourers produced by Italian automobile manufacturer Maserati between 1981 and 1994. The original Biturbo was a two-door, four-seater notchback coupé featuring, as the name implies, a two-litre V6 engine with two turbochargers and a luxurious interior; the car was designed by Pierangelo Andreani, Chief of Centro Stile Maserati up to 1981, somewhat influenced by the design of the recent Quattroporte III. All Maserati models introduced from the Biturbo's inception in 1981 until 1997 were based on the original Biturbo architecture, including the grand tourers like the Shamal and Ghibli II; the Barchetta, while of a different layout used an ultimate version of the Biturbo V6 engine. When Alejandro de Tomaso acquired Maserati in 1976, he had ambitious plans for the marque, his plan was to combine the prestige of the Maserati brand with a sports car that would be more affordable, replacing the higher-priced models that had traditionally made up the Maserati range, such as the Bora and Khamsin sports cars developed under Citroën ownership.
The Biturbo was a strong seller and brought Italian prestige to a wide audience, with sales of about 40,000 units. Sales figures fell in subsequent years. De Tomaso used another of his companies, Innocenti, to produce body panels of the car and to provide final assembly. De Tomaso sold Maserati to Fiat when he suffered losses who grouped the company with their erstwhile rival Ferrari; the Biturbo is number 28 in the BBC book Crap Cars and in 2007 was selected as Time's worst car of 1984, although they ranked the Chrysler TC by Maserati as a "greater ignominy". The Biturbo competed unsuccessfully in the British Touring Car Championship in the late 1980s, the European Touring Car Championship and the World Touring Car Championship. Between 1987 and 1989 a facelift designed by Marcello Gandini was phased in, which helped to soften the sharp bodylines present on the original design; these changes first found their way onto the 1987 430. The redesign included a taller and more rounded grille with mesh grille and bonnet, aerodynamic wing mirrors and 15" disc-shaped alloy wheels, now mounted on 5-lug hubs.
Some models received the wraparound bumpers with integral foglights and the deep sills introduced with the 2.24v in early 1989. Mechanical upgrades first seen on the 2.24v began filtering through the Biturbo range in early 1989, including suspension and power steering improvements as well as ventilated front discs. In 1991, the entire lineup was restyled for a second time, again by the hand of Marcello Gandini. Gandini developed an aerodynamic kit that included a unique spoiler at the base of the windscreen hiding the windshield wipers, a rear spoiler, side skirts; the new two-element headlights used poly-ellipsoidal projectors developed by Magneti-Marelli. Inset in body-colour housings, they flanked a redesigned grille and integrated in the bonnet; the 15" disc-shaped alloys were replaced by new 16" seven-spoke wheels, with a hubcap designed to look like a centerlock nut. The second facelift was referred to as nuovolook; the cars in the Biturbo family were of unibody steel construction, with a conventional layout of front-longitudinally mounted engine and gearbox.
Suspension was of the MacPherson strut type upfront and semi-trailing arms at the rear, with coil springs, double-acting dampers and anti-roll bars on both axles. The differential and rear suspension arms were supported by a subframe; the Maserati Biturbo was the first production car with a twin-turbocharged engine. It featured the first production car engine with three valves per cylinder; the aluminium 90-degree SOHC V6 was a new design though based on the 2.0 L Merak engine, itself based on earlier V8 Formula One Maserati engines, designed by Giulio Alfieri. The 2-litre version featured wet aluminium sleeves coated with Nikasil; the last street version featured over 150 hp/litre and 140 lb⋅ft /litre of torque. In Italy, new cars with engine displacement over 2,000 cc were subjected to a 38% value added tax, against 19% on smaller displacement cars. Therefore, throughout the Biturbo' production run, there both two-litre models aimed at the domestic market and "export" versions with a 2.5 L V6 engine and a 2.8 L V6 engine.
The carbureted 2.5 L engine produced 185 hp and 208 lb⋅ft of torque in North American specification and 192 PS and 220 lb⋅ft of torque in European specification. In 1984 and 1985, the 2.5 L V6 models utilized a single Weber DCNVH carburetor under a smooth aluminum alloy plenum fed by twin IHI turbo chargers. Maserati, U. S. dealers, sports car enthusiasts began experimenting with intercoolers for which many variants were fitted and mutually endorsed by Maserati. Intercoolers included air-to-air and water-to-air intercoolers, all produced by Sparco. In 1986, the 2.5 L V6 models switched to a Weber 34DAT carburetor, proven to be less efficient and more problematic to maintain than the Weber DCNVH used previously. On initial viewing of the 1986 Biturbo engine bay, the aluminum alloy plenum is finned with a different footprint and the intake manifold was specific for that model. Similar experimentation with intercoolers and placement continued through 1986 models. However, the side-mounted water-to-air intercooler became the standard variant utilized until late 1986 / early 1987 when the intercooler
Audi AG is a German automobile manufacturer that designs, produces and distributes luxury vehicles. Audi is a member of the Volkswagen Group and has its roots at Ingolstadt, Germany. Audi-branded vehicles are produced in nine production facilities worldwide; the origins of the company are complex, going back to the early 20th century and the initial enterprises founded by engineer August Horch. The modern era of Audi began in the 1960s when Auto Union was acquired by Volkswagen from Daimler-Benz. After relaunching the Audi brand with the 1965 introduction of the Audi F103 series, Volkswagen merged Auto Union with NSU Motorenwerke in 1969, thus creating the present day form of the company; the company name is based on the Latin translation of the surname of August Horch. "Horch", meaning "listen" in German, becomes "audi" in Latin. The four rings of the Audi logo each represent one of four car companies that banded together to create Audi's predecessor company, Auto Union. Audi's slogan is Vorsprung durch Technik, meaning "Being Ahead through Technology".
However, Audi USA had used the slogan "Truth in Engineering" from 2007 to 2016, have not used the slogan since 2016. Audi, along with fellow German marques BMW and Mercedes-Benz, is among the best-selling luxury automobile brands in the world. Automobile company Wanderer was established in 1885 becoming a branch of Audi AG. Another company, NSU, which later merged into Audi, was founded during this time, supplied the chassis for Gottlieb Daimler's four-wheeler. On 14 November 1899, August Horch established the company A. Horch & Cie. in the Ehrenfeld district of Cologne. In 1902, he moved with his company to Reichenbach im Vogtland. On 10 May 1904, he founded the August Horch & Cie. Motorwagenwerke AG, a joint-stock company in Zwickau. After troubles with Horch chief financial officer, August Horch left Motorwagenwerke and founded in Zwickau on 16 July 1909, his second company, the August Horch Automobilwerke GmbH, his former partners sued him for trademark infringement. The German Reichsgericht in Leipzig determined that the Horch brand belonged to his former company.
Since August Horch was prohibited from using "Horch" as a trade name in his new car business, he called a meeting with close business friends and Franz Fikentscher from Zwickau. At the apartment of Franz Fikentscher, they discussed how to come up with a new name for the company. During this meeting, Franz's son was studying Latin in a corner of the room. Several times he looked like he was on the verge of saying something but would just swallow his words and continue working, until he blurted out, "Father – audiatur et altera pars... wouldn't it be a good idea to call it audi instead of horch?" "Horch!" in German means "Hark!" or "hear", "Audi" in the singular imperative form of "audire" – "to listen" – in Latin. The idea was enthusiastically accepted by everyone attending the meeting. On 25 April 1910 the Audi Automobilwerke GmbH Zwickau was entered in the company's register of Zwickau registration court; the first Audi automobile, the Audi Type A 10/22 hp Sport-Phaeton, was produced in the same year, followed by the successor Type B 10/28PS in the same year.
Audi started with a 2,612 cc inline-four engine model Type A, followed by a 3,564 cc model, as well as 4,680 cc and 5,720 cc models. These cars were successful in sporting events; the first six-cylinder model Type M, 4,655 cc appeared in 1924. August Horch left the Audiwerke in 1920 for a high position at the ministry of transport, but he was still involved with Audi as a member of the board of trustees. In September 1921, Audi became the first German car manufacturer to present a production car, the Audi Type K, with left-handed drive. Left-hand drive spread and established dominance during the 1920s because it provided a better view of oncoming traffic, making overtaking safer. In August 1928, Jørgen Rasmussen, the owner of Dampf-Kraft-Wagen, acquired the majority of shares in Audiwerke AG. In the same year, Rasmussen bought the remains of the U. S. automobile manufacturer Rickenbacker, including the manufacturing equipment for eight-cylinder engines. These engines were used in Audi Zwickau and Audi Dresden models that were launched in 1929.
At the same time, six-cylinder and four-cylinder models were manufactured. Audi cars of that era were luxurious cars equipped with special bodywork. In 1932, Audi merged with Horch, DKW, Wanderer, to form Auto Union AG, Chemnitz, it was during this period that the company offered the Audi Front that became the first European car to combine a six-cylinder engine with front-wheel drive. It used a powertrain shared with the Wanderer, but turned 180-degrees, so that the drive shaft faced the front. Before World War II, Auto Union used the four interlinked rings that make up the Audi badge today, representing these four brands. However, this badge was used only on Auto Union racing cars in that period while the member companies used their own names and emblems; the technological development became more and more concentrated and some Audi models were propelled by Horch or Wanderer built engines. Reflecting the economic pressures of the time, Auto Union concentrated on smaller cars through the 1930s, so that by 1938 the company's DKW brand accounted for 17.9% of the German car market, while Audi held only 0.1%.
After the final few Audis were delivered in 1939 the "Audi" name disappeared from the new car market for more than two decades
A supercharger is an air compressor that increases the pressure or density of air supplied to an internal combustion engine. This gives each intake cycle of the engine more oxygen, letting it burn more fuel and do more work, thus increasing power. Power for the supercharger can be provided mechanically by means of a belt, shaft, or chain connected to the engine's crankshaft. Common usage restricts the term supercharger to mechanically driven units. In 1848 or 1849, G. Jones of Birmingham, England brought out a Roots-style compressor. In 1860, brothers Philander and Francis Marion Roots, founders of Roots Blower Company of Connersville, patented the design for an air mover for use in blast furnaces and other industrial applications; the world's first functional tested engine supercharger was made by Dugald Clerk, who used it for the first two-stroke engine in 1878. Gottlieb Daimler received a German patent for supercharging an internal combustion engine in 1885. Louis Renault patented a centrifugal supercharger in France in 1902.
An early supercharged race car was built by Lee Chadwick of Pottstown, Pennsylvania in 1908 which reached a speed of 100 mph. The world's first series-produced cars with superchargers were Mercedes 6/25/40 hp and Mercedes 10/40/65 hp. Both models had Roots superchargers, they were distinguished as "Kompressor" models, the origin of the Mercedes-Benz badging which continues today. On March 24, 1878 Heinrich Krigar of Germany obtained patent #4121, patenting the first screw-type compressor; that same year on August 16 he obtained patent #7116 after modifying and improving his original designs. His designs show a two-lobe rotor assembly with each rotor having the same shape as the other. Although the design resembled the Roots style compressor, the "screws" were shown with 180 degrees of twist along their length; the technology of the time was not sufficient to produce such a unit, Heinrich made no further progress with the screw compressor. Nearly half a century in 1935, Alf Lysholm, working for Ljungströms Ångturbin AB, patented a design with five female and four male rotors.
He patented the method for machining the compressor rotors. There are two main types of superchargers defined according to the method of gas transfer: positive displacement and dynamic compressors. Positive displacement blowers and compressors deliver an constant level of pressure increase at all engine speeds. Dynamic compressors do not deliver pressure at low speeds. Positive-displacement pumps deliver a nearly fixed volume of air per revolution at all speeds. Major types of positive-displacement pumps include: Roots Lysholm twin-screw Sliding vane Scroll-type supercharger known as the G-Lader Positive-displacement pumps are further divided into internal and external compression types. Roots superchargers, including high helix roots superchargers, produce compression externally. External compression refers to pumps that transfer air at ambient pressure. If an engine equipped with a supercharger that compresses externally is running under boost conditions, the pressure inside the supercharger remains at ambient pressure.
Roots superchargers tend to be mechanically efficient at moving air at low pressure differentials, whereas at high pressure rations, internal compression superchargers tend to be more mechanically efficient. All the other types have some degree of internal compression. Internal compression refers to the compression of air within the supercharger itself, which at or close to boost level, can be delivered smoothly to the engine with little or no back flow. Internal compression devices use a fixed internal compression ratio; when the boost pressure is equal to the compression pressure of the supercharger, the back flow is zero. If the boost pressure exceeds that compression pressure, back flow can still occur as in a roots blower; the internal compression ratio of this type of supercharger can be matched to the expected boost pressure in order to optimize mechanical efficiency. Positive-displacement superchargers are rated by their capacity per revolution. In the case of the Roots blower, the GMC rating pattern is typical.
The GMC types are rated according to how many two-stroke cylinders, the size of those cylinders, it is designed to scavenge. GMC has made 2–71, 3–71, 4–71, the famed 6–71 blowers. For example, a 6–71 blower is designed to scavenge six cylinders of 71 cubic inches each and would be used on a two-stroke diesel of 426 cubic inches, designated a 6–71. However, because 6–71 is the engine's designation, the actual displacement is less than the simple multiplication would suggest. A 6–71 pumps 339 cubic inches per revolution. Aftermarket derivatives continue the trend with 8–71 to current 16–71 blowers used in different motor sports. From this, one can see that a 6–71 is twice the size of a 3–71. GMC made 53 cu in series in 2–, 3–, 4–, 6–, 8–53 sizes, as well as a "V71" series for use on engines using a V configuration. Dynamic compressors rely on accelerating the air to high speed and t
Nissan RB engine
The RB engine is a 2.0–3.0 L straight-6 four-stroke gasoline from Nissan, produced from 1985–2004. Both SOHC and DOHC versions have an aluminium head; the SOHC versions have 2 valves per cylinder and the DOHC versions have 4 valves per cylinder. All RB engines have belt driven a cast iron block. Most turbo models have an intercooled turbo, most have a recirculating factory blow off valve to reduce compressor surge when the throttle closes; the Nissan RB Engine is derived from the six cylinder Nissan L20A engine which has the same bore and stroke as the RB20. All RB engines were made in Japan where the new VR38DETT is now made; some RB engines were rebuilt by Nissan's NISMO division at the Omori Factory in Tokyo as well. All Z-Tune Skylines were rebuilt at the Omori Factory. All Nissan engines follow a naming convention, identifying the engine family, features present—see the list of Nissan engines for details; the stock dimensions for the Nissan RB Engine RB20 - 2.0 L, bore x stroke: 78 mm × 69.7 mm RB24 - 2.4 L, bore x stroke: 86 mm × 69.7 mm RB25 - 2.5 L, bore x stroke: 86 mm × 71.7 mm RB26 - 2.6 L, bore x stroke: 86 mm × 73.7 mm RB30 - 3.0 L, bore x stroke: 86 mm × 85 mm "D" indicates a dual overhead cam as opposed to a single overhead cam "E" indicates the individual engine ports are electronically fuel-injected "S" indicates the engine is carbureted "T" indicates the engine has a factory installed turbocharger "TT" indicates the engine has factory installed twin turbochargers "P" indicates the engine runs on LPG The first RB20ET/DE/DET engines were fitted to the HR31 Skyline and the Nissan Fairlady 200ZR, produced from August 1985.
The early twin cam engines featured the NICS injection system, while the twin cam engines used ECCS. Versions which used ECCS engine management, discarded the twelve tiny runners for six much larger ones, it was fitted to the A31 Cefiro, C32 and C33 Laurel. The Fairlady 200ZR was fitted with an intercooled NICS type RB20DET; the first RB20E engine was used in the C32 Nissan Laurel, produced from October 1984. Laurels, R32 Skyline and Cefiros used the second series RB20E/DE/DET; this had an improved head design, used the ECCS injection system. These motors are known as "Silver Top" engines; the RB20DET-R was limited to 800 units. There were a variety of 2.0 L RB20 engines produced: RB20E single-cam Power: 96 to 110 kW at 5600 rpm Torque: 167 to 181 N⋅m at 4400 rpm Camshaft duration: 232° intake. These were fitted to some left hand drive Nissan Cefiros exported from Japan new. Mechanically, the RB24S combines an RB30E head, RB25DE/DET block and RB20DE/DET crank with 34 mm height pistons; the resulting 86 mm × 69.7 mm bore and stroke combined to form a 2.4 L inline-six engine.
This engine used carburetors instead of the Nissan ECCS fuel injection system. It is able to rev higher than the RB25DE/DET as well as being the same displacement as the RB25DE/DET. A common modification is to fit a twin cam head from other RB series motors while retaining the carburetor set-up; the standard single cam form produced 141 PS at 20.1 kg ⋅ m of torque at 3,000 rpm. The 2.5 L RB25 engine was produced in four forms: RB25DE - NON-TURBO twin-cam 180–200 hp at 6000 rpm, 255 N⋅m at 4000 rpm) RB25DET - twin-cam TURBO 245–250 hp, 319 N⋅m RB25DE NEO- NON-TURBO twin-cam 147 kW at 6000 rpm, 255 N⋅m at 4000 rpm) RB25DET NEO - twin-cam TURBO 206 kW at 6400 rpm, 362 N⋅m at 3200 rpm)The RB25 series of engines was first introduced in the GTS-25 R32 Nissan Skyline. RB25DE and DET engines produced from August 1993 featured NVCS for the intake cam; this gave the new RB25DE more torque at lower rpm than the previous model. From 1995, both the RB
The Bugatti Veyron EB 16.4 is a mid-engine sports car and developed in Germany by the Volkswagen Group and manufactured in Molsheim, France, by French automobile manufacturer Bugatti. It was named after the racing driver Pierre Veyron; the original version has a top speed of 407 km/h. It was named Car of best car award by the BBC television programme Top Gear; the standard Bugatti Veyron won Top Gear's Best Car Driven All Year award in 2005. The Super Sport version of the Veyron is recognised by Guinness World Records as the fastest street-legal production car in the world, with a top speed of 431.072 km/h. The Veyron Grand Sport Vitesse was the fastest roadster in the world, reaching an averaged top speed of 408.84 km/h in a test on 6 April 2013. The Veyron's chief designer was Hartmut Warkuß and the exterior was designed by Jozef Kabaň of Volkswagen, with much of the engineering work being conducted under the guidance of engineering chief Wolfgang Schreiber; the Veyron includes a sound system built by Burmester Audiosysteme.
Several special variants have been produced. In December, 2010, Bugatti began offering prospective buyers the ability to customise exterior and interior colours by using the Veyron 16.4 Configurator application on the marque's official website. The Bugatti Veyron was discontinued in late 2014, but special edition models continued production until 2015. In May 1998, Volkswagen AG acquired the rights to use the Bugatti logo and the trade name Bugatti Automobiles S. A. S. To succeed the EB 110 model produced under the previous ownership, the automaker released a series of concept cars, whole technological advancements would culminate in the form of the Bugatti Veyron 16.4. Between October 1998 and September 1999, Bugatti introduced a series of Giugiaro-designed concept vehicles, each with permanent four-wheel drive and powered by the Volkswagen-designed W18 engine; the first car, the EB118, was a 2-door coupé presented at the 1998 Paris Motor Show. The next car, the EB218, was a 4-door saloon presented at the 1999 Geneva Motor Show.
The third and final car, the 18/3 Chiron, was a mid-engine sports car presented at the 1999 International Motor Show in Frankfurt. In October, 1999, Bugatti unveiled a fourth concept car at the Tokyo Motor Show; the EB 18/4 Veyron was a mid-engine sports car styled in-house under the direction of Hartmut Warkuß. In 2000, a modified version, the EB 16/4 Veyron, was displayed at motor shows in Detroit and Paris. Rather than the three-bank W18 engine of the four previous concept cars, the EB 16/4 featured the four-bank W16 engine architecture installed in every production example of the Veyron; the decision to start production of the car was made by the Volkswagen Group in 2001. The first roadworthy prototype was completed in August 2003, it is identical to the series variant, except for a few details. In the transition from development to series production, considerable technical problems had to be addressed delaying production until September 2005; the Veyron EB 16.4 is named in honour of Pierre Veyron, a Bugatti development engineer, test driver and company race driver who, with co-driver Jean-Pierre Wimille, won the 1939 24 Hours of Le Mans while driving a Bugatti.
The "EB" refers to Bugatti founder Ettore Bugatti and the "16.4" refers to the engine's 16 cylinders and 4 turbochargers. The Veyron features an 8.0-litre, quad-turbocharged, W16 cylinder engine, equivalent to two narrow-angle V8 engines bolted together. Each cylinder has four valves for a total of 64, but the configuration of each bank allows two overhead camshafts to drive two banks of cylinders so only four camshafts are needed; the engine is fed by four turbochargers and displaces 7,993 cc, with a square 86 by 86 mm bore and stroke. The transmission is a dual-clutch direct-shift computer-controlled automatic transmission having seven gear ratios, with magnesium paddles behind the steering wheel and a shift time of less than 150 milliseconds, built by Ricardo of England rather than Borg-Warner, who designed the six speed DSG used in the mainstream Volkswagen Group marques; the Veyron can be driven in either semi-automatic or automatic mode. A replacement transmission for the Veyron costs just over US$120,000.
It has permanent all-wheel drive using the Haldex Traction system. It uses special Michelin PAX run-flat tyres, designed to accommodate the Veyron's top speed, cost US$25,000 per set; the tyres can be mounted on the wheels only in France, a service which costs US$70,000. Kerb weight is 1,888 kg; this gives the car a power-to-weight ratio, according to Volkswagen Group's figures, of 530 PS per ton. The car's wheelbase is 2,710 mm. Overall length is 4,462 mm; the width is height 1,204 mm. The Bugatti Veyron has a total of ten radiators: 3 heat exchangers for the air-to-liquid intercoolers. 3 engine radiators. 1 for the air conditioning system. 1 transmission oil radiator. 1 differential oil radiator. 1 engine oil radiatorIt has a drag coefficient of Cd=0.41 and Cd=0.36, a frontal area of 2.07 m2. This gives it a drag area, the product of drag coefficient and frontal area, of CdA=0.74 m2. According to Volkswagen Group and certified by TÜV Süddeutschland, the W16 engine utilised by the Veyron engine has a power output of 1,001 PS, generates 1,250 N⋅m of torque.
German inspection officials recorded an average top speed of the original version at 408.47 km/h during test sessions on Volkswagen Group's private Ehra-Lessien test track on 19 April 200
Subaru EJ engine
The Subaru EJ engine is a series of four-stroke automotive engines manufactured by Subaru. They were introduced in 1989, intended to succeed the previous Subaru EA engine; the EJ series is the mainstay of Subaru's engine line, with all engines of this series being 16-valve horizontal flat-fours, with configurations available for single, or double-overhead camshaft arrangements. Aspirated and turbocharged versions are available, ranging from 96 to 320 hp; these engines are used in light aircraft, kit cars and engine swaps into air-cooled Volkswagens, are popular as a swap into the wasserboxer engined Volkswagen T3/Vanagon. Primary engineering on the EJ series was done by Masayuki Kodama, Takemasa Yamada and Shuji Sawafuji of Fuji Heavy Industries, Subaru's parent company. Usage: Impreza GC1 series - Replaced by Subaru EL engine in 2006 GD, GG, GE & GH series Impreza. Impreza 93-06 Displacement: 1,493 cc Bore: 85 mm Stroke: 65.8 mm Compression Ratio: 9.4:1 - 10.0 Valvetrain: SOHC, 16 valves Fuel Delivery multi point fuel injectionEJ151 Horsepower: 97 PS at 6,000 rpm Torque: 129 N⋅m at 3,600 rpmEJ152 Horsepower: 102 PS at 5,600 rpm Torque: 137 N⋅m at 4,000 rpmEJ153 Horsepower: 95 PS at 5,200 rpm Torque: 140 N⋅m at 3,600 rpmEJ154 Horsepower: 100 PS at 5,200 rpm Torque: 142 N⋅m at 4,000 rpm Usage: Impreza 93-94 GC4 series Impreza 93-06 Impreza 93-97 Impreza 93-06 Displacement: 1,597 cc Bore: 87.9 mm Stroke: 65.8 mm Compression Ratio: 9.4:1 - 10.0:1 Valvetrain: SOHC Fuel Delivery mpfi EJ16 Horsepower: 90–98 PS at 6,000 rpm Torque: 138 N⋅m at 4,500 rpm Usage: Impreza 93-99 GC6 series Legacy 90-96 BC2, BC3, BD2, BD3, BG3 series Isuzu Aska Displacement: 1,820 cc Bore: 87.9 mm Stroke: 75 mm Compression Ratio: 9.5:1 - 9.7:1 Valvetrain: SOHC Fuel Delivery Carburetor + Distributor and single point fuel injectionEJ181 Horsepower: 110 PS @ 6000 rpm Torque: 149 N⋅m @ 3200 rpmEJ182 Horsepower: 115 PS @ 6000 rpm Torque: 154 N⋅m @ 4500 rpmEJ183 Horsepower: 120 PS @ 5600 rpm Torque: 164 N⋅m @ 3600 rpm Bore: 92 mm Stroke: 75 mm EJ20E SOHC aspirated Legacy JDM 1989-1994 125 PS BC - BF series 1993-1999 135 PS BD - BG series 1998-2004 155 PS BE - BH series 2003-2009 140 PS BL - BP seriesEurope1991-1999 115 PS BC, BD, BF seriesImpreza JDM 1993-1999 135 PS GC - GF series 2008-current 140 PS GH - GE seriesEurope1994-1999 115 PS GC, GF seriesIsuzu Aska 1990-1993 125 PS EJ201 Bore: 92 mm Stroke: 75 mm 2L produced in GC8 RX models only.
MAP sensor, 92kw at flywheel]]EJ20D DOHC aspirated Legacy JDM 1989-1999 150 PS BC - BF and BD - BG series EJ202 SOHC aspirated Forester JDM SF series, 138 PS EJ203 SOHC aspirated Forester JDM SG series, 140 PS Legacy JDM 2.0i BP/BL series, 140 PS EJ204 DOHC aspirated AVCS Legacy B4 TSR JDM BE - BH series 1999-2001 155 PS Legacy JDM BL - BP series 2003-2009 190 PS Legacy BL - BP series 2003-2007 165 PS Impreza JDM GC - GF series 1993-1999 155 PS Impreza GE - GH series 2007-2011 150 PS Forester SG Series 2005-2007 155 PS Forester JDM SH Series 2008-2011 150 PS Exiga JDM YA Series 2008 - 2012 150 PS EJ20N runs on compressed natural gas All engines listed below were installed with a turbocharger and an intercooler: Is not a valid code from Subaru, but is used by enthusiasts and mechanics to describe the entire line of turbocharged engines that have been available over time. The practice began with the designation of the USA-spec turbo referred to as the EJ22T, the habit of referring to any turbocharged engine as a "T" began.
When referring to the EJ20T, one is speaking of one of the following: EJ20G engines fall into 3 categories: Legacy RS 89-93 Legacy RS-RA 89-93 Legacy GT 89-93Power output ranges from 147 kW @ 6000 rpm and for the GT to 162 kW @ 6400 rpm and for the RS versions. Engines can be identified by coil on plug, with 2 M6 bolts per coil and valve covers with 4CAM 16VALVE and horizontal lines above and below the plug holes. All these engines have the air-to-water intercooler setup and close deck blocks equipped with piston oil squirters. Impreza WRX 92~96. Impreza WRX Wagon 92~96 Impreza WRX Wagon AT 96~98 Subaru Impreza WRX RA 93~96 EUDM Subaru Impreza Turbo 94~96This updated type of EJ20G was used in all WRX models since early 1992, cylinder head is equipped with hydraulic lifters compared to the rocker arms used in the previous EJ20G. Pistons in this type of EJ20G are all cast aluminum. Closed-deck engine block equipped with piston oil squirters was used until mid 1994. Followed by Open-deck block equipped with piston oil squirters was used short period of time, Followed by Open-deck block from 1995 until mid 1996 when the first EJ20K WRX engines came out.
The open deck block on all EJ20G could be identified by a smoother