Synthetic fibers are fibers made by humans with chemical synthesis, as opposed to natural fibers that humans get from living organisms with little or no chemical changes. They are the result of extensive research by scientists to improve on occurring animal fibers and plant fibers. In general, synthetic fibers are created by extruding fiber-forming materials through spinnerets into air and water, forming a thread; these fibers are called artificial fibers. Some fibers are manufactured from plant-derived cellulose and are thus semisynthetic, whereas others are synthetic, being made from crudes and intermediates including petroleum, coal and water. Joseph Swan invented the first artificial fiber in the early 1880s, his fiber was drawn from a cellulose liquid, formed by chemically modifying the fiber contained in tree bark. The synthetic fiber produced through this process was chemically similar in its potential applications to the carbon filament Swan had developed for his incandescent light bulb, but Swan soon realized the potential of the fiber to revolutionise textile manufacturing.
In 1885, he unveiled fabrics he had manufactured from his synthetic material at the International Inventions Exhibition in London. The next step was taken by Hilaire de Chardonnet, a French engineer and industrialist, who invented the first artificial silk, which he called "Chardonnet silk". In the late 1870s, Chardonnet was working with Louis Pasteur on a remedy to the epidemic, destroying French silkworms. Failure to clean up a spill in the darkroom resulted in Chardonnet's discovery of nitrocellulose as a potential replacement for real silk. Realizing the value of such a discovery, Chardonnet began to develop his new product, which he displayed at the Paris Exhibition of 1889. Chardonnet's material was flammable, was subsequently replaced with other, more stable materials; the first successful process was developed in 1894 by English chemist Charles Frederick Cross, his collaborators Edward John Bevan and Clayton Beadle. They named the fiber "viscose", because the reaction product of carbon disulfide and cellulose in basic conditions gave a viscous solution of xanthate.
The first commercial viscose rayon was produced by the UK company Courtaulds in 1905. The name "rayon" was adopted in 1924, with "viscose" being used for the viscous organic liquid used to make both rayon and cellophane. A similar product known as cellulose acetate was discovered in 1865. Rayon and acetate are both artificial fibers, but not synthetic, being made from wood. Nylon, the first synthetic fiber in the "fully synthetic" sense of that term, was developed by Wallace Carothers, an American researcher at the chemical firm DuPont in the 1930s, it soon made its debut in the United States as a replacement for silk, just in time for the introduction of rationing during World War II. Its novel use as a material for women's stockings overshadowed more practical uses, such as a replacement for the silk in parachutes and other military uses like ropes; the first polyester fiber was introduced by John Rex Whinfield and James Tennant Dickson, British chemists working at the Calico Printers' Association, in 1941.
They produced and patented the first polyester fiber which they named Terylene known as Dacron, equal to or surpassing nylon in toughness and resilience. ICI and DuPont went on to produce their own versions of the fiber; the world production of synthetic fibers was 55.2 million tonnes in 2014. Synthetic fibers are made from synthesized polymers of small molecules; the compounds that are used to make these fibers come from raw materials such as petroleum based chemicals or petrochemicals. These materials are polymerized into a linear chemical that bond two adjacent carbon atoms. Differing chemical compounds will be used to produce different types of synthetic fibers. Synthetic fibers account for about half of all fiber usage, with applications in every field of fiber and textile technology. Although many classes of fiber based on synthetic polymers have been evaluated as valuable commercial products, four of them - nylon, polyester and polyolefin - dominate the market; these four account for 98 percent by volume of synthetic fiber production, with polyester alone accounting for around 60 per cent.
There are several methods of manufacturing synthetic fibers but the most common is the Melt-Spinning Process. It involves heating the fiber until it begins to melt you must draw out the melt with tweezers as as possible; the next step would be to draw the molecules by aligning them in a parallel arrangement. This allows them to crystallize and orient. Lastly, is Heat-Setting; this utilizes heat to permeate the shape/dimensions of the fabrics made from heat-sensitive fibers. Synthetic fibers are more durable than most natural fibers and will pick-up different dyes. In addition, many synthetic fibers offer consumer-friendly functions such as stretching and stain resistance. Sunlight and oils from human skin cause all fibers to break down and wear away. Natural fibers tend to be much more sensitive than synthetic blends; this is because natural products are biodegradable. Natural fibers are susceptible to larval insect infestation. Compared to natural fibers, many synthetic fibers are more water stain resistant.
Some are specially enhanced to withstand damage from water or stains. Some fabrics are designed to stretch in specific ways, which makes them more comfortable to wear. Cotton production is resource intensive: it takes sign
Biggest ball of twine
There are multiple claims to the world's biggest ball of twine record in the United States. As of 2014, the ball of twine with the largest circumference is located in Kansas. In Cawker City, Frank Stoeber created a ball that had 1.6 million feet of twine and 11-foot-diameter when he died in 1974. Cawker City built an open-air gazebo over Stoeber's ball where every August a "Twine-a-thon" is held and more twine is added to the ball. By 2006, the twine ball had reached 17,886 pounds, a circumference of 40 feet, a length of 7,801,766 feet. In 2013, its weight was estimated at 19,973 pounds. In August 2014, the ball measures 41.42 feet in circumference, 8.06 feet in diameter and 10.83 feet in height, is still growing. Darwin, Minnesota, is the home of a ball of baler twine rolled by Francis A. Johnson, it weighs 17,400 pounds. Johnson began rolling the twine in March 1950, wrapped four hours every day for 29 years, it is housed in an enclosed gazebo across from the town park on Main Street at to prevent the public from touching it.
The town celebrates "Twine Ball Day" on the second Saturday in August every year. An adjacent volunteer-run, free to visit museum and gift shop has information on the history of the ball, as well as selling a variety of souvenirs, it was the long-standing holder of the "biggest ball of twine" title in the Guinness Book of World Records, holding the title from its completion in 1979 until 1994, was referenced by "Weird Al" Yankovic in his 1989 song "The Biggest Ball of Twine in Minnesota." In Lake Nebagamon, James Frank Kotera claims to have made the heaviest ball of twine built. He is still working. Kotera estimates, by measuring the weight of each bag of twine that he winds on, that the ball weighs 8,770 kg, making it the heaviest ball of twine built; the ball is housed in an open-air enclosure in Kotera's lawn. The ball has a smaller companion, "Junior", made of string. In Branson, Missouri, a ball of nylon twine built by J. C. Payne of Valley View, Texas, is on display in Ripley's Believe It or Not museum.
The ball, which measures 41.5 feet in circumference, was certified as the world's largest ball of twine by the Guinness Book of World Records in 1993. It is, the lightest of the four contenders, weighing 12,000 pounds. "Weird Al" Yankovic's album UHF - Original Motion Picture Soundtrack and Other Stuff has a song called "The Biggest Ball of Twine in Minnesota". Although ostensibly about the ball in Darwin, Yankovic takes artistic license with the statistics. In a case of life imitating art, postcards that read "Greetings from the Twine Ball, wish you were here," a fictitious invention of Yankovic's, are now an attraction in Darwin; the Twineball Inn was a restaurant. Yankovic refers to the ball itself, thus his previous work, in the video for "White & Nerdy", wherein a Trivial Pursuit card which includes the question "In what city is the largest ball of twine built by one man?" Appears on screen. The Sam & Max Hit the Road adventure game by LucasArts includes a stop at a Biggest Ball of Twine, about 50 feet tall with a rotating restaurant on top - this fictional ball of twine is located at Central Dis, Minnesota.
An exhibit in the museum at its base claims that its mass will cause the Earth to gravitate towards the sun, destroying the planet. When the characters look at the ball of twine, the following exchange takes place:Sam: It's things like this that make me wish I were Canadian. Docent: They've got one of these too, but half of it's French. In one episode of Time Squad, George W. Bush tries to lift the spirits of Americans by building the biggest ball of twine; the Cawker City, Kansas ball of twine was the subject of Garry Trudeau's comic strip, Doonesbury, on July 16, 2012. In the 2001 Canadian film, Jet Boy, one of the characters drives a car into what is billed as the world's largest ball of string to test whether or not the structure is hollow. In the 1996 movie Michael, starring John Travolta as an angel on holiday on Earth, his character requests to stop and visit the biggest ball of twine, located somewhere in Iowa. In the 1983 movie National Lampoon's Vacation, Clark Griswold tries to entice his reluctant kids back into the family station wagon with a promise to take them to see "the second-largest ball of twine on the face of the earth, only four short hours away."
In the 1943 story The Mystery Yarn, part of Robert McCloskey's children's book Homer Price, two male rivals for a lady's affection, both of whom have string balls that are nearly six feet in diameter, stage a public contest to unravel the balls. The Battle to Be the World's Largest Ball of Twine, The Atlantic Magazine, September 2014 Ripley's Believe It or Not! in Branson, Missouri
Jute is a long, shiny vegetable fiber that can be spun into coarse, strong threads. It is produced from plants in the genus Corchorus, once classified with the family Tiliaceae, more with Malvaceae; the primary source of the fiber is Corchorus olitorius, but it is considered inferior to Corchorus capsularis. "Jute" is the name of the fiber used to make burlap, hessian or gunny cloth. Jute is one of the most affordable natural fibers, second only to cotton in the amount produced and variety of uses. Jute fibers are composed of the plant materials cellulose and lignin, it falls into the bast fiber category along with kenaf, industrial hemp, ramie, etc. The industrial term for jute fiber is raw jute; the fibers are off-white to brown, 1–4 metres long. Jute is called the golden fiber for its color and high cash value; the jute plant needs a plain alluvial standing water. The suitable climate for growing jute is offered during the monsoon season. Temperatures from 20˚C to 40˚C and relative humidity of 70%–80% are favourable for successful cultivation.
Jute requires 5–8 cm of rainfall weekly, more during the sowing time. Soft water is necessary for jute production. Historical documents state; the weavers used simple hand spinning wheels and hand looms, spun cotton yarns as well. History suggests that Indians Bengalis, used ropes and twines made of white jute from ancient times for household and other uses, it is functional for carrying grains or other agricultural products. Tossa jute is a variety thought native to South Asia, it is grown for both culinary purposes. People use the leaves as an ingredient in a mucilaginous potherb called "molokhiya", it is popular in some Arabian countries such as Egypt and Syria as a soup-based dish, sometimes with meat over rice or lentils. The Book of Job, in the King James translation of the Hebrew Bible מלוח MaLOo-aĤ "salty", mentions this vegetable potherb as "mallow, giving rise to the term Jew's Mallow, it is high in protein, vitamin C, beta-carotene and iron. Bangladesh and other countries in Southeast Asia, the South Pacific use jute for its fiber in.
Tossa jute fiber is softer and stronger than white jute. This variety shows good sustainability in the Ganges Delta climate. Along with white jute, tossa jute has been cultivated in the soil of Bengal where it is known as paat from the start of the 19th century. Coremantel, Bangladesh, is the largest global producer of the tossa jute variety. Jute was used for making textiles in the Indus valley civilization since the 3rd millennium BC. For centuries, jute has been an integral part of the culture of East Bengal and some parts of West Bengal in the southwest of Bangladesh. Since the seventeenth century the British started trading in jute. During the reign of the British Empire, jute was used in the military. British jute barons grew rich processing jute and selling manufactured products made from it. Dundee Jute Barons and the British East India Company set up many jute mills in Bengal, by 1895 jute industries in Bengal overtook the Scottish jute trade. Many Scots emigrated to Bengal to set up jute factories.
More than a billion jute sandbags were exported from Bengal to the trenches of World War I, to the United States south to bag cotton. It was used in the fishing, construction and the arms industries. Due to its texture, it could only be processed by hand until someone in Dundee discovered that treating it with whale oil made it machine processable; the industry boomed throughout the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, but this trade had ceased by about 1970 due to the emergence of synthetic fibers. In the 21st century, jute again has become an important export crop around the world in Bangladesh; the jute fiber comes from the ribbon of the jute plant. The fibers are first extracted by retting; the retting process consists of bundling jute stems together and immersing them in slow running water. There are two types of retting: stem and ribbon. After the retting process, stripping begins. In the stripping process, non-fibrous matter is scraped off the workers dig in and grab the fibers from within the jute stem.
Jute is a rain-fed crop with little need for fertilizer or pesticides, in contrast to cotton's heavy requirements. Production is concentrated in Bangladesh, as well as India's states of Assam and West Bengal. India is the world's largest producer of jute, but imported 162,000 tonnes of raw fiber and 175,000 tonnes of jute products in 2011. India and China import significant quantities of jute fiber and products from Bangladesh, as do the United Kingdom, United States, Spain, Ivory Coast and Brazil. At the beginning of the 21st century, in 2002 Bangladesh commissioned a consortium of researchers from University of Dhaka, Bangladesh Jute Research Institute and private software firm DataSoft Systems Bangladesh Ltd. in collaboration with Centre for Chemical Biology, University of Science Malaysia and University of Hawaii, to research different fibers and hybrid fibers of jute. The draft genome of jute was completed. Making twine and matting are among its uses. In combination with sugar, the possibility of usin
Cotton is a soft, fluffy staple fiber that grows in a boll, or protective case, around the seeds of the cotton plants of the genus Gossypium in the mallow family Malvaceae. The fiber is pure cellulose. Under natural conditions, the cotton bolls will increase the dispersal of the seeds; the plant is a shrub native to tropical and subtropical regions around the world, including the Americas, Africa and India. The greatest diversity of wild cotton species is found followed by Australia and Africa. Cotton was independently domesticated in the New Worlds; the fiber is most spun into yarn or thread and used to make a soft, breathable textile. The use of cotton for fabric is known to date to prehistoric times. Although cultivated since antiquity, it was the invention of the cotton gin that lowered the cost of production that led to its widespread use, it is the most used natural fiber cloth in clothing today. Current estimates for world production are about 25 million tonnes or 110 million bales annually, accounting for 2.5% of the world's arable land.
China is the world's largest producer of cotton. The United States has been the largest exporter for many years. In the United States, cotton is measured in bales, which measure 0.48 cubic meters and weigh 226.8 kilograms. There are four commercially grown species of cotton, all domesticated in antiquity: Gossypium hirsutum – upland cotton, native to Central America, the Caribbean and southern Florida Gossypium barbadense – known as extra-long staple cotton, native to tropical South America Gossypium arboreum – tree cotton, native to India and Pakistan Gossypium herbaceum – Levant cotton, native to southern Africa and the Arabian Peninsula The two New World cotton species account for the vast majority of modern cotton production, but the two Old World species were used before the 1900s. While cotton fibers occur in colors of white, brown and green, fears of contaminating the genetics of white cotton have led many cotton-growing locations to ban the growing of colored cotton varieties; the word "cotton" has Arabic origins, derived from the Arabic word قطن.
This was the usual word for cotton in medieval Arabic. The word entered the Romance languages in the mid-12th century, English a century later. Cotton fabric was known to the ancient Romans as an import but cotton was rare in the Romance-speaking lands until imports from the Arabic-speaking lands in the medieval era at transformatively lower prices; the earliest evidence of cotton use in the Indian subcontinent has been found at the site of Mehrgarh and Rakhigarhi where cotton threads have been found preserved in copper beads. Cotton cultivation in the region is dated to the Indus Valley Civilization, which covered parts of modern eastern Pakistan and northwestern India between 3300 and 1300 BC; the Indus cotton industry was well-developed and some methods used in cotton spinning and fabrication continued to be used until the industrialization of India. Between 2000 and 1000 BC cotton became widespread across much of India. For example, it has been found at the site of Hallus in Karnataka dating from around 1000 BC.
Cotton bolls discovered in a cave near Tehuacán, have been dated to as early as 5500 BC, but this date has been challenged. More securely dated is the domestication of Gossypium hirsutum in Mexico between around 3400 and 2300 BC. In Peru, cultivation of the indigenous cotton species Gossypium barbadense has been dated, from a find in Ancon, to c. 4200 BC, was the backbone of the development of coastal cultures such as the Norte Chico and Nazca. Cotton was grown upriver, made into nets, traded with fishing villages along the coast for large supplies of fish; the Spanish who came to Mexico and Peru in the early 16th century found the people growing cotton and wearing clothing made of it. The Greeks and the Arabs were not familiar with cotton until the Wars of Alexander the Great, as his contemporary Megasthenes told Seleucus I Nicator of "there being trees on which wool grows" in "Indica"; this may be a reference to "tree cotton", Gossypium arboreum, a native of the Indian subcontinent. According to the Columbia Encyclopedia: Cotton has been spun and dyed since prehistoric times.
It clothed the people of ancient India and China. Hundreds of years before the Christian era, cotton textiles were woven in India with matchless skill, their use spread to the Mediterranean countries. In Iran, the history of cotton dates back to the Achaemenid era; the planting of cotton was common in Merv and Pars of Iran. In Persian poets' poems Ferdowsi's Shahname, there are references to cotton. Marco Polo refers to the major products including cotton. John Chardin, a French traveler of the 17th century who visited Safavid Persia, spoke approvingly of the vast cotton farms of Persia. During the Han dynasty, cotton was grown by Chinese peoples in the southern Chinese province of Yunnan. Egyptians spun cotton in the first seven centuries of the Christian era. Handheld roller cotton gins had been used in India since the 6th century, was introduced to other countries from there. Between the 12th and 14th centuries, dual-roller gins appeared in China; the Indian version of the dual-roller gin was preval
Thread is a type of yarn but used for sewing. It can be made out of many different materials including cotton, linen and silk. Thread is made from a wide variety of materials. Where a thread is stronger than the material that it is being used to join, if seams are placed under strain the material may tear before the thread breaks. Garments are sewn with threads of lesser strength than the fabric so that if stressed the seam will break before the garment. Heavy goods that must withstand considerable stresses such as upholstery, car seating, tarpaulins and saddlery require strong threads. Attempting repairs with light weight thread will result in rapid failure, though again, using a thread, stronger than the material being sewn can end up causing rips in that material before the thread itself gives way. Polyester/polyester core spun thread is made by wrapping staple polyester around a continuous polyester filament during spinning and plying these yarns into a sewing thread. Core Spun Thread Yarns are measured by the density of the yarn, described by various units of textile measurement relating to a standardized length per weight.
These units do not directly correspond to thread diameter. The most common weight system specifies the length of the thread in kilometres required to weigh 1 kilogram. Therefore, a greater weight number indicates a thinner, finer thread; the American standard of thread weight was adopted from the Gunze Count standard of Japan which uses two numbers separated by a forward slash. The first number corresponds to the wt number of the thread and the second number indicates how many strands of fiber were used to compose the finished thread, it is common to wrap three strands of the same weight to make one thread, though this is not a formal requirement in the US standard. A denier weight specification states. Unlike the common thread weight system, the greater the denier number, the thicker the thread; the denier weight system, like the common weight system specifies the number of strands of the specified weight which were wrapped together to make the finished thread. Tex is the mass in grams of 1,000 meters of thread.
If 1,000 meters weighs 25 grams, it is a tex 25. Larger tex numbers are heavier threads. Tex is used more in Europe and Canada; some thread manufacturers those producing fine silk threads, apply their own scales of thread measurement using "aughts" or zeroes. Within a given manufacturer's spectrum, a higher "aught count" indicates a finer thread: this is given as a single digit followed by a forward slash and a zero— for example, 3/0 indicates a three-aught thread or a thread size "000", but this number only has significance when compared to other threads produced by the same manufacturer: one manufacturer's 4/0 will always be more fine than that same manufacturer's 2/0, but will mean nothing if compared to the 4/0 of another manufacturer; the aught scale therefore is not suitable for conversion or comparison to other more-generalized weight scales, though it is in common use. Thread weight conversion table For example: 40 weight = 225 denier = Tex 25. A common Tex number for general sewing thread is Tex 25 or Tex 30.
A heavier silk buttonhole thread suitable for bartacking, small leather items, decorative seams might be Tex 40. A strong, durable upholstery thread, Tex 75. A heavy duty topstitching thread for coats and shoes, Tex 100. A strong topstitching thread suitable for luggage and tarpaulins, Tex 265-Tex 290, but a fine serging thread, only Tex 13. For blindstitching and felling machines, an finer Tex 8. High temperature sewing threads provide resistance to extreme temperatures; some threads can be used for applications up to 800 °C. There are a variety of different sewing threads available which have different applications and benefits. Kevlar-coated stainless steel sewing threads have a high-temperature and flame-resistant steel core combined with Kevlar coating designed to facilitate easier machine sewing; the stainless steel core has a temperature resistance of up to 800 °C and the Kevlar coating is heat-resistant up to 220 °C. PTFE coated glass sewing threads have an excellent temperature resistance combined with a PTFE coating to provide easier machine sewing.
The glass core has a temperature resistance of up to 550 °C and the PTFE coating is heat-resistant up to 230 °C. Nomex sewing threads are inherently flame-retardant and heat-resistant with a tough protective coating which resists abrasion during the sewing operation, it is temperature resistant up to 370 °C. Bonded nylon sewing threads are tough, coated with abrasion resistance, rot proofing, have good tensile strength for lower temperature applications, they are temperature-resistant up to 120 °C. Bonded polyester sewing threads are tough, coated with abrasion resistance and have exceptional tensile strength for lower temperatures but heavier-duty sewing operations, they are temperature-resistant up to 120 °C. Eisengarn Hank Sewing needle Staple Stitch
Hemp, or industrial hemp found in the northern hemisphere, is a strain of the Cannabis sativa plant species, grown for the industrial uses of its derived products. It is one of the fastest growing plants and was one of the first plants to be spun into usable fiber 10,000 years ago, it can be refined into a variety of commercial items including paper, clothing, biodegradable plastics, insulation, biofuel and animal feed. Although cannabis as a drug and industrial hemp both derive from the species Cannabis sativa and contain the psychoactive component tetrahydrocannabinol, they are distinct strains with unique phytochemical compositions and uses. Hemp has lower concentrations of THC and higher concentrations of cannabidiol, which decreases or eliminates its psychoactive effects; the legality of industrial hemp varies between countries. Some governments regulate the concentration of THC and permit only hemp, bred with an low THC content; the etymology is uncertain but there appears to be no common Proto-Indo-European source for the various forms of the word.
It appears to have been borrowed into Latin, separately into Slavic and from there into Baltic and Germanic languages. Following Grimm's law, the "k" would have changed to "h" with the first Germanic sound shift, after which it may have been adapted into the Old English form, hænep. However, this theory assumes that hemp was not spread among different societies until after it was being used as a psychoactive drug, which Adams and Mallory believe to be unlikely based on archaeological evidence. Barber however, argued that the spread of the name "kannabis" was due to its more recent drug use, starting from the south, around Iran, whereas non-THC varieties of hemp are older and prehistoric. Another possible source of origin is Assyrian qunnabu, the name for a source of oil and medicine in the 1st millennium BC. Cognates of hemp in other Germanic languages include Dutch hennep and Norwegian hamp, German Hanf, Swedish hampa. Hemp is used to make a variety of commercial and industrial products including rope, clothing, food, bioplastics and biofuel.
The bast fibers can be used to make textiles that are 100% hemp, but they are blended with other fibers, such as flax, cotton or silk, as well as virgin and recycled polyester, to make woven fabrics for apparel and furnishings. The inner two fibers of the plant are more woody and have industrial applications, such as mulch, animal bedding and litter; when oxidized, hemp oil from the seeds becomes solid and can be used in the manufacture of oil-based paints, in creams as a moisturizing agent, for cooking, in plastics. Hemp seeds have been used in bird feed mix as well. A survey in 2003 showed that more than 95% of hemp seed sold in the European Union was used in animal and bird feed. Hemp seeds can be sprouted or made into dried sprout powder. Hemp seeds can be made into a liquid and used for baking or for beverages such as hemp milk and tisanes. Hemp oil is high in unsaturated fatty acids; the leaves of the hemp plant, while not as nutritional as the seeds, are edible and can be consumed raw as leafy vegetables in salads, pressed to make juice.
In 2011, the U. S. imported $11.5 million worth of hemp products driven by growth in the demand for hemp seed and hemp oil for use as ingredients in foods such as granola. In the UK, the Department for Environment and Rural Affairs treats hemp as a purely non-food crop, but with proper licensing and proof of less than 0.2% THC concentration, hemp seeds can be imported for sowing or for sale as a food or food ingredient. In the U. S. imported hemp can be used in food products and, as of 2000, was sold in health food stores or through mail order. A 100-gram portion of hulled hemp seeds supplies 586 calories, they contain 5% water, 5% carbohydrates, 49% total fat, 31% protein. Hemp seeds are notable in providing 64% of the Daily Value of protein per 100-gram serving. Hemp seeds are a rich source of dietary fiber, B vitamins, the dietary minerals manganese, magnesium and iron. About 73% of the energy in hempseed is in the form of fats and essential fatty acids polyunsaturated fatty acids, linoleic and alpha-linolenic acids.
Hempseed's amino acid profile is comparable to other sources of protein such as meat, milk and soy. Protein digestibility-corrected amino acid scores, which attempt to measure the degree to which a food for humans is a "complete protein", were 0.49–0.53 for whole hemp seed, 0.46–0.51 for hempseed meal, 0.63–0.66 for hulled hempseed. Hemp oil oxidizes and turns rancid within a short period of time. Both light and heat can degrade hemp oil. Hemp fiber has been used extensively throughout history, with production climaxing soon after being introduced to the New World. For centuries, items ranging from rope, to fabrics, to industrial materials were made from hemp fiber. Hemp was commonly used to make sail canvas; the word "canvas" is derived from the word cannabis. Pure hemp has a texture similar to linen; because of its versatility for use in a variety of products, today hemp is used in a number of consumer goods, including clothing, accessories, dog collars, ho
Henequen is an agave, a plant species native to southern Mexico and Guatemala. It is naturalized in Italy, the Canary Islands, Costa Rica, Hispaniola, the Cayman Islands and the Lesser Antilles; the leaves of Agave fourcroydes yield a fiber called henequen, suitable for rope and twine but not of as high a quality as sisal. It is the major plantation fiber agave of eastern Mexico, being grown extensively in Yucatán, southern Tamaulipas, it is used to make licor del henequén, a traditional Mexican alcoholic drink. The plant appears as a rosette of sword-shaped leaves 1.2 to 1.8 meters long, growing out of a thick stem that may reach 1.7 meters. The leaves have spaced teeth 3–6 mm long and a terminal spine 2–3 cm long. Like sisal, A. fourcroydes is a sterile hybrid. The plant does produce bulbils that may be planted, but commercial growers prefer to use the frequent suckers, which develop more quickly; the first person of Spanish descent to document the plant and its usefulness for ropes and other naval utensils was José María Lanz, a Mexican-born engineer in service of the Spanish Navy, who studied henequen in Yucatán in 1783.
Sisal - a related agave plant that produces an almost-identical fibre International Year of Natural Fibres 2009 José María Lanz, Observaciones que el alférez de fragata D. José Maria de Lanz, forma sobre la planta nombrada henequen, sus utilidades, y lo conveniente de su fomento, en cumplimiento de la comision con que lo despacho á Yucatan para la inspeccion de la járcia de esta especie, el Sr. D. Francisco de Borja, jefe de escuadra de la real armada, y comandante de las fuerzas maritimas del departamento de la Habana, October 15, 1783.