Twin Peaks Tunnel

The Twin Peaks Tunnel is a 2.27-mile long light rail/streetcar tunnel in San Francisco, California. The tunnel runs under the Twin Peaks and is used by the K Ingleside/T Third Street, L Taraval, M Ocean View, S Shuttle lines of the Muni Metro system; the eastern entrance to the tunnel is located near the intersection of Market and Castro streets in the Castro neighborhood, the western entrance is located at West Portal Avenue and Ulloa Street in the West Portal neighborhood. There are two stations along the tunnel, Forest Hill near the western end, the now disused Eureka Valley near the eastern end. Plans for a tunnel extending from Market Street under Twin Peaks were first presented at the Merchants' Association banquet in May 1909. In April 1910, a committee named the Twin Peaks Convention was formed to plan the project, which would open the development of one quarter of San Francisco's land area. In July 1910 an architectural rendering was released of the eastern portal. Market Street would be extended southwest in a straight line across private property to connect to the eastern portal, to be located at the intersection of 19th and Douglass.

Initial estimates for the cost of the tunnel ranged from US$1,500,000 in 1909 to US$3,000,000 in 1910. The Twin Peaks Tunnel and Improvement Convention released their report in August 1910 recommending a municipal bond to pay for the tunnel, whose costs would be recouped by the additional taxation of the land that would be opened for development. Other options were considered and rejected, including a special assessment district or a long-term railroad lease; the San Francisco Board of Supervisors approved a competing plan to build a longer tunnel under Twin Peaks in March 1912, continuing under Market to Valencia, seen as the foundation for a rapid transit system connecting the downtown Financial District with western San Francisco and the Peninsula. This action was taken on the recommendation of noted tunnel expert Bion J. Arnold, who had submitted two preliminary reports in 1912, following up with a final report in March 1913; the 1913 report studied several alternative alignments and configurations, recommending construction of both the Twin Peaks Tunnel and what would become the Sunset Tunnel.

In the 1913 report, Arnold considered proposals No. 2 and No. 5B, concluding "I can recommend unqualifiedly the construction of a Twin Peaks Rapid Transit tunnel at the earliest possible date. In so doing, there will be brought within 30 minutes' running time of the business district 10,000 acres of new territory, 75% of, suitable for residence land, useless heretofore by reason of lack of adequate transportation thereto." One of the key elements of proposal No. 5B was the creation of a new station along the tunnel, now present-day Forest Hill station. The San Francisco Call speculated the presence of a station at Laguna Honda meant the Geary line could be extended through Golden Gate Park. A 1912 report by Arnold proposed that Laguna Honda would be a transfer point enabling passengers to move from Third and Market to Ocean Beach within 25 minutes on an express car, assuming a Seventh Avenue surface line was built. At a proposed 16,000 feet in length, Arnold's proposed tunnel would not be suitable for road traffic for lack of adequate ventilation.

He believed the straight extension of Market to 19th and Douglass was impractical, as it would require extensive earth moving and exceed 3% maximum grade. It was on this basis the Twin Peaks Association of Improvement voiced their opposition to Arnold's plans in May 1912. City Engineer M. M. O'Shaughnessy recommended terminating the tunnel at 17th and Market in February 1913, as he thought the Market Street Subway may need to be extended past Valencia to Third. O'Shaughnessy's report endorsing Arnold's plan was unanimously adopted by the Board of Supervisors in October 1913. With the addition of 15,000 acres of "the best residence property on the peninsula within 15 minutes of the business center of the city", the Call estimated the population of San Francisco would add 100,000 within three years and 200,000 within five. Carl Larsen, a prominent resident of the rural western side of San Francisco, recommended shortening the tunnel proposed by Arnold by moving the western portal to Laguna Honda station, but O'Shaughnessy stated the resulting grade would be too steep.

Mayor James Rolph signed the Twin Peaks Tunnel Act in November 1913, rejecting the proposal for a shorter tunnel. The contract for tunnel construction was awarded on November 2, 1914 to the R. C. Storrie Company for US$3,372,000 and work began on the Twin Peaks Tunnel in December 1914 with an estimated three-year construction schedule for the twin-track bore. Construction was completed thirty-three months later. Funding for the tunnel came from special assessment districts established at the eastern and western ends; the eastern approach to the tunnel was built along a parcel purchased by the city 1,800 feet long and 90 feet wide at the end of Market. This right-of-way

Cwmbran bus station

Cwmbran bus station is a bus terminus and interchange located in the town centre of Cwmbran, South Wales. The station was commissioned along with the wider development of the town of Cwmbran in August 1949, following the end of the Second World War; the UK embarked on a series of new towns in order to meet high demand for housing and employment in war ravaged communities. Under the New Towns Act 1946, Cwmbran became the first New Town in Wales. A body, Cwmbran Development Corporation, was created to oversee work. A 55 acre town centre was designed, the bus station was the key interchange for both the retail and residential area; the bus station diverts from the circular Glyndwr Road around the town, just after the roundabout on St David's Road. The station has eight bus stands, identified with letters A-H, it is surrounded by the retail centre, Cwmbran Shopping Centre, opposite is the newer Leisure @ Cwmbran development which includes restaurants, a bowling centre, a cinema. Cwmbran is the terminus for a number of Stagecoach services due to the local depot in the town, serves as an interchange for travellers headed north or south.

*21 bus continues from Pontypool to Cwmbran most hours. Cwmbran railway station provides rail transport to destinations on the Welsh Marches line, including Cardiff Central, Manchester, Swansea and Milford Haven; the station is a seven minute walk from the bus station. The area has a large number of car parking facilities, some included in the shopping centre, as well as around the town. List of bus stations in Wales Transport in Wales

Farleton, Cumbria

Farleton is a village near Milnthorpe in South Lakeland local government district, England. It is in Beetham civil parish. Within the county of Westmorland, Farleton lies just to the east of the main A6070 road, from which it is divided by the Lancaster Canal, some 8 1⁄2 miles south of Kendal. Farleton used to have one public house called'the Duke' after the Grand Old Duke of York but this was turned into a dwelling house in the early part of the twentieth century. With Farleton there is one post box. There is a limestone kiln and the remains of a limestone quarry. Listed buildings in Beetham Map sources for Farleton, Cumbria