Twin Cities Zephyr
The Twin Cities Zephyr was a streamlined passenger train on the Chicago and Quincy Railroad, running between Chicago and the Twin Cities of Minneapolis and Saint Paul in Minnesota. It was the second Zephyr service introduced by CB&Q after the record-setting Denver–Chicago "dawn to dusk dash" of the Pioneer Zephyr trainset; the train competed with the Chicago and North Western's Twin Cities 400 which ceased operation in 1963, the Milwaukee Road's Twin Cities Hiawatha, like the Zephyr, ended with the coming of Amtrak in 1971. The CB&Q trains went west from Chicago to the Mississippi River and along that river to Saint Paul, while the North Western and Milwaukee Road trains traveled via Milwaukee. Two three-car trainsets, numbered 9901 and 9902, were delivered in April 1935. On April 6 number 9901 made a demonstration run from Chicago to Saint Paul in 5 hours 31 minutes, at speeds up to 104 mph and an average between endpoints of 77.65 mph. These two trainsets proved too small so a second pair of six-car trains with matching locomotives were ordered as replacements.
The new trainsets were put on display. The second pair of Twin Cities Zephyrs entered service on December 18, 1936 as the Morning Zephyr and the Afternoon Zephyr. On the first run the two trainsets departed Chicago on parallel tracks with 44 pairs of twins as a publicity stunt. In 1935 Zephyrs were scheduled to cover 431 miles between Chicago and St Paul in six and a half hours reduced to six hours and 15 minutes. At first each trainset made one one-way trip a day, but in July 1935 each was making a round trip a day, leaving each terminal at 8:00 AM CST and returning at 10:59 PM. In 1940 the westbound Twin Cities Zephyr took six hours to travel from Chicago to Saint Paul, a start-to-stop average of 71 miles per hour, a faster average speed between endpoints than the Acela's average speeds in 2016 between Washington and Boston. According the Burlington, both trains had made the run in five and a half hours, an average of over 78 mph. For several years in the 1950s the schedules along the Mississippi from East Dubuque, Illinois to Prairie du Chien and from Prairie du Chien to La Crosse were the fastest in the world, in 1964 the Morning Zephyr had the fastest station-to-station time in the United States between Aurora and Rochelle, Illinois.
All three runs were made at over 80 miles per hour from start to station stop. By 1964 the timing from Chicago to Saint Paul had relaxed by five to ten minutes, but by 1970, the last full year of service, the journey took seven hours; the Burlington handled five passenger trains each way between Chicago and the Twin Cities, four of them in the daytime: the morning and afternoon Zephyrs and the premier trains of the Burlington's two owners, the North Coast Limited of the Northern Pacific Railroad and the Empire Builder of the Great Northern Railway, both of which ran to the West Coast. Although the railroad's passenger service as a whole carried more passengers in 1964 than in 1949, by 1964 all four daytime Zephyrs along the Mississippi operated at a loss. To save money, trains were consolidated in off-peak times starting in 1960, the four daytime trains were reduced to two, with the Afternoon Zephyr taking the Empire Builder and North Coast Limited to the Twin Cities, the Morning Zephyr taking the two trains to Chicago.
The Twin Cities Zephyr ran for 36 years until 1971 when Amtrak took over most intercity passenger trains in the United States. The first pair of three-car Twin Zephyr trainsets were similar to the original Pioneer Zephyr, were articulated trains riding on four trucks; this pair, delivered in April 1935 proved too small to cope with passenger loads, a second pair of six-car trains was delivered in November 1936. These trainsets were articulated. One train was called "The Train of the Goddesses" and the cars were named Ceres, Juno, Psyche and Vesta; the other trainset was known as "The Train of the Gods" and the cars were named for mythological figures Apollo, Jupiter, Mercury and Vulcan. Motive power for the second pair of trains was shovelnose diesel locomotives 9904 and 9905. On its way into Chicago on the evening of April 3, 1947, the "Train of the Goddesses" travelling at 75 miles per hour was derailed in Downers Grove, Illinois by a tractor that fell into its path from a freight train on a parallel track.
Two of the Zephyr's cars smashed into an unoccupied brick railroad station. Many people were injured in the derailment and two passengers and the engineer lost their lives. After a third pair of trains were delivered in 1947, the second pair of trains was reassigned as the Nebraska Zephyrs; the third sets were the first dome streamliner trains, after a company-built modified coach dome car was tested starting in 1945. The 1947 sets consisted of a baggage-refreshment car, four vista dome coaches, a dining car and a dome parlor observation car, they served as a prototype of the 1949 California Zephyr. In 1977 the "Train of the Gods" was refurbished and delivered to Saudi Arabia for use on the Dammam–Riyadh line; the Twin Cities Zephyr ran on the Burlington Route from Chicago to St. Paul. Today these lines belong to the BNSF Railway as these subdivisions of the BNSF Northern Transcon: Chicago Subdivision - Chicago, Illinois to Aurora, Illinois Aurora Subdivision - Aurora to La Crosse, Wisconsin St. Croix Subdivision - La Crosse to St. Croix Junction, Minnesota St. Paul Subdivision - St. Croix Junction to St. Paul and Minneapolis, MinnesotaThe Morning and Afternoon Zephyr trains were limited stop runs.
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Merrillan is a village in Jackson County, United States. The population was 542 at the 2010 census. A post office called Merrillan has been in operation since 1894; the village was named for an original owner of the town site. Merrillan is located at 44°26′58″N 90°50′15″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the village has a total area of 1.34 square miles, of which, 1.26 square miles of it is land and 0.08 square miles is water. As of the census of 2010, there were 542 people, 241 households, 152 families residing in the village; the population density was 430.2 inhabitants per square mile. There were 318 housing units at an average density of 252.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the village was 86.5% White, 2.6% Native American, 0.2% Asian, 0.4% Pacific Islander, 6.1% from other races, 4.2% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 6.8% of the population. There were 241 households of which 27.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 39.4% were married couples living together, 14.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 9.5% had a male householder with no wife present, 36.9% were non-families.
31.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 15.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.25 and the average family size was 2.70. The median age in the village was 44.9 years. 21.4% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the village was 48.2% male and 51.8% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 585 people, 253 households, 152 families residing in the village; the population density was 464.2 people per square mile. There were 289 housing units at an average density of 229.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the village was 95.21% White, 0.68% African American, 2.74% Native American, 0.17% Asian, 0.68% from other races, 0.51% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.68% of the population. There were 253 households out of which 26.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.1% were married couples living together, 10.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 39.9% were non-families.
36.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 17.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.31 and the average family size was 2.97. In the village, the population was spread out with 23.1% under the age of 18, 8.2% from 18 to 24, 25.6% from 25 to 44, 26.2% from 45 to 64, 16.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females, there were 100.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.3 males. The median income for a household in the village was $28,917, the median income for a family was $35,000. Males had a median income of $24,423 versus $19,250 for females; the per capita income for the village was $18,811. About 10.3% of families and 13.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 34.4% of those under age 18 and 9.6% of those age 65 or over. Merrillan is home to Lincoln Elementary School, which serves students in 4 year old kindergarten through sixth grade, it is part of the Alma Center-Humbird-Merrillan school district and is located 1/2 mile from the junction of Hwy 95 and Hwy 12& 27.
In 1996 the old school building was torn down and a new one erected just behind where the old on stood. Several years a 4 classroom addition was added; the building has a 4K-1st grade wing, a 2nd-4th grade wing, a 5th-6th grade wing that includes a nicely equipped science room. In the center of the three wings in the Media Center. There is a Lunda Commons where lunch is served and a gymnasium with locker rooms. Flag football, basketball and baseball are available for elementary students to participate in. Mitchell Red Cloud, Jr. - Medal of Honor recipient Frederick Condit - lawyer and Independent Greenback legislator Alvin S. Trow - legislator The Köppen Climate Classification subtype for this climate is "Dfb". Alma Center-Humbird-Merrilan School District Sanborn fire insurance maps: 1904 1914
Air conditioning is the process of removing heat and moisture from the interior of an occupied space, to improve the comfort of occupants. Air conditioning can be used in both commercial environments; this process is most used to achieve a more comfortable interior environment for humans and other animals. Air conditioners use a fan to distribute the conditioned air to an occupied space such as a building or a car to improve thermal comfort and indoor air quality. Electric refrigerant-based AC units range from small units that can cool a small bedroom, which can be carried by a single adult, to massive units installed on the roof of office towers that can cool an entire building; the cooling is achieved through a refrigeration cycle, but sometimes evaporation or free cooling is used. Air conditioning systems can be made based on desiccants; some AC systems store heat in subterranean pipes. In the most general sense, air conditioning can refer to any form of technology that modifies the condition of air.
In common usage, though, "air conditioning" refers to systems. In construction, a complete system of heating and air conditioning is referred to as HVAC. Since prehistoric times and ice were used for cooling; the business of harvesting ice during winter and storing for use in summer became popular towards the late 17th century. This practice was replaced by mechanical ice-making machines; the basic concept behind air conditioning is said to have been applied in ancient Egypt, where reeds were hung in windows and were moistened with trickling water. The evaporation of water cooled the air blowing through the window; this process made the air more humid, which can be beneficial in a dry desert climate. Other techniques in medieval Persia involved the use of cisterns and wind towers to cool buildings during the hot season; the 2nd-century Chinese mechanical engineer and inventor Ding Huan of the Han Dynasty invented a rotary fan for air conditioning, with seven wheels 3 m in diameter and manually powered by prisoners of the time.
In 747, Emperor Xuanzong of the Tang Dynasty had the Cool Hall built in the imperial palace, which the Tang Yulin describes as having water-powered fan wheels for air conditioning as well as rising jet streams of water from fountains. During the subsequent Song Dynasty, written sources mentioned the air conditioning rotary fan as more used. In the 17th century, the Dutch inventor Cornelis Drebbel demonstrated "Turning Summer into Winter" as an early form of modern air conditioning for James I of England by adding salt to water. Modern air conditioning emerged from advances in chemistry during the 19th century, the first large-scale electrical air conditioning was invented and used in 1902 by US inventor Willis Carrier; the introduction of residential air conditioning in the 1920s helped enable the great migration to the Sun Belt in the United States. In 1758, Benjamin Franklin and John Hadley, a chemistry professor at Cambridge University, conducted an experiment to explore the principle of evaporation as a means to cool an object.
Franklin and Hadley confirmed that evaporation of volatile liquids could be used to drive down the temperature of an object past the freezing point of water. They conducted their experiment with the bulb of a mercury thermometer as their object and with a bellows used to speed up the evaporation, they lowered the temperature of the thermometer bulb down to −14 °C while the ambient temperature was 18 °C. Franklin noted that, soon after they passed the freezing point of water 0 °C, a thin film of ice formed on the surface of the thermometer's bulb and that the ice mass was about 6 mm thick when they stopped the experiment upon reaching −14 °C. Franklin concluded: "From this experiment one may see the possibility of freezing a man to death on a warm summer's day."In 1820, English scientist and inventor Michael Faraday discovered that compressing and liquefying ammonia could chill air when the liquefied ammonia was allowed to evaporate. In 1842, Florida physician John Gorrie used compressor technology to create ice, which he used to cool air for his patients in his hospital in Apalachicola, Florida.
He hoped to use his ice-making machine to regulate the temperature of buildings. He envisioned centralized air conditioning that could cool entire cities. Though his prototype leaked and performed irregularly, Gorrie was granted a patent in 1851 for his ice-making machine. Though his process improved the artificial production of ice, his hopes for its success vanished soon afterwards when his chief financial backer died and Gorrie did not get the money he needed to develop the machine. According to his biographer, Vivian M. Sherlock, he blamed the "Ice King", Frederic Tudor, for his failure, suspecting that Tudor had launched a smear campaign against his invention. Dr. Gorrie died impoverished in 1855, the dream of commonplace air conditioning went away for 50 years. James Harrison's first mechanical ice-making machine began operation in 1851 on the banks of the Barwon River at Rocky Point in Geelong, Australia, his first commercial ice-making machine followed in 1853, his patent for an ether vapor compression refrigeration system was granted in 1855.
This novel system used a compres
This article is about four-wheeled vehicle suspension. For information on two wheeled vehicles' suspensions see Suspension, Motorcycle fork, Bicycle suspension, Bicycle fork. Suspension is the system of tires, tire air, shock absorbers and linkages that connects a vehicle to its wheels and allows relative motion between the two. Suspension systems must support both road holding/handling and ride quality, which are at odds with each other; the tuning of suspensions involves finding the right compromise. It is important for the suspension to keep the road wheel in contact with the road surface as much as possible, because all the road or ground forces acting on the vehicle do so through the contact patches of the tires; the suspension protects the vehicle itself and any cargo or luggage from damage and wear. The design of front and rear suspension of a car may be different. An early form of suspension on ox-drawn carts had the platform swing on iron chains attached to the wheeled frame of the carriage.
This system remained the basis for all suspension systems until the turn of the 19th century, although the iron chains were replaced with the use of leather straps by the 17th century. No modern automobiles use the'strap suspension' system. Automobiles were developed as self-propelled versions of horse-drawn vehicles. However, horse-drawn vehicles had been designed for slow speeds, their suspension was not well suited to the higher speeds permitted by the internal combustion engine; the first workable spring-suspension required advanced metallurgical knowledge and skill, only became possible with the advent of industrialisation. Obadiah Elliott registered the first patent for a spring-suspension vehicle. Within a decade, most British horse carriages were equipped with springs; these were made of low-carbon steel and took the form of multiple layer leaf springs. Leaf springs have been around since the early Egyptians. Ancient military engineers used leaf springs in the form of bows to power their siege engines, with little success at first.
The use of leaf springs in catapults was refined and made to work years later. Springs were not only made of metal. Horse-drawn carriages and the Ford Model T used this system, it is still used today in larger vehicles mounted in the rear suspension. Leaf springs were the first modern suspension system and, along with advances in the construction of roads, heralded the single greatest improvement in road transport until the advent of the automobile; the British steel springs were not well-suited for use on America's rough roads of the time, so the Abbot-Downing Company of Concord, New Hampshire re-introduced leather strap suspension, which gave a swinging motion instead of the jolting up and down of a spring suspension. In 1901 Mors of Paris first fitted an automobile with shock absorbers. With the advantage of a damped suspension system on his'Mors Machine', Henri Fournier won the prestigious Paris-to-Berlin race on 20 June 1901. Fournier's superior time was 11 hrs 46 min 10 sec, while the best competitor was Léonce Girardot in a Panhard with a time of 12 hrs 15 min 40 sec.
Coil springs first appeared on a production vehicle in 1906 in the Brush Runabout made by the Brush Motor Company. Today, coil springs are used in most cars. In 1920, Leyland Motors used torsion bars in a suspension system. In 1922, independent front suspension was pioneered on the Lancia Lambda and became more common in mass market cars from 1932. Today, most cars have independent suspension on all four wheels. In 2002, a new passive suspension component was invented by Malcolm C. Smith, the inerter; this has the ability to increase the effective inertia of a wheel suspension using a geared flywheel, but without adding significant mass. It was employed in Formula One in secrecy but has since spread to other motorsport. Any four wheel vehicle needs suspension for both the front wheels and the rear suspension, but in two wheel drive vehicles there can be a different configuration. For front-wheel drive cars, rear suspension has few constraints and a variety of beam axles and independent suspensions are used.
For rear-wheel drive cars, rear suspension has many constraints and the development of the superior but more expensive independent suspension layout has been difficult. Four-wheel drive has suspensions that are similar for both the front and rear wheels. Henry Ford's Model T used a torque tube to restrain this force, for his differential was attached to the chassis by a lateral leaf spring and two narrow rods; the torque tube surrounded the true driveshaft and exerted the force to its ball joint at the extreme rear of the transmission, attached to the engine. A similar method was used in the late 1930s by Buick and by Hudson's bathtub car in 1948, which used helical springs which could not take fore-and-aft thrust; the Hotchkiss drive, invented by Albert Hotchkiss, was the most popular rear suspension system used in American cars from the 1930s to the 1970s. The system uses longitudinal leaf springs attached both forward and behind the differential of the live axle; these springs transmit the torque to the frame.
Although scorned by many European car makers of the time, it was accepted by American car makers because it was inexpensive to manufacture. The dynamic defects of this design were suppressed by the enormous weight of US passenger vehicles before implementation of the Corporate Average Fuel Economy
Twin Cities Hiawatha
The Twin Cities Hiawatha just Hiawatha, was a named passenger train operated by the Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul and Pacific Railroad, traveled from Chicago to the Twin Cities; the original train takes its name from the epic poem The Song of Hiawatha by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow. There are a number of Hiawatha-themed names within the city of Minneapolis, the terminus of the original train; the first Hiawatha ran in 1935. The two trains were known as the Morning Hiawatha and Afternoon Hiawatha, or sometimes the AM Twin Cities Hiawatha and PM Twin Cities Hiawatha; the Milwaukee Road discontinued the Afternoon Hiawatha in 1970 while the Morning Hiawatha continued running until the formation of Amtrak in 1971. In the 1930s three railroads fiercely competed for daytime passengers on the Chicago–Minneapolis/St. Paul corridor: the Milwaukee Road, the Chicago and Quincy Railroad, the Chicago and North Western Railway; each managed the 400-mile trip between the two cities in 10 hours, at an average speed of 40 miles per hour.
In 1934 each of the railroads committed to introducing new services which would reduce the travel time to 6½ hours to St. Paul; the Burlington introduced the Twin Cities Zephyr, a diesel-powered streamlined trainset, while the C&NW's Twin Cities 400 used refurbished steam locomotives and conventional passenger equipment. The Milwaukee Road ordered new steam locomotives from American Locomotive Company and constructed new passenger cars in its own shops. All three trains entered service in 1935; the first Hiawatha ran between Chicago and the Twin Cities on May 29, 1935, on a daily 6½ hour schedule over the 410 miles to St. Paul; the four new class A locomotives had streamlining by Otto Kuhler, were oil-fired to reduce servicing time en route, were some of the fastest steam engines built, capable of powering their five-car trains at sustained speeds more than 100 mph. Patronage was good and the consist grew from five cars to as many as nine. In October 1936 the Milwaukee Road re-equipped the Hiawatha with new "1937" Hiawatha trains, improving on the 1935 design.
They had a baggage-‘Tip Top Tap’ car, four coaches, a dining car, three parlor cars, including a new Beaver Tail parlor-observation car. The new cars featured fluted sides, in contrast to the smooth sides of the 1935 edition; the regular consist was nine cars. In September 1938 the train was re-equipped again with the "1939" Hiawatha with its famous finned Beaver Tail observation car, designed by noted industrial designer Otto Kuhler. Kuhler styled the new Class F7 4-6-4 “Hudsons” which displaced the Class As. From January 21, 1939, the Twin Cities Hiawatha became two trains: the Morning Hiawatha, the Afternoon Hiawatha. With the delivery of the 1939 trainsets, the original 1935 Hiawatha equipment was reassigned to the Chicago to Omaha/Sioux City route where it ran as the Midwest Hiawatha. Another train, The North Woods Hiawatha, ran with older cars from earlier series also. In June 1941 the two afternoon trains were scheduled for six hours fifteen minutes between Chicago and St. Paul and another half hour to Minneapolis.
Two sets of passenger diesel locomotives appeared in 1941: a back to back pair of Alco/GE DL-107 locomotives, the #14, a back to back pair of EMD E-6, the #15. The Twin Cities Hiawatha was equipped in May 1942 with coaches, two diners, two'Tip Top Tap' cars which ran with the 1939 Beaver Tails and parlors. Older series of cars were modified with skirting to run with the newer consists. During the following War years, the trains had as many as 15 cars, one of the 1942 cars painted in patriotic red, white & blue proclaiming "Buy War Bonds". Trains were so full that people had to stand in aisles. In 1947–1948 the Milwaukee Road again re-equipped its major passenger routes with new lightweight cars; the new Morning Hiawatha and Afternoon Hiawatha were inaugurated with diesel-powered trains designed by Brooks Stevens. The new trains included the Skytop parlor observation cars; these four cars had a drawing room and swiveling parlor seats, at the rear there was a lounge area with an expanse of windows.
The new trains made their debut on the thirteenth anniversary of the first Hiawatha. In 1952 the Milwaukee Road took delivery of ten "Super Dome" cars. Six were assigned to two each to the Morning and Afternoon Hiawathas. Both trains had coaches, a Super Dome lounge car, dining car, Valley-series parlor cars, the distinctive Skytop lounge observation car. Starting in 1955, with the Milwaukee Road handling the Union Pacific "Cities" trains between Chicago and Omaha, passenger equipment was painted in the Union Pacific armour yellow and harbor-mist grey with red Scotchlite striping; the rest of the fleet was painted this way, except for the heavyweight commuter cars in Chicago. The Afternoon Hiawatha ended on January 23, 1970; the Morning Hiawatha continued until the formation of Amtrak, making its last run on April 30, 1971. Amtrak retained a single Chicago-Minneapolis frequency with the Burlington Northern's Empire Builder, re-routed over the Milwaukee Road's line through Milwaukee to St. Paul.
Amtrak brought back the name Twin Cities Hiawatha as a Chicago-Minneapolis service on January 16, 1972
New York City
The City of New York called either New York City or New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2017 population of 8,622,698 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles, New York is the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 20,320,876 people in its 2017 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 23,876,155 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, exerts a significant impact upon commerce, research, education, tourism, art and sports; the city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.
Situated on one of the world's largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, each of, a separate county of the State of New York. The five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898; the city and its metropolitan area constitute the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world. New York City is home to more than 3.2 million residents born outside the United States, the largest foreign-born population of any city in the world. In 2017, the New York metropolitan area produced a gross metropolitan product of US$1.73 trillion. If greater New York City were a sovereign state, it would have the 12th highest GDP in the world. New York is home to the highest number of billionaires of any city in the world. New York City traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790, it has been the country's largest city since 1790. The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the U. S. by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is an international symbol of the U. S. and its ideals of liberty and peace. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability, as a symbol of freedom and cultural diversity. Many districts and landmarks in New York City are well known, with the city having three of the world's ten most visited tourist attractions in 2013 and receiving a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world. Times Square, iconic as the world's "heart" and its "Crossroads", is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District, one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections, a major center of the world's entertainment industry.
The names of many of the city's landmarks and parks are known around the world. Manhattan's real estate market is among the most expensive in the world. New York is home to the largest ethnic Chinese population outside of Asia, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is the largest single-operator rapid transit system worldwide, with 472 rail stations. Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top universities in the world. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, the city is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization, the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. In 1664, the city was named in honor of the Duke of York.
James's older brother, King Charles II, had appointed the Duke proprietor of the former territory of New Netherland, including the city of New Amsterdam, which England had seized from the Dutch. During the Wisconsinan glaciation, 75,000 to 11,000 years ago, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth; the erosive forward movement of the ice contributed to the separation of what is now Long Island and Staten Island. That action left bedrock at a shallow depth, providing a solid foundation for most of Manhattan's skyscrapers. In the precolonial era, the area of present-day New York City was inhabited by Algonquian Native Americans, including the Lenape, whose homeland, known as Lenapehoking, included Staten Island; the first documented visit into New York Harbor by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown. He named it Nouvelle Angoulême. A Spanish expedition led by captain Estêvão Gomes, a Portuguese sailing for Emperor Charles V, arrived in New York Harbor in January 1525 and charted the mouth of the Hudson River, which he named Río de San Antonio.
The Padrón Rea
Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock, formed as rock strata called coal seams. Coal is carbon with variable amounts of other elements. Coal is formed if dead plant matter decays into peat and over millions of years the heat and pressure of deep burial converts the peat into coal. Vast deposits of coal originates in former wetlands—called coal forests—that covered much of the Earth's tropical land areas during the late Carboniferous and Permian times; as a fossil fuel burned for heat, coal supplies about a quarter of the world's primary energy and two-fifths of its electricity. Some iron and steel making and other industrial processes burn coal; the extraction and use of coal causes much illness. Coal damages the environment, including by climate change as it is the largest anthropogenic source of carbon dioxide, 14 Gt in 2016, 40% of the total fossil fuel emissions; as part of the worldwide energy transition many countries use less coal. The largest consumer and importer of coal is China.
China mines account for half the world's coal, followed by India with about a tenth. Australia accounts for about a third of world coal exports followed by Russia; the word took the form col in Old English, from Proto-Germanic *kula, which in turn is hypothesized to come from the Proto-Indo-European root *gu-lo- "live coal". Germanic cognates include the Old Frisian kole, Middle Dutch cole, Dutch kool, Old High German chol, German Kohle and Old Norse kol, the Irish word gual is a cognate via the Indo-European root. Coal is composed of macerals and water. Fossils and amber may be found in coal. At various times in the geologic past, the Earth had dense forests in low-lying wetland areas. Due to natural processes such as flooding, these forests were buried underneath soil; as more and more soil deposited over them, they were compressed. The temperature rose as they sank deeper and deeper; as the process continued the plant matter was protected from biodegradation and oxidation by mud or acidic water.
This trapped the carbon in immense peat bogs that were covered and buried by sediments. Under high pressure and high temperature, dead vegetation was converted to coal; the conversion of dead vegetation into coal is called coalification. Coalification starts with dead plant matter decaying into peat. Over millions of years the heat and pressure of deep burial causes the loss of water and carbon dioxide and an increase in the proportion of carbon, thus first lignite sub-bituminous coal, bituminous coal, lastly anthracite may be formed. The wide, shallow seas of the Carboniferous Period provided ideal conditions for coal formation, although coal is known from most geological periods; the exception is the coal gap in the Permian -- Triassic extinction event. Coal is known from Precambrian strata, which predate land plants—this coal is presumed to have originated from residues of algae. Sometimes coal seams are interbedded with other sediments in a cyclothem; as geological processes apply pressure to dead biotic material over time, under suitable conditions, its metamorphic grade or rank increases successively into: Peat, a precursor of coal Lignite, or brown coal, the lowest rank of coal, most harmful to health, used exclusively as fuel for electric power generation Jet, a compact form of lignite, sometimes polished.
Bituminous coal, a dense sedimentary rock black, but sometimes dark brown with well-defined bands of bright and dull material It is used as fuel in steam-electric power generation and to make coke. Anthracite, the highest rank of coal is a harder, glossy black coal used for residential and commercial space heating. Graphite is difficult to ignite and not used as fuel. Cannel coal is a variety of fine-grained, high-rank coal with significant hydrogen content, which consists of liptinite. There are several international standards for coal; the classification of coal is based on the content of volatiles. However the most important distinction is between thermal coal, burnt to generate electricity via steam. Hilt's law is a geological observation, the higher its rank, it applies if the thermal gradient is vertical. The earliest recognized use is from the Shenyang area of China where by 4000 BC Neolithic inhabitants had begun carving ornaments from black lignite. Coal from the Fushun mine in northeastern China was used to smelt copper as early as 1000 BC.
Marco Polo, the Italian who traveled to China in the 13th century, described coal as "black stones... which burn like logs", said coal was so plentiful, people could take three hot baths a week. In Europe, the earliest reference to the use of coal as fuel is from the geological treatise On stones by the Greek scientist Theophrastus: Among the materials that are dug because they are useful, those known as anthrakes are made of earth, once set on fire, they burn like charcoa